Skip to main content

Full text of "Scottish kings; a revised chronology of Scottish history, 1005-1625, with notices of the principal events, tables of regnal years, pedigrees, tables, calendars, etc"

See other formats


($> 



SCOTTISH KINGS 



SCOTTISH KINGS 

A REVISED CHRONOLOGY OF 

SCOTTISH HISTORY 

10051625 

With Notices of the Principal Events 

Tables of Regnal Years, Pedigrees 

Tables, Calendars, etc. 



BY 



SIR ARCHIBALD H. DUNBAR, BAHT. 



SECOND EDITION 



EDINBURGH 
DAVID DOUGLAS 

1906 

All rights reserved 



3>A 




TO 

THE MEMORY OF 
HER MOST GRACIOUS MAJESTY 

VICTORIA 

QUEEN AND EMPRESS 

TO WHOM 

THE FIRST EDITION OF THIS BOOK 

WAS BY PERMISSION 

DEDICATED 



CONTENTS 



DEDICATION 

TABLE or CONTENTS . 

FOREWORDS 

PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION 



PAGE 

V 

vii 
xii 
xiii 



A TABLE OF THE SCOTTISH KINGS from 1005 to 1625, with 

the dates and lengths of their reigns . . . xviii 



REIGNS OF THE SCOTTISH KINGS 

MALCOLM THE SECOND . . . 1005 1034 . 1 

DUNCAN THE FIRST, ' The Gracious '. 1034 1040 . 12 

MACBETH 1040 1057 . 17 

LULACH ' The Simple ' . . . 1057 1057-8 . 22 

MALCOLM THE THIRD, 'Ceannmor' . 1057-8 1093 . 25 

DONALD BANE (First Reign) . . 1093 1094 . 35 

DUNCAN THE SECOND . . . 1094 . .37 

DONALD BANE (Second Reign) . . 1094 1097 . 41 

EADGAR !97 1106-7 45 

ALEXANDER THE FIRST, ' The Fierce ' 1106-71124 . 50 

DAVID THE FIRST, ' The Saint '. . 1124 1153 . 58 

MALCOLM THE FOURTH, 'The Maiden' 1153 11^5 . 71 

WILLIAM ' The Lion '. . . . 1165 1214 . 76 

ALEXANDER THE SECOND . . . 1214 1249 . 87 

vii 



viii CONTENTS 



PAGE 



ALEXANDER THE THIRD . . . 1249 1285-6 . 94 

MARGARET, ' The Maid of Norway ' . 1285-6 1290 . 103 

THE FIRST INTERREGNUM . . 1290 1292 . 110 

JOHN (Balliol) . . . . 1292 1296 . 115 

THE SECOND INTERREGNUM . . 1296 1306 . 119 

ROBERT THE FIRST (Brus) . . 1306 1329 . 126 

DAVID THE SECOND . . 1329 1370-1 . 145 

ROBERT THE SECOND (Stewart) . 1370-1 1390 . 159 

ROBERT THE THIRD . . 1390 1406 . 172 

JAMES THE FIRST . . 1406 1436-7 . 182 

JAMES THE SECOND . . 1436-7 1460 . 195 

JAMES THE THIRD . . 1460 1488 . 205 

JAMES THE FOURTH . . 1488 1513 . 213 

JAMES THE FIFTH . . 1513 1542 . 224 

MARY . . 1542 1567 . 246 

JAMES THE SIXTH . . 1567 1625 . 262 



PEDIGREES, EXPLANATIONS, TABLES, CALENDARS, 
BIBLIOGRAPHY, MAPS, ETC. 

PEDIGREES 

I. A Pedigree of the Scottish Kings, with the dates 
of their reigns, from the accession of Kenneth I. 
(MacAlpin) in 844 to the death of William ' The 
Lion ' in 1214 [370 years] ..... 280 

II. A Pedigree of the Scottish Kings, with the dates 
of their reigns, from the accession of Malcolm II. 
in 1005 to the death of Robert I. (Brus) in 1329 
[324 years] 281 



CONTENTS ix 

PAGE 

in. A Pedigree of the thirteen Competitors for the 
Scottish Crown, at Berwick, on the 3rd of 
August 1291, showing their descent from 
Malcolm II., King of Scots . . . . 282 

IV. A Pedigree of the Scottish Sovereigns and Gover- 
nors, with the dates of their reigns, from the 
accession of Robert I. (Brus) in 1306 to the 
death of James VI. (Stewart) in 1625 [319 

284 



v. A Pedigree of the Scottish Sovereigns, with the 
dates of their reigns, from the accession of 
King James VI. in 1567 to the accession of 
King Edward VII. in 1901 [334 years] . . 285 

vi. A Table of the Marriages of the Scottish Kings, 
from Duncan I. to James VI., 1034-1625 [591 
years] 286 

vii. A Pedigree of the Eanulphs, Earls of Moray, 

1312-1346 [34 years] 288 

vni. A Pedigree of the Dunbars, Earls of Moray, 

1346-1429 [83 years] 289 



EXPLANATIONS, ETC. 

ix. The use of the Tables and Calendars explained . 290 

x. Double Dates explained 292 

xi. The Principal Moveable Feasts and Fasts in 

chronological order 295 

xii. Some Notes on Eras, Calendars, Easter, the Old 

and New Styles, etc . . . . . 298 



CONTENTS 
TABLES 



PAGE 



Xlll. A Table of Eras, Events, and Anniversaries . 306 

xiv. A Table of Easter Day, for a thousand years, 
from the year 1001 to the year 2000 inclusive, 
according to the Old Style before 1753, and 
according to the New Style after 1582 . . 308 

xv. A Table showing some errors in dating Easter 

Day from the year 1001 to the year 2000 . 321 

xvi. A Table showing the thirty-five possible dates of 
Ash Wednesday and of the Principal Move- 
able Feasts before Easter in Common Years . 322 

xvn. A Table showing the thirty-five possible dates of 
Ash Wednesday and of the Principal Move- 
able Feasts before Easter in Leap Years . 323 

xvni. A Table showing the dates of the Principal 

Moveable Feasts after Easter . . . 324 

XIX. An Alphabetical Table of the Popes and Anti- 
popes from 1005 to 1625, with the dates 
when their Regnal Years began and ended . 325 



CALENDARS 

XX. An Alphabetical Calendar of Scottish and other 
Saints' Days, etc., and of the Principal Feasts 
and Fasts, moveable and immoveable . . 329 

xxi. A Church Calendar of the Principal Festivals 

and Saints' Days, etc., throughout the year . 343 

XXII. A Latin Calendar, with Translation . . . 356 



CONTENTS xi 

PAOB 

xxni. A Scottish Calendar 364 

xxiv. Abbreviations in the Calendars . 388 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 

xxv. Some Authors, Books, Chronicles, etc., referred 

to in the footnotes . 389 



MAPS 



I. The Kingdom of Alban [circa A.D. 1005] 
II. The Kingdom of Scotia [circa A.D. 1018] . 

ill. The State of the Church in the reign of King 
David I. [A.D. 1124-1153] . 

IV. Scotland with the Ancient Divisions of the Land. 



at p. 402 



INDEX 403 



FOREWORDS 

'I think you will give me credit for painstaking, however 
lightly you may estimate the result. All Chronological minutiae 
are the pebbles of the concrete in which the foundation of the 
stories must be laid.' 

Letters of William Stubbs, Bishop of Oxford, p. 42. 

' Dates are to History what the Latitude and Longitude are to 
Navigation, fixing the exact position of the objects to which they 
are applied.' 

The Chronology of History, by Sir Harris Nicolas, p. vi. 



PREFACE 
TO THE SECOND EDITION 

THIS book relates to the Scottish Kings from the accession 
of Malcolm II. in the year 1005, to the death of James VI. 
in 1625. It contains the result of an endeavour to settle, as 
far as possible, the exact date of the noteworthy events in 
Scottish history during those six centuries. Unfortunately 
there are many noteworthy events in the early history of 
Scotland to which it is impossible to assign the exact date. 

Pages xviii and xix contain a Table of the Scottish Kings 
from 1005 to 1625. This Table gives the names of the 
Sovereigns, the dates when their reigns began, their ages at 
accession, the dates when their reigns ended, and the 
lengths of their reigns. It contains the reigns of twenty- 
five Kings ; the second reign of Donald Bane ; the nominal 
reign of Margaret, 'The Maid of Norway'; the First 
Interregnum ; the Second Interregnum ; and the reign of 
Mary Queen of Scots ; making a total of thirty periods, or 
' reigns ' if they may be so called, although the term ' reign ' 
is not strictly applicable in every instance. 

Pages 1-279 contain particulars as to the parentage, birth, 
marriage, death, burial-place, and issue of each Sovereign, 
with short notices and the dates of some of the principal 
events that occurred during their reigns. 

xfH 



xiv PREFACE TO SECOND EDITION 

The paragraphs that relate specially to the personal 
history of each Sovereign begin in the margin, so as to be 
more readily distinguished. 

A Table of Regnal Years is inserted after each reign, 
followed by the names of the contemporary Sovereigns in 
England and in France, and by the names of the con- 
temporary Popes and Antipopes. 

The Tables of Regnal and Interregnal Years are calculated, 
in most cases, from the death, deposition, or abdication of 
the preceding Sovereign, on the principle of 'The King is 
dead ! Long live the King ! ' But if a special examination 
of the Records in H.M. General Register House were made, 
it might be found that Robert I. was not the only one of 
the Scottish Kings who reckoned his Regnal Years from the 
date of his coronation. 

Upwards of five thousand references are given in foot- 
notes, to show the principal sources that have been con- 
sulted, and to enable the reader, if so disposed, to refer to 
those sources for the purpose of comparing the various 
accounts of any particular incident. In many cases the 
references are given to show that some statement of a so- 
called ' Authority ' is wrong. 

The pages from 280 onwards may be regarded as an 
Appendix. They contain Pedigrees, Explanations, Tables, 
Calendars, Maps, etc. 

Pages 280-285 contain five Pedigrees, extending over a 
period of one thousand and fifty-seven years, from the 
accession of Kenneth I. (MacAlpin), King of Scots, in the 
year 844, to the accession of His Most Gracious Majesty 
King Edward VII. on the 22nd of January 1901. 



PREFACE TO SECOND EDITION xv 

Pages 286 and 287 contain a Table of the Marriages of the 
Scottish Kings from 1034 to 1625. The Marriages are 
placed in a separate Table, to avoid the necessity of using 
folding-sheets for the Pedigrees. 

Pages 288 and 289 contain Pedigrees of the Ranulphs and 
Dunbars, Earls of Moray. These Pedigrees are inserted 
because they afford an opportunity of correcting (i) the 
pedigree and notes printed in the Proceedings of the Society 
of Antiquaries of Scotland, vol. xxii. pp. 187-192, ist March 
1888 ; and (2) the statements in Scottish Arms (1881), vol. ii. 
p. ii, No. xn. These Pedigrees clear up some doubtful 
points, which for the last two or three hundred years have 
been hopelessly confused. 

Pages 290 and 291 contain an explanation of the 
use of the Tables and Calendars. These Tables and 
Calendars are provided to enable any person to translate 
the dates in old documents and chronicles into our 
present computation. 

Pages 292-294 contain an explanation of ' Double Dates.' 
This explanation is given to show the true sequence of 
events that occurred before 1752, in which year the New 
Style was adopted in Great Britain. 

Pages 295-297 contain a list of the principal Moveable 
Feasts and Fasts in chronological order. 

Pages 298-305 contain some Notes on Eras, Calendars, 
Easter, the Old and New Styles, etc. 

Pages 306 and 307 contain a Table of Eras, Events, and 
Anniversaries, with Notes. 

Pages 308-320 contain a Table of Easter Day for a 
thousand years, from the year 1001 to the year 2000 



xvi PREFACE TO SECOND EDITION 

inclusive, according to the Old Style before 1753, and 
according to the New Style after 1582. 

Page 321 contains a Table showing some errors in dating 
Easter Day, from the year 1001 to the year 2000. 

Pages 322-324 contain Tables of the Principal Moveable 
Feasts and Fasts before and after Easter. 

Pages 325-328 contain an Alphabetical Table of the 
Popes and Antipopes from 1005 to 1625, with the dates 
when their Regnal Years began and ended. 1 

Pages 329-388 contain an Alphabetical Calendar of 
Scottish and other Saints' Days, and of the Principal Feasts 
and Fasts, moveable and immoveable ; a Church Calendar ; 
a Latin Calendar, with Translation ; a Scottish Calendar : 
and a Table of Abbreviations used in the Calendars. In 
the Alphabetical Calendar, when there are two or more 
Saints of the same name, their names are, in most cases, 
arranged according to the sequence of the months in which 
their Feasts occur. 

The Scottish Calendar, in the first edition of this book, 
had a number of days left blank, owing to the impossi- 
bility of proving the exact date of many events in Scottish 
history. In the present edition some of those blanks have 
been filled up with ' modern instances.' 



1 It is difficult to make a satisfactory been reckoned as a Pope. John XVII. 

Table of the Popes and Antipopes, was an Antipope in 988. The next 

especially if there is not room for a John was also called John XVII. 

column of remarks. One of the John XIX. died in 1033; after him 

puzzles is What numbers ought to there was neither Pope nor Antipope 

be affixed to the different Popes of the name for 243 years. There 

named John ? There were nine Popes never was either a Pope or an Anti- 

or Antipopes of the name, from John pope called John XX., but in 1276 a 

XIV. in 983, to John XXII., elected Pope was elected who styled himself 

in 1316. John XV. should not have John XXI. See below, p. 327. 



PREFACE TO SECOND EDITION xvii 

Pages 389-401 contain the names of some of the Authors, 
Books, Chronicles, etc., referred to in the footnotes. 

Then follow four coloured Maps, reproduced, by permis- 
sion, from those in the late Mr. W. F. Skene's Celtic 
Scotland. These maps are intended to give only a general 
idea of the boundaries of ' Alban,' ' Scotia,' ' the Bishoprics/ 
and of ' the Ancient Divisions of the Land.' 

The Index applies mainly to the first 289 pages. 

This ' Revised Chronology of Scottish History ' includes a 
period of more than six hundred years, and contains so 
many statements and dates, that it is hopeless to expect 
entire freedom from error, but great pains have been taken 
to make it accurate. To quote from the Preface of L'Art de 
verifier les Dates (p. xix) : ' Notwithstanding the long and 
laborious researches that have been made, notwithstanding 
all the precautions that have been taken, and the care that 
has been exercised to avoid mistakes, both in the com- 
position of the work and in the correction of the proofs, 
it is difficult, not to say impossible, to escape from making 
some errors in so great a number of facts and dates/ 

A. H. D. 

DUFFUS HOUSE, 
St. Andrew's Day, 1906. 



XV111 



A TABLE OF THE SCOTTISH KINGS FROM 1005 TO 1625, 

(For their Pedigrees and their 



NAME 


REIGN BEGAN 


AGE AT ACCESSION 






Years. 


Months. 


Days. 


MALCOLM II. ... 


*25th Mar. 1005 


*5o 




... 


DUNCAN I. * THE GRACIOUS ' . 


25th Nov. 1034 


*33 


... 




MACBETH .... 


1 4th Aug. 1040 


*35 


... 


... 


LULACH ' THE SIMPLE ' . 


1 5th Aug. 1057 


*2 5 


... 


... 


MALCOLM III. ' CEANNMOR ' . 


i yth Mar. 1057-8! 


*2 7 


... 


... 


DONALD BANE (ist reign) 


1 3th Nov. 1093 


*6o 


... 




DUNCAN II 


*i2th May 1094 


*34 






DONALD BANE (2nd reign) . 


1 2th Nov. 1094 


*6i 


... 




EADGAR .... 


*8th Oct. 1097 


*2 3 


... 




ALEXANDER I. ' THE FIERCE '. 


8th Jan. 1106-7! 


*3i 




... 


DAVID I. ' THE SAINT ' . 


23rd Apr. 1124 


*44 


... 




MALCOLM IV. 'THE MAIDEN '. 


24th May 1153 


ii 


2 


5 


WILLIAM ' THE LION ' . 


9th Dec. 1165 


*22 




... 


ALEXANDER II. . 


4th Dec. 1214 


16 


3 


ii 


ALEXANDER III. . 


8th July 1249 


7 


10 


5 


MARGARET ' OF NORWAY ' 


i9thMar. 1285-6! 


*3 






THE FIRST INTERREGNUM 


*26th Sep. 1290 








JOHN (Balliol) 


1 7th Nov. 1292 


*42 






THE SECOND INTERREGNUM . 


loth July 1296 








ROBERT I. (Brus) . 


27th Mar. 1306 


3i 


8 


i7 


DAVID II. . 


7th June 1329 


5 


3 


3 


ROBERT II. (Stewart) . 


22nd Feb. 1370-1! 


54 


ii 


21 


ROBERT III. 


1 9th Apr. 1390 


*53 






JAMES I. ,. . . 


4th Apr. 1406 


ii 


3 


*i5 


JAMES II. . 


2istFeb. 1436-7! 


6 


4 


5 


JAMES III. ,, 


3rd Aug. 1460 


9 


... 


25 


JAMES IV. 


nth June 1488 


!5 


2 


26 


JAMES V. ,, . 


9th Sep. 1513 


i 


5 




MARY 


1 4th Dec. 1542 




... 


7 


JAMES VI. . 


24th July 1567 


i 


i 


6 













About. 



t Double Dates explained, p. 292. 



XIX 



WITH THE DATES AND LENGTHS OF THEIR REIGNS 

Marriages, see below, pages 280-287) 



REIGN ENDED 


REIGN LASTED 


PAGE 






Years. 


Months 


Days. 




Died 


25th Nov. 1034 


2 9 


*8 


... 


i 


Murdered 


1 4th Aug. 1040 


5 


8 


21 


12 


Slain 


1 5th Aug. 1057 


i7 


... 


2 


17 


Slain 


1 7th Mar. 1057-81 




7 


3 


22 


Slain 


1 3th Nov. 1093 


35 


7 


28 


2 5 


Deposed . 


*i2th May 1094 


... 


*6 


... 


35 


Slain 


1 2th Nov. 1094 




*6 




37 


Deposed . 


*8th Oct. 1097 


2 


10 


*26 


4i 


Died 


8th Jan. 1106-71 


9 


*3 




45 


Died 


23rd Apr. 1124 


i7 


3 


16 


5o 


Died 


24th May 1153 


29 


i 


2 


58 


Died 


9th Dec. 1165 


12 


6 


16 


7i 


Died 


4th Dec. 1214 


4 8 


n 


26 


76 


Died 


8th July 1 249 


34 


7 


5 


87 


Killed . 


1 9th Mar. 1285-6! 


36 


8 


12 


94 


Died 


*26th Sep. 1290 


4 


6 


*7 


103 


Ended 


1 7th Nov. 1292 


2 


i 


*2 3 


no 


Abdicated 


loth July 1296 


3 


7 


24 


"5 


Ended 


27th Mar. 1306 


9 


8 


18 


119 


Died 


7th June 1329 


2 3 


2 


12 


126 


Died 


22nd Feb. 1370-1! 


4i 


8 


16 


M5 


Died 


igth Apr. 1390 


19 


i 


29 


i59 


Died 


4th Apr. 1406 


J 5 


n 


17 


172 


Assassinated 


2ist Feb. 1436-7! 


30 


IO 


18 


182 


Killed . 


3rd Aug. 1460 


2 3 


5 


14 


*95 


Murdered 


nth June 1488 


27 


10 


9 


205 


Slain 


9th Sep. 1513 


2 5 


2 


30 


213 


Died 


1 4th Dec. 1542 


29 


3 


6 


224 


Abdicated 


24th July 1567 


24 


7 


n 


246 


Died 


27th Mar. 1625 


57 


8 


4 


262 



About. 



t Double Dates explained, p. 292. 



MALCOLM THE SECOND 

KING OF SCOTS 
IOO5 1034 

Keign began about the 25th of March 1005, 
ended 25th November 1034, 
lasted 29 years and about 8 months. 

Malcolm the Second. ' King of Scots/ ' Malcolm Mac 
Cinaeth, king of Alban/ ' Head of the nobility of the whole 
of Western Europe/ ' King of Monaidh/ ' King of Scotia/ 
' The most victorious king/ ' A warrior fortunate, praised 
of bards.' l 

Son of Kenneth II. and grandson of Malcolm I., kings of 
Alban. 2 

Born in or before the year 954- 3 

REIGN BEGAN ABOUT THE 2$TH OF MARCH 1 005. 

King of Scots. Malcolm II. became king of Scots in Alban 
after he had defeated his kinsman Kenneth III., king of 
Alban, in battle at Monzievaird, near the banks of the 
Earn, about the 25th of March ioc>5. 4 

i. Duan Albanach, 63 ; Marianus Wyntoun, ii. 95, bk. vi. c. 10, 1. 868. 

Scotus, 65, a 1034 ; Annals of Tigher- See also below, pp. 8, 9, Nos. 42, 46. 

nac, 77, a 1034; Prophecy of St. 2. Pictish Chron. , 10; Flann Main- 

Berchan, 99 ; Saxon Chron., ii. 128, istreach, 22 ; Hist. Britonum, 29 (C) ; 

a 1031 ; Symeon, de obs. Dun., i. Chron. Scots (B), 131. 

215 ; Symeon, Hist. Regum, ii. 158, s. 3. Fordun, bk. iv. c. 41, 'at the 

132, a 1034 ; Chron. Scots and Picts age of eighty or more,' a 1034. 

(B), 152 (De Pictis) ; Chron. Picts 4. Prophecy of St. Berchan, 99; 

and Scots (B), 175, No. 15 ; Chron. Chron. Picts and Scots (B), 175, 

Scotorum, 243, a 1003; Annals of No. 15; Annals of Ulster, 366, a 

Ulster, 368, a 1034 ; Chron. Mailros, 1005 ; Chron. Scotorum, 243, a 

46, a 1034 ; Fordun, bk. iv. c. 39 ; 1003 ; Fordun, bk. iv. c. 39, a 1004. 



2 MALCOLM THE SECOND [1005 

Aged about 50 when he became king of Alban in IOO5. 5 

The 1st Siege of Durham. The men of ' Saxonia,' under 
Earl Uchtred, defeated the Scots under King Malcolm II. 
and made great slaughter of their nobles, after the 
Scots had devastated Northuinbria, and had unsuccessfully 
besieged the city of Durham in the year ioo6. 6 

The Monastery at Marthillach (Mortlach) in Banffshire 
was founded by King Malcolm II. as a thank-offering for 
his victory over the Danes in the year ioio. 7 

The Abbey at Deer. King Malcolm II., ' son of Cinatha,' 
gave the king's share in certain lands to the Columbite 
abbey at Deer in Aberdeenshire, possibly when on his way 
southwards after he had defeated the Danes at Mortlach 
in the year ioio. 8 

The Battle of Clontarf. The Irish, under Brian Boroimha, 
with the help of the men of Alban, entirely defeated the 
Northmen at Clontarf, near Dublin, on Good Friday, the 
23rd of April ioi4. 9 

Caithness and Sutherland were given by King Malcolm 
II. to his grandson Thorfinn with the title of earl, after 
Sigurd Hlodverson, earl of Orkney, Thorfinn's father, 
had been slain in the battle of Clontarf, on the 23rd 
of April ioi4. 10 

The Battle of Carham. The Scots, under King Malcolm 
II., totally defeated the Northumbrians, under Edulf Cudel, 



5. Fordun, bk. iv. c. 41. pt. i, 154; Celtic Scotland, ii. pp. 

6. Symeon, de obs. Dun., i. 215; 378, 379. 

Annals of Ulster, 366, a 1006 ; Celtic 8. The Book of Deer, li. 93 ; Nat. 

Scotland, i. 385, c. 8, and note 2. MSS. Scotland, i. 3, No. i. 

ee also below, Map No. I., 'Saxonia.' 9. [Cluantarbh, now Clontarf; 

7. [A monastery not a bishopric ;] Brian Boroimha, now Brian Boru ;] 
Fordun, bk. iv. c. 40, < In the seventh The War of the Gaedhil with the Gaill, 
year of his reign' [this seems to be passim,', Saga of King Olaf Haraldson 
the earliest mention of a regnal the Saint, c. 99 ; Heimskringla, iii. 5 ; 
year of King Malcolm II., but Burnt Njal.c. 1 56 ; Annals of Loch Ce, 
as Fordun antedates the accession i. 2-13, a 1014; Orkneyinga Saga, c. I. 
of Malcolm II. by one year, he 10. Saga of King Olaf Haraldson 
probably meant the year ioio ;] the Saint, c. 99 ; Heimskringla, iii. 
Reg. Epis. Aberdonensis, xvii. 3 ; 5 ; Orkneyinga Saga, c. i ; Annals of 
Councils and Eccles. Docts., ii. Loch C<5, i. n, a 1014. 



1034] MALCOLM THE SECOND 3 

earl of Northumberland, at Carham on the Tweed, in 
the year loiS. 11 

Lothian was annexed to the kingdom of the Scots by 
King Malcolm II. It had been ceded to him by Edulf 
Cudel, earl of Northumberland, and King Malcolm II. 
' distributed many oblations ' to the churches as well as to 
the clergy, after the battle of Carham, in ioi8. 12 

Moray. Finlaec, son of Ruaidhri, mormaer of Moray, 
was slain by his nephews, the sons of his brother Mael- 
brighde, in io2o. 13 

Orkney, tributary to Norway. Brusi and Thorfinn, sons 
of Sigurd, earl of Orkney, submitted to Olaf (the Saint), 
king of Norway, in IO2I-2. 14 

Bishops of the Scots. Malmore, Malise, and Alwyn 
seem to have been successively sole bishop of the Scots 
in the reign of King Malcolm II. Alwyn was elected 
bishop in IO25. 15 

Dunkeld in Alban was entirely burned in IO2/. 16 

Bishop of St. Andrews. Maelduin, son of Gillaodran, 
was bishop of St. Andrews after the death of Alwyn, in 
the year IO28. 17 

Canute, king of England, invaded Scotia, and King 
Malcolm II., with the two chiefs, Maelbeathe and Jehmarc, 
submitted to him in 103 1. 18 

11. Chron. Scots (B), 131; Chron. c. 14, 1. 1467; 148, bk. vi. c. 20, 
Mailros, 44, a 1018 ; Symeon, Hist. 1. 2505 ; Councils and Eccles. Docts., 
Regum, ii. 155, 156, s. 130, a 1018 ; ii. pt. i, 148. 

Symeon, Libellus, 151, c. 40. 16. Aunals of Ulster, 368, a 1027. 

12. Symeon, de obs. Dun., i. 218, 17. Annals of Tighernac, 78, a" 
s. 6; Matt. Paris, Chron. Maj., i. 1055; Reg. Prior. S. Andree, 116; 
468 ; Chron. Scots (B), 131. Scotichron., i. 339, 340, bk. vi. c. 24 ; 

13. Annals of Tighernac, 77, a<> Wyntoun,ii. i 4 8,bk. vi. c. 20, 1. 2507.' 
1020; Annals of Ulster, 368, a 1020; 18. Canute, Knut, or Knutr ; 
Annals of Loch Ce, i. 21, a 1020; The Saxon Chron., ii. 128, a 1031; R. 
BookofDeer,clxvii.Mormaers,9i-95. Wendover, i. 471, a o 1032 ;' W. 

14. Orkneyinga Saga, cc. 4, 5; Malmesbury, bk. ii. 308, s'. 182 
Saga of King Olaf Haraldson the (Rolls Ed.), i. bk. ii. 221; H. 
Saint, cc. 105, 106; Heimskringla, Huntingdon, 188, a 1031; Matt, 
iii. 14-18. Paris, Chron. Maj., i. 509, a 1033 ; 

15. Scotichron., i. 339, 340, bk. vi. B. Cotton, 39, a o IO3 6; R. Ciren- 
c. 24; Wyntoun, ii. 115, bk. vi. cester, ii. 183. 



MALCOLM THE SECOND 



[1005 



Moray. Gillacomgan, son of Maelbrighde, morrnaer of Moray, 
and fifty of his men were burned to death in IO32. 19 

Died. King Malcolm the Second died at Glammys, 25th 
November IO34. 20 

Aged 80 or more. 21 

Buried in lona. 22 

His Reign lasted 29 years and about 8 months. 23 

REIGN ENDED 25th NOVEMBER 1034. 



ISSUE 

King Malcolm the Second had three daughters, 
Bethoc, Donada (?), and another: 

(i.) Bethoc, heir of her father King Malcolm II. , was married 
about the year 1000 to Crinan the Thane, hereditary lay-abbot 
of Dunkeld, and seneschal of the Isles, who held with other 
lands the territory called ' Abthania de Dull,' in Athol. Crinan 
was slain in battle at Dunkeld 'with 9 times 20 heroes' in 1045. 



19. Annals of Ulster, 368, a 
1032; Annals of Loch Ce, i. 33, a 
1032. [Gruoch, widow of Gillacomgan, 
was married secondly to Macbeth, 
who became king of Scots in 1040. 
See below, Macbeth, p. 18, No. 6.] 

20. Marianus Scotus, 65, a 1034; 
Annals of Tighernac, 77, a 1034 ; 
Chron. Scots and Picts (B), 152 ; 
Annals of Inisfallen, 169, a 1034; 
Chron. Picts and Scots (B), 175, 
No. 15 ; Chron. Scots (B), 302 ; 
Saxon Chron., ii. 129, a 1034 ; Chron. 
Mailros, 46, a 1034 ; F. Worcester, 
i. 189; Annals of Ulster, 368, a 
1034 ; Annals of Loch Ce", i. 34, 35, 
a 1034 ; W. Coventry, i. 52, a 1034 ; 
Fordun, bk. iv. c. 41 ; Wyntoun, ii. 
95, bk. vi. c. 10, 11. 871-878; 119, 
bk. vi. c. 16, 1. 1599, a 1034; 
Chron. Scotorum, 271, a 1032 ; 
Symeon, Hist. Regum, ii. 158, 
s. 132, a 1034; Hoveden, i. 89, a 
1034. 

[The last two erroneously make 



Macbeth the immediate successor of 
King Malcolm II.] 

21. Fordun, bk. iv. c. 41, 'at the 
age of eighty or more,' a 1034. 

22. Chron. Scots and Picts (B), 
152; Chron. Picts and Scots (B), 
175, No. 15; Chron. Scots (D), 302; 
Chron. Scots (E), 306 ; Fordun, 
bk. iv. c. 44. 

23. Celtic Scotland, i. 384-399, c. 8, 
gives an account of this reign. 

[The chronicles assign a reign of 
30 years (in round numbers) to King 
Malcolm II. The Annals of Ulster 
seem to be the only authority for the 
year of his predecessor's death, viz., 
1005. If Malcolm II. became king 
in 1005, the nearest approach to 30 
years is to suppose that his reign 
began on the first day of that year, 
viz., 25th March 1005, and as he 
died on the 25th November 1034, 
this would give him a reign of 29 
years 8 months and i day, which 
view has been adopted in this book.] 



1034] 



MALCOLM THE SECOND 



5 



Issue, two sons, Duncan and Maldred, and a daughter : 24 

(1) Duncan, king of the Cumbrians, and after his grand- 
father's death king of Scots as Duncan I. from the 25th 
November 1034 to the i4th August io40. 25 

(2) Maldred seems to have succeeded to Cumbria, when his 
brother Duncan became king of Scots on the death of their 
maternal grandfather, King Malcolm II., in 1034. He married 
Ealdgyth, daughter of Uchtred, earl of Northumberland, by 
his wife ^Elgifu, daughter of -^thelred II., king of England. 
Issue, a son : 26 

Gospatric, earl of Northumberland, * claimed right to that 
earldom through his mother, and purchased it, for a great 
sum of money,' from William the Conqueror, at Christmas 
1067: he was 'deprived' in 1072. He had a grant of 
'Dunbar with the adjacent lands in Lothian' from his 
kinsman Malcolm III., king of Scots, in 1072. Issue, 
three sons, Dolfin, Gospatric, and Waltheof, with 
reda, and several other daughters : 27 



24. Chron. Scots and Picts (B), 
152; Chron. Picts and Scots (B), 
175, No. 1 6 ; Symeon, de obs. Dun., 
i. 216, s. 2, Crinan the Thane ; 
Symeon, Hist. Regum, ii. 199, s. 159 ; 
Reg. Prior. S. Andree, 296, 297, Ab- 
thania de Dull ; Orkney in ga Saga, 17, 
c. 5, note I ; Fordun, bk. iv. cc. 39-44 
(Beatrice) ; Translation, 412-414, 0.39 
(Abthanes), 414-419, c. 43 (Thanes) ; 
Wyntoun, ii. 95, bk. vi. c. 10, 11. 88 1- 
884 ; Celtic Scotland, i. 392, c. 8, note 
14 ; 431, end of note 72 ; Early Kings, 
i. 85, in, 116, 122, 217, 312 ; ii. 477 ; 
Annals of Tighernac, 78. 

25. See below, Duncan L, pp. 1 2- 1 6. 

26. Symeon, de obs. Dun., i. 216, 
s. 2, pedigree ; Symeon, Hist. Regum, 
ii. 199, s. 159, pedigree ; Fordun, 
bk. iv. c. 44 ; Celtic Scotland, i. 394, 
c. 8, note 18. 

27. [Gospatric, i.e. the follower or 
servant of St. Patric, a Celtic name.] 
Symeon (Surtees, No. 51), 92, a 
1072, pedigree, and grant of Dunbar ; 



Symeon (Rolls Series), i. 102-104, 
216, Hist. Dun. Eccles., bk. iii. c. 16, 
s. 2, pedigree; ii. 186, 187, 191, 195, 
196, 199, s. 152-159, pedigree, and 
grant of Dunbar from King Malcolm 
III., 298, 383, 384; Symeon, Libellus, 
186-191, c. 51 ; Vita JEdwardi Regis, 
p. 4 1 1, 1. 177, etc., went to Rome with 
Earl Tosti, a 1061 ; Hoveden (Rolls 
Series), i. pp. 59, 117, 118, 121, 122, 
126. See also The House of Gospatric, 
by Canon Greenwell, in the History 
of Northumberland, vol. vii. 

[A gravestone bearing the inscrip- 
tion ' * GOSPATLICUS COMES ' IS HOW 

(1906) in the crypt of the dormitory 
of the monastery at Durham. It 
was discovered in the monks' burial- 
ground at Durham, in the year 1821. 

' Cospatricus comes et monachus ' 
appears in the Durham obituary on 
the 1 5th of December. 

There were three Earls Gospatric 
(of Dunbar) ; but there is no evidence 
to prove which of the three earls 



MALCOLM THE SECOND 



[1005 



(a) Dolfin, ruler in Cumbria, expelled from Carlisle by 
William II. (Rufus), king of England, in IO92. 28 

(b) Gospatric of Dunbar succeeded his father as second 
earl. He styles himself * Gospatric the earl, brother of 
Dolfin/ in his charter. He seems to have been the 
' summus dux Lodonie ' who was slain by an arrow at the 
battle of the Standard, on the 22nd of August H38. 29 

(c) Waltheof, lord of Allerdale. [? Abbot of Croyland 
in 1 1 25, until deposed by Alberic, Papal legate, in 1 138.] 30 

(d) .ffithelreda, married to Duncan II., king of Scots. 
Her husband, King Duncan II. , was treacherously slain 
by the mormaer of the Mearns, i2th November io94. 31 

(3) , daughter of Bethoc, and sister of King Duncan I. 

Issue, a son : 32 

Moddan, titular earl of Caithness, slain at Thurso in io4o. 33 
(n.) Donada (?), a younger daughter of King Malcolm II., sup- 
posed to have been married about 1004 to Finlaec, mormaer of 
Moray, and to have had a son : 34 



is referred to, either in the above 
inscription or in the obituary. See 
below, Alexander L, p. 57, NOTE.] 

28. Saxon Chron., ii. 195, a 1092 ; 
Symeon, Hist. Regum, ii. 199, s. 159, 
pedigree ; 220, s. 173, a 1092 ; 
Symeon (Surtees), 92, Hist. Contin. 
a 1072, pedigree, and note g, 155, de 
obs. Dun., 213 ; F. Worcester, ii. 30. 

29. Durham Charters, No. 575, 
styled ' Gospatric of Dunbar ' by 
David I. , king of Scots, in his charter 
of confirmation of No. 778 ; Raine, 
North Durham, Appendix, 6, No. 
xxin. , transcript of the charter, No. 
575 ; Durham Charters, No. 778, in 
which he styles himself ' Gospatric 
the Earl, brother of Dolfin, 'an impres- 
sion of his seal is still attached ; Nat. 
MSS. Scotland, i. 14, No. xxv. (trans- 
lation of Durham charter No. 778) ; 
Raine, North Durham, Appendix, 25, 
No. cxi. ; Hexham (Surtees, No. 44), i. 
Appendix, xiii.,No. ix. [Dodsworth, 
Ixxiv. a8b.] [His mother seems to 
have been sister of Edmund.] Reg. 



Epis. Glasguensis, vol. i. i, No. i, In- 
quisitio ; Hoveden, i. 195, a 1138, 
' Percusso igitur,' etc.; H. Hunting- 
don, 263, 264, a 1138 ; Matt. Paris, 
Hist., i. 260; Cal. Doc. Scot., ii. 15, 
No. 64 [a document drawn up 130 
years after the earl's death, probably 
by monks, to bar any claims of his 
heirs]. See also the House of Gos- 
patric, by Canon Greenwell, in the 
History of Northumberland, vol. 
vii. ; The Scottish Historical Review 
(i 905), No. 7, pp. 33 1 -334; and below, 
Alexander I., p. 57, NOTE. 

30. Reg. Epis. Glasguensis, i. i, 
No. i, Inquisitio ; Orderic Vitalis, ii. 
289 ; iv. 428, 429; Symeon (Surtees, 
No. 51), p. 92, Historia Continuatio, 
note g; Hexham, i. 59, c. 12, and 
note v. 103, and note g. 

31. Cal. Doc. Scot., ii. 15, 16, No. 
64 ; Chron. Cumbriae, Dugdale Mon. , 
i. 400. See also below, pp. 37-40. 

32. Orkney inga Saga, 17-20, c. 5. 

33. Ibid. 17-20, c. 5. 

34. Chron. Huntingdon, 210, a 



1034] MALCOLM THE SECOND 7 

Macbeth, king of Scots, from the i4th August 1040 to the 
1 5th August 1057. 35 

(in.) , a younger daughter of King Malcolm II., married 

about 1007, as his second wife, to Sigurd Hlodverson, earl of 
Orkney, who had ransomed his life from Olaf Trygveson, king 
of Norway, by accepting Christianity for himself and his followers 
about the year 995. Issue, a son : 36 

Thorfinn, earl of Orkney, born in 1008, had Caithness and 
Sutherland with the title of earl, from his grandfather, King 
Malcolm II., in 1014. Married Ingibjorg, daughter of Earl 
Finn Arnason, and died about 1057. Issue, two sons, Paul 
and Erlend, joint earls of Orkney : 37 

(A) Paul, earl of Orkney, married a daughter of Haakon 
Ivarsson; died 1098, and had, with other issue, a son : 38 

Haakon, earl of Orkney. 89 

(B) Erlend, earl of Orkney, married Thora, daughter of 
Sumarlidi Ospakson; died 1098, and had, with other issue, 
a son : 40 

Magnus, earl of Orkney, murdered by his cousin Haakon, 
1 6th April 1115. This was the St. Magnus to whom 
the cathedral at Kirkwall in Orkney was dedicated. 41 

1040, ' Maket Regem nepotem dicti 37. Orkneyinga Saga, c. I, etc. ; 

Malcolmi'; The War of the Gaedhil Saga of King Olaf Haraldson the 

with the Gaill, 130, 302, Appendix Saint, c. 99; Heimskringla, iii. 5; 

D, note 13 ; Ogygia, 488, 489. Saga of Magnus the Good, c. 37 ; 

35. See below, Macbeth, pp. 17-21. Heimskringla, iii. 343; Saga of 

36. Orkneyinga Saga, c. i, Ap- Harald Hardrade, c. 55 ; Heims- 
pendix, 209-212 ; Saga of King Olaf kringla, iii. 409, 410. 

Haraldson the Saint, c. 99 ; Heims- 38. Orkneyinga Saga, 43, c. 21 ; 
kringla, iii. 4, 5 ; Saga of King Olaf 45, c. 23, etc. 
Trygveson, c. 52, baptized about the 39. Ibid. 62, c. 37, etc. 
year 995 ; Heimskringla, ii. 139, 40. Ibid. 43, c. 21 ; 45, c. 23, etc. 
140; The War of the Gaedhil with 41. Ibid. 62-68, cc. 37-43; Butler, 
the Gaill, 195, Sigurd killed at the iv. 152, 16 Apr. 1104, [who con- 
battle of Clontarf, 23 April 1014. fuses Bishop Mans with St. Magnus]. 



8 MALCOLM THE SECOND [1005 



NOTES 

Alban (Albania) was the country between the Firth of 
Forth and the river Spey. When the Picts or Cruith- 
nigh inhabited the country it was called Pictavia or 
Cruithentuaith, from Crwitkne, ' the father of the Picts/ 
their first king, and tuath, which is the Gaelic for 'a 
tribe/ 42 

' Albanach ' (Albani) seems to have been the war-cry of 
the Scots. They used this cry at the battle of the 
Standard, on the 22nd of August 1138, upwards of one 
hundred years after the death of King Malcolm II. 43 

Drumalban was the name formerly applied to the range 
of mountains that extends northwards from Loch Lomond, 
and forms the watershed between the east and west coasts 
of Scotland. 44 

The Mounth was the name applied to the mountains 
that extend across Scotland from the range of Drumalban 
near Ben Nevis, to the east coast near Aberdeen. 45 

Scotia, the name of Ireland until about the end of the 

42. PictishChron., 3 ; Hist. Brito- W. Coventry, i. 161, in Aug. 1138; 
num, 25 (B), 32 (D); Skene, Chron. Matt. Paris, Hist., i. 259, a 1138; 
Picts and Scots, Ixxviii. 135, De situ R. Wendover, ii. 224, ' Albani, 
Albanise, also 429; Tract on the Albani.' 

Picts, 323 ; Annals of Ulster, 361, a 44. Adamnan's St. Columba, bk. i. 

866; Chron. Scotorum, 179, 181 ; c. 28; bk. ii. c. 46; Fordun, bk. ii. 

Gesta Stephani, 35 ; Hoveden, i. 194 ; c. 7 ; Translation, 385-388 ; Macpher- 

H. Huntingdon, 263, a 1138; Poli- son, Geographical Illustrations, 

chron. , c. 37 ; Capgrave, 37 ; Matt. ' Drumalban ' ; Celtic Scotland, i. 

Paris, Hist., i. 259; Nat. MSS. Scot- 8, map; 10-14, 75> 228. See also 

land, ii. v a , a photozincograph of below, Map No. TV., 'Scotland 

map with translation ; Macpherson, with the ancient divisions of the 

Geographical Illustrations, 'Albany ' ; Land. ' 

Celtic Scotland, i. 335-383. See also 45. Skene, Chron. Picts and Scots, 

below, Map No. I., 'The Kingdom 478, 'Mound,' ' Mounth '; Macpher- 

of Alban.' son, Geographical Illustrations, 'The 

43. H. Huntingdon, 263, a 1138 ; Mounth'; Celtic Scotland, i. 8, map, 
Prophecy of St. Berchan, 94, 1. 5; 10-14, 230, etc. See also below, Map 
Annals of Ulster, 366, a 1006; No. iv. ,' Scotland with the ancient 
Hoveden, i. 194, in Aug. 1138; divisions of the Land.' 



1034] MALCOLM THE SECOND 9 

tenth century, gradually came to be applied to the kingdom 
of Alban, and eventually included Cumbria, Lothian, 
Alban, Argyll, Moray, and Caithness. 46 

Cumbria extended from the Clyde to the Derwent and 
to Stanmore. Eadmund I., king of England, overran all 
Cumbria in the year 945, and gave it to Malcolm I., king 
of Scots, on condition that he should be his ally both on 
sea and on land. Cumbria was given by King Malcolm II. 
to his grandson Duncan. 47 

The Islands. Orkney, Shetland, the Western Isles or 
Sudreys, and the Isle of Man, did not form part of the 
dominions of Malcolm II., king of Scots ; the inhabitants 
owed allegiance to the king of Norway, in the eleventh 
century. 48 

America or Vinland. The Northmen who discovered 
America, in the year 1000, called it 'Vinland/ from the 
vines they found growing there. Two Scots, Hake and 
Hekia, 'who were very swift of foot,' went with the 
expedition that sailed in three ships from Iceland, and 
landed in 'Vinland' in the year ioo6. 49 

46. Marianus Scotus, 65, a 1034 ; pherson, Geographical Illustrations, 
Gesta Stephani, 35, a 1 138, ' Scotia, ' The His,' < Sudreyar,' ' Mann ' ; 
which is also called Albania '; For- Heimskringla, iv. 91, Magnus Bare- 
dun, bks. i. ii. ; see also Translation, foot Saga, c. ix. note, Southern 
382, 383, note c. xviii. ; Skene, Chron. Hebudes ; Celtic Scotland, i. 344-346, 
Picts and Scots, Ixxviii. ; Celtic Scot- and notes. 

land, i. 1-3, 398, iii. 520; Macpher- 49. [' Vinland,' not 'VincZland,' or 

son, Geographical Illustrations, 'Vandal-land,' which was on the 

'Scotland,' 'Scotia Latin for Scot- southern shores of the Baltic ;] Codex 

land'; Skene, Chron. Picts and Scots, Flateyensis or Annall Flateyar, a 

488, 489. See also below, Map No. n. , 1006 ; Heimskringla, preliminary dis- 

' The Kingdom of Scotia.' sertation, i. 204, 176-233, ii. 229-247 ; 

47. Saxon Chron., ii. 90, a 945; Macphersoii, Geographical Illustra- 
Symeon,Hist. Regum, ii. 126, s. 108, tions, 'The His.' [This voyage ap- 
a 945 ; Matt. Paris, Chron. Maj., i. pears to have been recorded in the 
455) a 946 ; F. Worcester, i. 134, a Flateyar Annall or Codex Flate- 
945 ; H. Huntingdon, 162 ; Hoveden, yensis, between 1387 and 1395, about 
i. 56 ; B. Cotton, 23, a 941 ; For- eighty years before Columbus went 
dun, bk. iv. cc. 40, 41 ; Celtic Scot- to Iceland, to make inquiries about 
land, i. 430. See also below, Map. 'Vinland,' and about one hundred 
No. ii., 'The Kingdom of Scotia.' years before he discovered San Sal- 

48. Orkneyinga Saga, I, 2; Mac- vador in 1492.] 



10 



MALCOLM THE SECOND 



[1005 



A TABLE OF REGNAL YEARS 



1st began 25 Mar. IOO5, 50 
ended 24 Mar. 1005-6. 


16th began 25 Mar. 1020, 
ended 24 Mar. 1020-21. 


2nd began 25 Mar. 1006, 
ended 24 Mar. 1006-7. 


17th began 25 Mar. 1021, 
ended 24 Mar. 1021-22. 


3rd began 25 Mar. 1007, 
ended 24 Mar. 1007-8. 


18th began 25 Mar. 1022, 
ended 24 Mar. 1022-23. 


4th began 25 Mar. 1008, 
ended 24 Mar. 1008-9. 


19th began 25 Mar. 1023, 
ended 24 Mar. 1023-24. 


5th began 25 Mar. 1009, 
ended 24 Mar. 1009-10. 


20th began 25 Mar. 1024, 
ended 24 Mar. 1024-25. 


6th began 25 Mar. 1010, 
ended 24 Mar. 1010-11. 


21st began 25 Mar. 1025, 
ended 24 Mar. 1025-26. 


7th began 25 Mar. 1011, 
ended 24 Mar. 1011-12. 


22nd began 25 Mar. 1026, 
ended 24 Mar. 1026-27. 


8th began 25 Mar. 1012, 
ended 24 Mar. 1012-13. 


23rd began 25 Mar. 1027, 
ended 24 Mar. 1027-28. 


9th began 25 Mar. 1013, 
ended 24 Mar. 1013-14. 


24th began 25 Mar. 1028, 
ended 24 Mar. 1028-29. 


10th began 25 Mar. 1014, 
ended 24 Mar. 1014-15. 


25th began 25 Mar. 1029, 
ended 24 Mar. 1029-30. 


llth began 25 Mar. 1015, 
ended 24 Mar. 1015-16. 


26th began 25 Mar. 1030, 
ended 24 Mar. 1030-31. 


12th began 25 Mar. 1016, 
ended 24 Mar. 1016-17. 


27th began 25 Mar. 1031, 
ended 24 Mar. 1031-32. 


13th began 25 Mar. 1017, 
ended 24 Mar. 1017-18. 


28th began 25 Mar. 1032, 
ended 24 Mar. 1032-33. 


14th began 25 Mar. 1018, 
ended 24 Mar. 1018-19. 


29th began 25 Mar. 1033, 
ended 24 Mar. 1033-34. 


15th began 25 Mar. 1019, 
ended 24 Mar. 1019-20. 


30th began 25 Mar. 1034, 
ended 25 Nov. 1034. 


Only about 8 months of the 3oth year. 



50. See above, p. 4, No. 23, and note. 



1034] 



MALCOLM THE SECOND 



11 



CONTEMPORARY SOVEREIGNS 



KINGS OF ENGLAND 



KINGS OF FRANCE 



POPES 



Anglo-Saxon Line ROBERT II. 


JOHN XVIII. 


{ l/i T^iaiTY' ' 

^ETHELRED II. 


1003-1009. 


'The Unready' 996-1031. 




978-1013. 


SERGIUS IV. 


HENRI I. 


1009-1012. 


SWEYN IO3I-IO6O. 




(King of Denmart) 


BENEDICT VIII. 


1014. 


1012-1024. 


^ETHELRED II. 


JOHN XIX. 


'The Unready' 


1024-1033. 


(restored) 




1014-1016. 


BENEDICT IX. 




1033-1048. 


EDMUND II. 




' Ironsides ' 




1016. 




Danish Dynasty 




CANUTE 




* The Great 




1017-1036. 





12 



[1034 



DUNCAN THE FIRST 

'THE GRACIOUS' 

KING OF SCOTS 

1034 1040 

Reign began 25th November 1034, 

ended I4th August 1040, 
lasted 5 years 8 months and 2 1 days. 

Duncan the First. ' King of Scots,' ' King of the Cumbrians/ 
' King of Alban/ ' King of Scotia,' ' Duncan the Wise/ 
' The Gracious Duncan ' of Shakspere's ' Macbeth.' l 

Eldest Son of Crinan the Thane, who was hereditary lay- 
abbot of Dunkeld and seneschal of the Isles, by his wife 
Bethoc, eldest daughter and heir of Malcolm II., king of 
Scots. 2 

Born about iooi. 3 



i. Duan Albanach, 63 ; Marianus 
Scotus, 65, a 1034 and a 1040; 
Annals of Tighernac, 78; Orkney- 
inga Saga, 17, c. 5; Symeon, Hist. 
Dun. Eccles., i. 90, c. 9, a 1035; 
Chron. Scotorum, 273, a 1038 ; 
Annals of Loch C6, i. 40, 41 ; Hove- 
den, i. 101, calls Malcolm 'son of 
the king of the Cumbrians'; F. 
Worcester,!. 212, ' Rex Cumbrorum' ; 
W. Malmesbury, i. 237, bk. ii. s. 
196; R. Wendover, i. 493, a 1054; 
Matt. Paris, Chron. Maj., i. 523, a 
1054; Chron. Mailros, 47, a 1039; 
Fordun, bk. v. c. 7; Translation, 
p. 419, end of note; R. Cirencester, 



260 ; Macbeth, Act in. Scenes i and 
6 ; [' Shakspere ' is the spelling of his 
signatures on the sheets of his will 
in H.M. Record Office;] Celtic Scot- 
land, i. 399-405 ; Early Kings, i. 110- 
118; ii. 477, Appendix P; Early 
Britain, 189, 190, 264. 

2. Chron. Scots and Picts, 152; 
Chron. Picts and Scots (B), 175, No. 
1 6 ; Fordun, bk. iv. cc. 39, 40, 44 ; 
Wyntoun, ii. 119, bk. vi. c. 16, 11. 
1603-4. 

3. [His mother seems to have been 
married about the year 1000; her 
younger sister's son, Thorfinn, earl of 
Orkney, was born in the year 1008.] 



1040] 



DUNCAN THE FIRST 



13 



Married a cousin of Siward, earl of Northumberland, about 

the year 1030.* 
King of the Cumbrians. His maternal grandfather, Malcolm 

II., king of Scots, made him king of the Cumbrians in or 

before the year IO34. 5 

REIGN BEGAN 2$TH NOVEMBER 1 03 4. 

King of Scots. Duncan I. became king of Scots on the death 
of his maternal grandfather, King Malcolm II., 25th 
November IO34. 6 

Aged about 33 when he succeeded his grandfather. 7 

The 2nd Siege of Durham. Duncan I., king of Scots, 
unsuccessfully besieged the city of Durham in IO4O. 8 

Thorfinn, earl of Orkney, defeated King Duncan I. at 
Torfness, in August IO4O. 9 

Murdered. King Duncan the First was murdered by 
Macbeth, one of his own commanders, at Bothnagowan 
(now Pitgaveny) near Elgin, I4th August IO4O. 10 



4. Fordun, bk. iv. c. 44. 

5. Fordun, bk. iv. cc. 40, 41. 
[His son, King Malcolm III., is 
called ' son of the king of the Cum- 
brians ' by the following, viz.]: Matt. 
Paris, Chron. Maj., i. 523, a 1054; 
F. Worcester, i. 212; R. Hoveden, 
i. 101 ; W. Malmesbury, i. 237, bk. 
ii. s. 196 ; R. Cirencester, 260. 

6. Marianus Scotus, 65, a 1034; 
Chron. Mailros, 46, a 1034; Sy- 
meon, Hist. Regum, ii. 158, a 1034, 
[erroneously supposes that Macbeth 
was the immediate successor of 
Malcolm II., ignoring King Duncan 
I. ;] Extracta, 56 ; Fordun, bk. iv. 
c. 44, a 1034; Wyntoun, ii. 119, 
bk. vi. c. 16, 11. 1604-5. 

7. See above, p. 12, No. 3. 

8. Symeon, Hist. Dun. Eccles., i. 
90, 91, c. 9, a 1035 [ought to be 
a 1040], ' in the 2oth year of Bishop 
Eadmund's episcopate,' i.e. 1040. 
[Symeon also states that Duncan 



was killed by his own people soon 
after his return ;] Celtic Scotland, 
i. 399, 400, and note 27. 

9. Orkneyinga Saga, 21, c. 6, and 
note i ; De Rebus Albanicis, 344 ; 
[Torfness was the Norwegian name of 
Burghead, or as some say of Tarbet- 
ness, both on the Moray Firth.] 

10. Marianus Scotus, 65, a 1040 ; 
Annals of Tighernac, 78, a 1040 ; 
Chron. Mailros, 47, a 1039; Sy- 
meon, Hist. Eccles. Dun., i. 91, c. 9, 
a 1035, slain by his own people in 
the 2oth year of Bishop Eadmund's 
episcopate, i.e. a 1040; Chron. 
Scots and Picts, 152, 11. 10-13 ; 
Chron. Picts and Scots (B), 175, No. 
1 6 ; Annals of Ulster, 369, a 1040 ; 
Annals of Loch Ce, i. 41, a 1040; 
Fordun, bk. iv. c. 44 ; Wyntoun, 
ii. 121, bk. vi. c. 15, 1. 1651 ; [Bothna- 
gowan or Pitgownie since about 1 600 
' Pitgaveny ' (the hut of the smith) 
is about two miles east of Elgin. 



14 DUNCAN THE FIRST [1034 

Aged about 3 p. 11 
Buried in lona. 12 
His Reign lasted 5 years 8 months and 2 1 days. 13 

REIGN ENDED I4TH AUGUST 1 040. 



ISSUE 

King Duncan the First had by his wife, a cousin of Earl Siward, 
three sons, Malcolm, Donald Bane, and Melmare : 
(i.) Malcolm, king of Scots as Malcolm III. (Ceannmor) from 
1 7th March 1057-8 to i3th November I093- 14 
(ii.) Donald Bane, twice king of Scots ; first, from i3th Novem- 
ber 1093 to May 1094; secondly, from i2th November 1094 to 
October io97. 15 
(m.) Melmare. 1 Earl of Athol. Issue, a son : 16 

Madach, earl of Athol, married ist, ; 2ndly, Margaret, 

daughter of Haakon, earl of Orkney. Issue, two sons : 17 

(A) Malcolm, 2nd or 3rd earl of Athol. 17 

(B) Harald 'Maddadson,' earl of Orkney, in 1139 married 
first, Af reca, sister of Duncan, earl of Fife ; secondly, Gorm- 
lath, daughter of Malcolm MacHeth. He died in 1206, and 
had with other issue, two sons, David and John : 18 

(a) David, earl of Orkney, died in 1 2 1 4. 19 

(b) John, earl of Orkney, died in i23i. 20 

'Pit' is said to be Pictish, and 'both' I.; Celtic Scotland, i. 399-405; 

Gaelic for ' a hut' ','gow' seems to have Early Kings, i. 110-118. 
been 'a smith' in both languages.] 14. See below, pp. 25-35. 

11. [His mother was probably 15. For his first reign, see below, 
married about the year 1000;] Donald Bane, pp. 35, 36; for his 
Annals of Tighernac, 78, a 1040, second reign, see pp. 41-44. 
Duncan I. is described as 'immaturd 16. Book of Deer, 95 ; Orkney inga 
etate ' at his death. Saga, cxxxiii., Genealogical Tables, 

12. [His body was carried first to No. i, 86, c. 57. 

Elgin and afterwards to lona;] 17. Orkneyinga Saga, cxxxiii., 

Chron. Scots and Picts, 152 ; Chron. Genealogical Tables, No. i, 86, c. 57 ; 

Picts and Scots (B), 175, No. 16; 108, c. 68, note i; The Scots Peerage, 

Fordun, bk. iv. c. 44. (1904), vol. i. pp. 416, 417. 

13. Fordun, bk. iv. cc. 44, 45 ; and 18. Ibid. 
Translation, p. 419, note ; Skene, 19. Ibid. 
Chron. Picts and Scots, 452, Duncan 20. Ibid. 



1040] 



DUNCAN THE FIRST 



NOTES 

Cumbria after 1034. Maldred probably became king of 
the Cumbrians when his brother King Duncan I. succeeded 
their grandfather Malcolm II. as king of Scots, on the 25th 
of November IO34- 21 

The Battle of Torfness, in which Thorfinn, earl of 
Orkney, defeated King Duncan I., was probably fought 
at ' Standing Stane,' in the parish of Duffus, three and a 
half miles south-south-east of Burghead, on the I4th of 
August IO4O. 22 

King Duncan's Blood. Some red stains on the floor of 
what was called ' King Duncan's Room/ in Cawdor Castle, 
used to be shown as ' King Duncan's blood ' ; but Cawdor 
Castle was not built until upwards of four hundred years 
after King Duncan was murdered. 23 



21. Fordun, iv. c. xliv., states 
that Cumbria was bestowed on 
Malcolm, son of King Duncan L, a 
1034 ; [but Malcolm was a child at 
that time, and it seems probable 
that it was Maldred, brother of 
Duncan I., on whom Cumbria, was 
bestowed. Maldred's son's name 
was Gospatric ; one of his grand- 
sons, Dolfin, was ruler of Carlisle in 
1092; two other grandsons, Gospatric 
of Dunbar, and Waltheof, lord of 
Allerdale, were witnesses to the 
Inquisition of Earl David, all of which 
facts connect the family with Strath- 
clyde ;] Skene, Chron. Picts and 
Scots, Ixxix. (Strathclyde), 446 ; 
Celtic Scotland, i. 362, 394, note 18, 
the last two sentences ; and iii. 4, 
514, Maldred. See also above, Mal- 
colm II., p. 9, No. 47. 

22. Ordnance Map, co. Elgin, par- 



ish of Duffus ; Celtic Scotland, i. 403 ; 
Collectanea de Rebus Albanicis, 344 
(Orkneyinga Saga, c. i) ; Orkneyinga 
Saga, 21, 22. [In those days the 
Loch of Spynie extended a long way 
to the west of Kintrae (the head of 
the tide), and King Duncan, even if 
wounded, might have escaped by 
boat to Pitgownie or Pitgaveny, if 
that was the Bothnagowan where 
he was murdered. The ' standing 
stane ' formerly stood about nine 
feet above the ground, on the pro- 
perty of Major C. L. Gumming Bruce, 
M.P., but about the year 1820 his 
brother, Sir William Gumming Gor- 
don, moved the ' standing stane ' to 
Altyre, where it now (1906) stands, in 
a field called 'the long stone park.'] 
23. See above, p. 13, No. 10; The 
Thanes of Cawdor, p. 20, the Charter 
is dated 6 Aug. 1454. 



16 DUNCAN THE FIRST [1040 



A TABLE OF REGNAL YEARS 



1st began 25 Nov. 1034, 
ended 24 Nov. 1035. 

2nd began 25 Nov. 1035, 
ended 24 Nov. 1036. 

3rd began 25 Nov. 1036, 
ended 24 Nov. 1037. 



4th began 25 Nov. 1037, 
ended 24 Nov. 1038. 

5th began 25 Nov. 1038, 
ended 24 Nov. 1039. 

6th began 25 Nov. 1039, 
ended 14 Aug. 1040. 



Only 8 months and 21 days of the 6th year. 



CONTEMPORARY SOVEREIGNS 

KINGS OF ENGLAND KING OF FRANCE POPE 

Danish Dynasty HENRI I. BENEDICT IX. 

1031-1060. 1033-1048. 

CANUTE 
'The Great' 
1017-1036. 

HAROLD I. 

' Harefoot ' 
1036-1039. 

HARDICANUTE 
1039-1041. 



1040] 



17 



MACBETH 



KING OF SCOTS 
1040 1057 

Keign began i4th August 1040, 
ended i5th August 1057, 
lasted 17 years and 2 days. 

Macbeth. ' King of Scots/ ' Mormaer of Moray/ * Supreme 

King of Alban/ 'King of Scotia/ 'the red king/ 'the 

liberal king, was fair, yellow, tall.' x 
Son of Finlaec, mormaer of Moray ; his mother is supposed 

to have been Donada, second daughter of Malcolm II., 

king of Scots. 2 
Born about iocs. 3 



1. Duan Albanach, 63 ; Marianus 
Scotus, 65, a 1040 and a 1050; 
Annals of Tighernac, 78, a 1057 ; 
Prophecy of St. Berchan, 102; Saxon 
Chron., i. 155, a 1054; Symeon, 
Hist. Regum, ii. 166, s. 138, a 1050; 
Chron. Mailros, 47, a 1039; 49, 
a 1050; 50, 51, a 1054; Annals of 
Loch Ce, i. 53, a 1058 ; Hoveden, i. 
96, a 1050; 101, a 1054; Fordun, 
bk. iv. c. 45 ; Shakspere, 'Macbeth.' 

2. Duan Albanach, 63 ; Marianus 
Scotus, 65, a 1040; Chron. Scots 
and Picts, 152 ; Chron. Picts and 
Scots (B), 175, No. 17 ; Chron. Hunt- 
ingdon, 210, a 1040, * Grandson of 
Malcolm II.'; Reg. Prior. S. Andree, 
U 45 Ogygia, 488, 489 ; Fordun, bk. 
iv. c. 44; Translation, 419, 420, note 



to c. 44 ; Wyntoun, ii. 120, bk. vi. c. 
15, 1. 1645; 127, c. 18, 1. 1855, calls. 
Macbeth nephew (sister's son) of 
Duncan; The War of the Gaedhil 
with the Gaill, 130, 132, Appendix 
D, note 13; Skene, Chronicles of the 
Picts and Scots, 473 [the Index to 
'Macbeth' is incomplete, and Finlaec's 
name occurs in the text, but does not 
appear in the Index. Finlaec, pp. 30, 
63. 65, 77, 119, 131, 152, 175, 180, 
206, 289, 296, 300, 306, 369, 400]. 

3. Chron. Huntingdon, 210, calls 
Macbeth grandson of Malcolm II. 

[If Macbeth were grandson of King 
Malcolm II., his mother must have 
been younger than her sister Bethoc, 
and she was probably older than her 
sister who was mother of Thorfinn.] 



B 



18 MACBETH [1040 

Canute (Knutr), king of England, invaded Scotia, and 

Macbeth became 'his man,' in 1031.* 
Mormaer of Moray. Macbeth seems to have succeeded 

Gillacomgan, as mormaer of Moray, in IO32. 5 
Married Gruoch, who was daughter of Bodhe, and widow 

of Gillacomgan, mormaer of Moray, about IO32. 6 
Commander under King Duncan I., I4th August IO4O. 7 

REIGN BEGAN I4TH AUGUST 1040. 

King of Scots. Macbeth became king of Scots after having 

murdered King Duncan I. at Bothnagowan near Elgin, 

1 4th August IO4O. 8 
Aged about 35 when he became king. 9 

Crinan, lay-abbot of Dunkeld, father of King Duncan I., 

'was slain and many with him, viz.: nine times twenty 

heroes ' in a battle fought between the men of Alban, at 

Dunkeld in IO45. 10 

The Culdees of Lochleven had a grant of the lands of 

Kyrkness, from Macbeth and Gruoch, king and queen of 

the Scots. 11 
Went to Rome. Macbeth, king of Scots, distributed money 

broadcast to the poor in Rome in IO5O. 12 

4. Saxon Chron., ii. 128; W. Regum, ii. 158, s. 132, a 1034, 
Malmesbury, ii. 308, bk. iii. s. 248 ; [erroneously states that Malcolm II. 
H. Huntingdon, 188, a 1031 ; B. was succeeded by Macbeth in 1034]. 
Cotton, 39; Matt. Paris, Chron. Maj., 9. See above, p. 17, No. 3. 

i. 509, a 1033 [two years wrong]. 10. Annals of Tighernac, 78, a 

5. Fordun, bk. iv. c. 44 ; Transla- 1045 ; Annals of Ulster, 369, a 1045 ; 
tion, 419, note to c. 44 ; Celtic Scot- Annals of Loch Ce, i. 47, a 1045. 
land, i. 403, 404; iii. 54, 55. ii. Reg. Prior. S. Andree, 12, 114. 

6. Reg. Prior. S. Andree, 114; 12. Marianus Scotus, 65, a 1050 
Wyntoun, ii. 128, bk. vi. c. 18, 1. 1879. ['seminando' seems to imply that 
[Gruoch, Shakspere's Lady Macbeth.] Macbeth was present in Rome in 

7. Marianus Scotus, 65, a 1040. 1050] ; Chron. Mailros, 49, a 1050 ; 

8. Marianus Scotus, 65, a 1040 ; Symeon, Hist. Regum, ii. 166, s. 138, 
Chron. Mailros, 47, a 1039; Chron. a 1050; F. Worcester, i. 204, a 
Scots and Picts, 152 ; Fordun, bk. iv. 1050 ; Hoveden, i. 96 ; W. Coventry, 
c. 45; Wyntoun, ii. 120, 121, bk. vi. i. 64, a 1050; Wyntoun, ii. 129, c. 
c. 15, 11. 1645-1652; Symeon, Hist. 18, 1. 1897; Celtic Scotland, i. 407. 



1057] 



MACBETH 



19 



Norman Fugitives from England were received and 
sheltered by Macbeth in IO52. 13 

Earl Siward defeated Macbeth at Scone, on the 27th 
of July iO54. 14 

Bishop of St. Andrews. Tuathald succeeded on the 
death of Maelduin, in 105 5. 15 

Slain. Macbeth, king of Scots, was slain by Malcolm, 
then king of the Cumbrians (afterwards Malcolm III. 
Ceannmor), at Lunfanan in Mar, i5th August IO57. 16 
Aged about 52. 17 
Buried in lona. 18 
His Reign lasted 17 years and 2 days. 19 

REIGN ENDED I5TH AUGUST 1057. 



ISSUE 



Macbeth, king of Scots, left no issue.' 



13. F. Worcester, i. 210, a 1052; 
W. Coventry, i. 68, a 1052. 

14. Annals of Tighernac, 78, a 
1054 ; Prophecy of St. Berchan, 102 ; 
Saxon Chron., ii. 155, 27th July 
1054; Chron. Mailtos, 50, a 1054; 
Symeon, Hist. Regum, ii. 171, s. 140, 
a 1054; Annals of Ulster, 369, a 
1054; Annals of Loch Ce", i. 53, a 
1054 ; W. Malmesbury, i. 237, bk. ii. 
s. 196; Matt. Westminster, 215, a 
1054; F. Worcester, i. 212; W. 
Coventry, i. 69, a 1054; H. Hunt- 
ingdon, 194, a 1054 ; R. Wendover, 
i. 493, a 1054; Hoveden, i. 100, 101, 
a 1054; B. Cotton, 42; Matt. Paris, 
Chron. Maj., i. 523, a 1054 ; Fordun, 
bk. v. c. 7 ; Wyntoun, ii. 138, bk. vi. 
c. 18, 1. 2199. 

15. Scotichron., i. 339, 340, bk. vi. 
c. 24; Reg. Prior. S. Andree, 116; 
Wyntoun, ii. 148, bk. vi. c. 20, 11. 
2510-12. 

16. Marianus Scotus, 65, a 1057 ; 
Chron. Scots and Picts, 152 ; Chron. 
Picts and Scots (B), 175, No. 17 ; 



Annals of Ulster, 369, a 1058 ; 
Chron. Scotorum, 285, a 1056. [This 
chronicle is generally two years 
wrong.] Annals of Loch Ce, i. 54, 55, 
a 1058. [Chron. Scotorum and the 
Annals of Loch C6 erroneously place 
the death of Macbeth after that 
of Lulach.] Fordun, bk. v. c. 7, 
[erroneously states that Macbeth was 
slain 5th Dec. 1056] ; Wyntoun, ii. 
139, bk. vi. c. 18, 11. 2245-6. 

17. See. above, p. 17, No. 3. 

1 8. Chron. Scots and Picts, 152 ; 
Chron. Picts and Scots (B), 175, No. 
1 7 ; Fordun, bk. v. c. 8. 

19. Marianus Scotus, 65, a 1040 
to 1057 ; Skene, Chron. Picts and 
Scots, 473, Index, 'Macbeth' [in- 
complete] ; Wyntoun, ii. 128, bk. vi. 
c. 18, 1. 1889; Celtic Scotland, i. 
405-410. 

20. [Macbeth does not seem to 
have left descendants ; ' The Con- 
tinuation of Synchronisms of Flann 
Mainistreach,' 119, calls Lulach 'son 
of Macbeth,' instead of step-son.] 



20 



MACBETH 



[1040 



NOTES 

Michael Cerularius, patriarch of Constantinople, excom- 
municated Pope Leo IX., in 1053, among other reasons, for 
enforcing the celibacy of the priests. 21 

Pope Leo IX. is said to have sent three legates to 
Constantinople, who publicly excommunicated Michael 
Cerularius, patriarch of Constantinople, in the church of 
St. Sophia, on the i6th of July 1054. [Pope Leo IX. had 
died in Rome, on the i9th of April IO54. 22 ] 



21. L'Art de verifier les Dates, 
Paris, 1818, tome iv. pp. 95, 96. 



22. L'Art de verifier les Dates, 
Paris, 1818, tome iii. p. 331. 



A TABLE OF EEGNAL YEARS 



1st began 14 Aug. 1040, 
ended 13 Aug. 1041. 


10th began 14 Aug. 1049, 
ended 13 Aug. 1050. 


2nd began 14 Aug. 1041, 
ended 13 Aug. 1042. 


llth began 14 Aug. 1050, 
ended 13 Aug. 1051. 


3rd began 14 Aug. 1042, 
ended 13 Aug. 1043. 


12th began 14 Aug. 1051, 
ended 13 Aug. 1052. 


4th began 14 Aug. 1043, 
ended 13 Aug. 1044. 


13th began 14 Aug. 1052, 
ended 13 Aug. 1053. 


5th began 14 Aug. 1044, 
ended 13 Aug. 1045. 


14th began 14 Aug. 1053, 
ended 13 Aug. 1054. 


6th began 14 Aug. 1045, 
ended 13 Aug. 1046. 


15th began 14 Aug. 1054, 
ended 13 Aug. 1055. 


7th began 14 Aug. 1046, 
ended 13 Aug. 1047. 


16th began 14 Aug. 1055, . 
ended 13 Aug. 1056. 


8th began 14 Aug. 1047, 
ended 13 Aug. 1048. 


17th began 14 Aug. 1056, 
ended 13 Aug. 1057. 


9th began 14 Aug. 1048, 
ended 13 Aug. 1049. 


18th began 14 Aug. 1057, 
ended 15 Aug. 1057. 


Only 2 days of the i8th year. 






IDS;] 



MACBETH 



21 



CONTEMPORARY SOVEREIGNS 



KINGS OF ENGLAND KING OP FRANCE 



POPES 



ANTIPOPE 



Danish Dynasty 
HARDICANUTE 
1039-1041. 

Anglo-Saxon Dynasty 
restored 
EADWARD 
'The Confessor' 
1041-1066. 


HENRI I. BENEDICT IX. 23 Silvester III. 
1031-1060. 1033-1048. 1044. 

Gregory VI. 
1044-1046. 

CLEMENT II. 
1046-1047. 

DAMASUS II. 
1048. 

LEO IX.24 

1 Saint ' 
1049-1054. 

Papal See 
vacant 
about i year 
1054-1055. 

VICTOR II. 
1055-1057. 

STEPHEN IX 
1057-1058. 



23. See L'Art de verifier les Dates, 
Paris, 1818, tome iii. pp. 328-330; 



and Mas Latrie, pp. 1071, 1072. 
24. See above, p. 20, Nos. 2 1 and 22. 



22 [1057 



LULACH 

'THE SIMPLE' 

KING OF SCOTS 

I057I057-8 

Reign began i5th August 1057, 
ended i7th March 1057-8, 
lasted 7 months and 3 days. 

Lulach ' The Simple.' ' King of Scots,' 'Chief king of Alban,' 
' King of Scotia/ 1 

Son of Gillacomgan, mormaer of Moray, by his wife Gruoch, 
daughter of Bodhe, and step-son of Macbeth, king of 
Scots, who married Gruoch on the death of Gillacomgan. 2 

Born about IO32. 3 

REIGN BEGAN I5TH AUGUST 1057. 

King of Scots. Lulach became king of Scots on the death 

of Macbeth, I5th August 1057.* 
Aged about 25 when he became king. 5 

1. Marianus Scotus, 65, a 1057; of Macbeth'; [from the above it seems 
Annals of Tighernac, 78, a 1057 ; most probable that Lulach was son 
Annals of Loch Ce, i. 55 ; Chron. of Gillacomgan and step-son of Mac- 
Scots. (D), 302; Chron. Scotorum, beth.] 

283, a 1056 ; Fordun, bk. v. c. 8. 3. [This date would suit, whether 

2. Annals of Ulster, 369, a 1058 ; he was son of Gillacomgan or of 
' son of Gillacomgan ' ; Continuation Macbeth.] 

of Synchronisms of Flann Main- 4. Duan Albanach, 63 ; Marianus 

istreach, 1 19, 'son of Macbeth'; Tract Scotus, 65, a 1057; Fordun, bk. v. 

on the Scots of Dalriada, 317, note c. 8 ; Wyntoun, ii. 141, bk. vi. c. 

5 ; Annals of Loch Ce, i. 54, 55, a 19, 1. 2301. 

1058 ; Fordun, bk. v. c. 8, ' cousin 5. See above, No. 3. 



1057-8] 



LULACH 



23 



Set on the Royal Seat as king, at Scone, in 

Slain. Lulach, king of Scots, was slain ' by stratagem ' by 

Malcolm, king of the Cumbrians (afterwards Malcolm III. 

Ceannmor), at Essie in Strathbogie, i?th March IO57-8. 7 
Aged about 26. 8 
Buried in lona. 9 
His Reign lasted 7 months and 3 days. 10 

REIGN ENDED I/TH MARCH IO57-8. 



ISSUE 

Lulach, king of Scots, had a son, Malsnectai, and a daughter : 
(i.) Malsnectai, mormaer of Moray, gave lands to the abbey of 
Deer. He was expelled by King Malcolm III. (Ceannmor) in 
1078, and ' ended his life happily ' (as a monk) in io85. n 

(n.) , daughter of Lulach, had a son : 12 

Oengus, mormaer of Moray, slain with four thousand of his 
men by Edward, son of EarlSiward, at Strakathro in Forfar- 
shire, in ii3o. 13 



6. Marianus Scotus, 65 ; Fordun, 
bk. v. c. 8. 

7. Marianus Scotus, 65, a 1057 ; 
Annals of Tighernac, 78, by strata- 
gem, a 1057 ; Chron. Scots and Picts, 
152 ; Chron. Picts and Scots (B), 175, 
No. 18; Annals of Ulster, 369, a 
1058; Annals of Loch Ce, i. 54, 55, 
a 1058 ; Chron. Scotorum, 283, a 
1056 ; Fordun, bk. v. c. 8 ; Wyntoun, 
ii. 141, bk. vi. c. 19, 1. 2304. 

8. See above, Nos. 3 and 7. 

9. Chron. Scots and Picts, 152 ; 
Chron. Picts and Scots (B), 175, No. 
1 8 ; Fordun, bk. v. c. 8 ; Wyntoun, 
ii. 142, bk. vi. c. 19, 1. 2308. 

10. Chron. Mailros, 51, a 1055; 
Celtic Scotland, i. 411. 

11. The Book of Deer, Ii. 93 ; Nat. 
MSS. Scot., i. 3, No. i. ; Saxon Chrou., 



ii. 183, a 1078; Annals of Ulster, 
370, a 1085, ' ended his life happily ' 
[i.e. became a monk] ; Orderic Vitalis, 
iii. 404, bk. viii. c. 22 ; Tract on the 
Scots of Dalriada, 317, note 5. 

12. Orderic Vitalis, iii. 404, bk. viii. 
c. 22 ; Annals of Ulster, 371, 372, a 
1130; Celtic Scotland, i. 460-463. 

13. Saxon Chron., ii. 227, a 1130 ; 
Orderic Vitalis, bk. viii. c.22; Chron. 
Mailros, 69, a 1130 ; Annals of Inis- 
f alien, 170, a 1 130; Annals of Ulster, 
37!> 37 2 ; Annals of Loch Ce, i. 129, 
'Aenghus, son of Lulach's daughter '; 
Extracta, 71 ; Fordun, bk. v. c. 33, 
'at Strucathrow,' also Annals, I ; and 
Translation, p. 428, note; Celtic Scot- 
land, i. 460-463. See also below, p. 53, 
Alexander I., No. 24, Malcolm, King 
Alexander's illegitimate son ; and 
David I., p. 60, No. 19. 



24 LULACH [1057-8 



REGNAL YEAR 

began 15 Aug. 1057, ended 17 Mar. 1057-8. 
Only 7 months and 3 days. 



CONTEMPORARY SOVEREIGNS 

KING OF ENGLAND KING OF FRANCE POPE 

Anglo-Saxon Dynasty HENRI I. STEPHEN IX. 

EADWARD 1031-1060. 1057-1058. 

'The Confessor' 
1041-1066. 



1057-8] 



25 



MALCOLM THE THIRD 

1 CEANNMOR ' 

KING OF SCOTS 

I057-8I093 

Reign began i7th March 1057-8, 
ended i3th November 1093, 
lasted 35 years 7 months and 28 days. 

Icolm the Third. ' Ceannmor ' (Great Head or Chief), 
' Son of the king of the Cumbrians/ ' King of Scots/ 
' King of Scotia/ ' Chief king of Alba/ ' A king, the best 
who possessed Alban/ l 

Eldest Son of Duncan L, king of Scots, by his wife, a cousin 
of Siward, earl of Northumberland. 2 

Born about io3i. 3 

His Native Speech was Gaelic, but he was also perfectly 
well acquainted with Latin, and with the language of the 



I . ' Ceannmor, ' that is, Great Head 
or Chief [which does not warrant his 
head being represented abnormally 
large, as it usually is, in his imagin- 
ary portraits] ; Marianus Scotus, 65, 
a 1057; Prophecy of St. Berchan, 
103 ; Symeon, Hist. Dun. Auctarium, 
* 1 9S) s - 20 ; Symeon, Hist. Regum, 
ii. 36, s. 39; 171, s. 140, a 1054; 
Chron. Scotorum, 301, a 1089 ; 
R. Wendover, i. 493, a 1054 ; Chron. 
Manniae (Munch), 5 ; Matt. Paris, 
Chron. Maj., i. 523, a 1054; Hove- 
den, i. 104, a 1061 ; 117, a 1067, 



etc. ; H. Huntingdon, 204^ a 1067 ; 
205, a 1072 ; Matt. Westminster, 
215, a 1054; Annals of Loch Co", 
i. 79, 81, ' chief king of Alba.' 

2. Marianus Scotus, 65, a 1057, 
' Son of Duncan ' ; W. Malmesbury, 
i. 237, bk. ii. s. 196 ; Chron. Mailros, 
51, a 1056; Vita. S. Margaretae 
(Surtees, No. 51), 238, c. 3 ; F. Wor- 
cester, i. 212; Fordun, bk. iv. c. 44. 

3. [About 1031 seems a probable 
date ; this would make him 3 years 
old when his father succeeded, and 
62 at the time of his death in 1093.] 



26 MALCOLM THE THIRD [1057-8 

English, as he had lived fourteen years at the Court of 

the king of England. 4 
King of the Cumbrians, and ruler of Lothian after the 

victory of his kinsman Earl Siward over Macbeth, at 

Scone, 27th July io54. 5 

Aged about 23 when he became king of the Cumbrians. 6 
Macbeth, king of Scots, was defeated and slain by 

Malcolm, then king of the Cumbrians (afterwards Malcolm 

III. Ceannmor), at Lunfanan in Mar, i5th August IO57. 7 
Lulach, king of Scots, was slain by stratagem by 

Malcolm, then king of the Cumbrians (afterwards Malcolm 

III. Ceannmor), at Essie in Strathbogie, on the I7th of 

March IO57-8. 8 



REIGN BEGAN I7TH MARCH 1 057-8. 

King of Scots. Malcolm III. (Ceannmor) became king of 
Scots on the defeat and death of Lulach, on the I7th of 
March IO57-8. 9 

Aged about 27 when he became king. 10 

Set on the Throne, and Crowned at Scone, on the 25th of 
April I058. 11 

Married First. King Malcolm III. married first, Ingibjorg, 

4. Vita S. Margaretae (Surtees, the date 5th Dec. 1056], 423, notes, 
No. 51), 243, c. 8; Fordun, bk. iv. cc. 7, 8; Wyntoun, ii. 138, bk. vi. 
cc. 45, 47 ; bk. v. c. 14. c. 18, 1. 2245. 

5. Annalsof Tighernac, 78, a 1054; 8. Marianus Scotus, 65, a 1057; 
Symeon, Hist. Regum, ii. 171, a Annals of Tighernac, 78, a 1057 ; 
1054; F. Worcester, i. 212; Matt. Chron. Scots and Picts, 152; Chron. 
Westminster, 215, a 1054 ; Fordun, Picts and Scots (B), 175, No. 18 ; 
bk. v. cc. 7, 8; Translation, 423, note. Annals of Ulster, 369, a 1058? 

6. See above, No. 3. Annals of Loch Ce, i. 54, 55 ; For- 

7. Marianus Scotus, 65, a 1057; dun, bk. v. c. 8 ; Wyntoun, ii. 141, 
Annals of Tighernac, 78, a 1057 ; bk. vi. c. 19, 1. 2303. 

Chron. Scots and Picts, 152; Chron. 9. Marianus Scotus, 65, 17 Mar. 

Picts and Scots (B), 175, No. 17; 1057-8; Chron. Mailros, 51, a 1056. 

Annals of Ulster, 369, a 1058 ; 10. See above, p. 25, No. 3. 

Chrou. Scotorum, 285, a 1056; n. Fordun, bk. v. c. 9, a 1057; 

Annals of Loch Ce, i. 56, 57; For- Wyntoun, ii. 154, bk. vii. c. I, 1. 8, 

dun, bk. v. c. 7, [erroneously gives ' A thowsand sex and fyfty yhere.' 



1093] 



MALCOLM THE THIRD 



27 



daughter of Earl Finn Arnason, and widow of Thorfinn 
Sigurdson, earl of Orkney, about IO59. 12 

Bishop of St. Andrews. Fothad succeeded as bishop on 
the death of Tuathald in IO59. 13 

Invaded England. King Malcolm III., during the absence 
of Earl Tosti in Rome, invaded England, and ravaged 
Northumberland and Lindisfarne, in io6i. 14 

Battle of Hastings. Harold II., king of England, was 
defeated and slain by William, duke of Normandy, at 
Hastings, I4th October io66. 15 

Eadgar JEtheling and his sisters fled from England and 
took refuge with Malcolm III., king of Scots, in io67-8. 1G 
Married Secondly. King Malcolm III. married, as his 
second wife, Margaret ('St. Margaret of Scotland'), daughter 
of Eadward JEtheling, at Dunferrnline, in io68-9. 17 

The Observance of the Lord's Day and of the Lenten 



12. Saga of Magnus the Good, 
cc. 37, 46; Heimskringla, iii. 343; 
Orkney inga Saga, cc. 14, 23 ; also 
46, note i ; Collectanea de Rebus 
Albanicis, 346 ; [Malcolm Ceannmor's 
first wife, Ingibjorg, may have been 
the daughter, not the widow of Earl 
Thorfinn.] 

13. Scotichron., i. 339, bk. vi. 
c. 24 ; W. of Coventry, i. 23, 38 ; 
Wyntoun, ii. 163, bk. vii. c. 3, 11. 
271-3; Councils and Eccles. Docts., 
ii. pt. i, 160, a 1072-1093; see 
below, p. 30, No. 34. 

14. Chron. Mailros, 54, a 1061 ; 
Symeon, Hist. Regum, ii. 174, 175, 
s. 143, a 1061 ; Hoveden, i. 104, a 
1061. 

15. Fordun, bk. v. c. 12, 14 Oct. 
1066; R. Wendover, i. 519-521; 
Symeon, Hist. Regum, ii. 181, s. 150, 
22 Oct. 1066 [a week wrong, per- 
haps it was the day the news reached 
the north of England] ; Annals of 
England, a 1066. 

16. Saxon Chron., ii. 171, a 1067; 



Symeon, Hist. Regum, ii. 191, s. 155; 
F. Worcester, ii. 2; W. Coventry, 
i. 84, a 1068; R. Wendover, ii. 2, 
a 1067; Hoveden, i. 117, a 1068; 
Matt. Paris, Chron. Maj., ii. 2, 3; 
Fordun, bk. v. cc. 14, 15. 

17. Saxon Chron., ii. 171, a 1067; 
Chron. Mailros (Interpolation), 51, a 
1067; H. Huntingdon, 204, a 1067; 
Wyntoun, ii. 162, bk. vii. c. 3, 11. 245- 
275, a 1067 ; Book of Pluscarden, 
bk. viii. c. 13, a 1067; Vita S. Mar- 
garetse (Surtees, No. 51), 238, c. 4; 
Matt. Paris, Chron. Maj., ii. 2; 
Hemingburgh, i. 14; R. Wendover, 
ii. 2 ; W. Coventry, i. p. 84 ; F. 
Worcester, ii. a 1068 ; Symeon, 
Hist. Regum, ii. 192, s. 156, a 
1070; Chron. Mailros, 55, a 1070; 
Hoveden, i. 122, a 1070; Fordun, 
bk. v. c. 15, a 1070; c. 16, a 1070 
or 1067 ; Annals, 74, a 1067 ; W. 
Malmesbury, i. 278, bk. ii. s. 228 ; 
Annals of Scotland, i. 9, note ; Celtic 
Scotland, i. 414, note 51, a 1068. See 
also below, p. 342, No. 8. 



28 MALCOLM THE THIRD [1057-8 

fast, etc., was introduced according to the Roman use, at 
the instance of Queen Margaret. 18 

Invaded England a Second Time. King Malcolm III. 
ravaged Teesdale, Cleveland, Holderness, and the country 
between the Tees and the Tyne, in the spring of io69-7o. 19 

Gospatric, earl of Northumberland, retaliated by 
ravaging part of Cumbria, then under the dominion of 
Malcolm III., king of Scots, in IO7O. 20 

William the Conqueror invaded Scotia by land and sea, 
and Malcolm III., king of Scots, gave hostages, and became 
'his man' about the I5th of August IO72. 21 

Gospatric, deprived of the earldom of Northumberland 
by William the Conqueror, had a grant of ' Dunbar with 
the adjacent lands in Lothian/ from his kinsman Malcolm 
III., king of Scots, in 1072.22 

The Culdees of Lochleven had a grant of Ballichristan 
from Malcolm III. and Margaret, king and queen of 
Scotia. 23 
Moray. King Malcolm III. expelled Malsnectai, the mor- 

maer of Moray, in IO78.' 24 

Invaded England a Third Time. King Malcolm III. devas- 
tated Northumberland as far as the Tyne, between the 
1 5th August and the 8th September 



18. Vita S. Margaretae (Surtees, 205, a 1072; Hoveden, i. 126, a 
No. 51), 243-245, c. 8; Councils and 1072; Capgrave, 130; Ailred, bk. 
Eccles. Docts., ii. pt. I, 156-159; ix. 131; F. Worcester, ii. 9; also 
Celtic Scotland, ii. pp. 344-353. note 3 ; Hemingburgh, i. 14, a 1072 ; 

19. Symeon, Hist. Regum, ii. 190, Wyntoun, ii. 163, bk. vii. c. 3, 1. 295. 
s. 155, a 1070; Chron. Mailros, 55, 22. Symeon, Hist. Regum, ii. 196, 
a 1070; Hoveden, i. 121, 122, a s. 158, a 1072; Symeon (Surtees, 
1070; F. Worcester, ii. a 1069-70; No. 51), 89 ; Hoveden, i. 126, a 1072. 
Hemingburgh, i. 13, a 1070-71; 23. Reg. Prior. S. Andree, 115. 
Wyntoun, ii. 163, bk. 7, c. 3, 1. 291. 24. Saxon Chron., ii. 183. 

20. Symeon, Hist. Regum, ii. 191, 25. Saxon Chron., ii. 183, a 1079; 
s. 156, a 1070; Symeon (Surtees, Symeon, Hist. Regum, ii. 36, s. 39 
No. 51), 87; Hoveden, i. 121. [? 1079] ; Chron. Mailros, 57; H. 

21. Saxon Chron., ii. 179 [1073, Huntingdon, 206, a 1079; F. Wor- 
error] ; Symeon, Hist. Regum, ii. cester, ii. 13; Hemingburgh, i. 17, 
195. !96, s. 158, a 1072; Chron. a 1079; Hoveden, i. 133, a 1078; 
Mailros, 56, a 1072; Matt. Paris, Wyntoun, ii. 164, bk. vii. c. 3, 1. 
Chron. Maj., ii. 8; H. Huntingdon, 309, a 1079; Celtic Scotland, i. 427. 



1093] MALCOLM THE THIRD 29 

Scotia was Invaded as far as Egglesbreac (Falkirk) in 
Stirlingshire, by Robert, son of William the Conqueror, who 
retired without accomplishing anything. He afterwards 
built ' Novum Castrum ' at Newcastle, in autumn io8o. 26 
Invaded England a Fourth Time. King Malcolm III. 
'harried' a great part of the north of England, in the 
month of May IO9I. 27 

William II. (Rufus), king of England, and Malcolm III., 
king of Scots, made peace in September 109 1. 28 

Carlisle and Part of Cumbria, then held by Dolfin, 
eldest son of Earl Gospatric, under King Malcolm III., was 
seized by King William II. (Rufus), and was annexed to 
England in IO92. 29 

Runic Inscription. In the cathedral at Carlisle, on the 
west wall of the southern transept, there are some Runes 
in Norse characters, of which the translation is ' Dolfin 
wrote these Runes on this stone.' 30 

Orkney and the Western Islands were subdued by 
Magnus (Barefoot), king of Norway, in IO93. 31 

The Kilt was worn by the people in the Western 



26. Chron. Mailros, 57, a 1080; ii. 199, s. 159; F. Worcester, ii. 30; 
Symeon, Hist. Regum, ii. 211, s. 167, Hoveden, i. 145, a 1092; Celtic 
a 1080, ' Egglesbreth ' ; Hoveden, i. Scotland, i. 429, 430. 

136, a 1080 ; Fordun, bk. v. c. 17. 30. Stephens, Old Northern Runic 

27. Saxon Chron., ii. 195 ; Symeon, Monuments, vol. ii. p. 663. [The 
Hist. Regum, ii. 218, s. 172, May inscription has the appearance of 
1091 ; Chron. Mailros, 60, a 1091 ; having been made with the point 
F. Worcester, ii. 28 ; H. Huntingdon, of a dagger, possibly by Dolfin after 
216, a 1091 ; Hoveden, i. 143, May his expulsion in 1092. The Runes 
1091 ; Hemingburgh, i. 23, a 1091. are now (1906) protected by a frame 

28. Saxon Chron., ii. 195, a 1091 ; and glass.] 

Symeon, Hist. Regum, ii. 218, s. 172, 31. Orkneyinga Saga, cc. 29, 30; 

a few days before the end of Sep. Collectanea de Rebus Albanicis, 347, 

1091 ; F. Worcester, ii. 28 ; Hove- x. Magnus Saga, c. 20 ; Chron. 

den, i. 144 ; Hemingburgh, i. 23, a Manilla (Munch), 3, 50; Chron. 

1091 ; Annals of Scotland, i. 21. Mannise (Johnstone), 41 ; Magnus 

29. [Cumberland was not included Barefoot Saga, cc. 9, n, 25 ; Heims- 
in the Norman Conquest;] Saxon kringla, iv. 91-95; F. Worcester, 
Chron., ii. 195, a 1092 ; Symeon, ii. a 1093 ; W. Coventry, i. 115, a 
Hist. Regum, ii. 220, s. 173, a 1092 ; 1098; Fordun, bk.v.c.24; Celtic Scot- 
Symeon, de obs. Dun., i. 216, s. 2 ; land, i. 435, note 3, p. 442, note 19. 



30 



MALCOLM THE THIRD 



[1057-8 



Islands, and probably by the Scots on the mainland, in 

and before the year IO93. 32 
The Cathedral at Durham. Malcolm III., king of Scots, 

was present at the laying of the foundation stone of the 

cathedral at Durham, on the nth of August IO93. 33 
Bishop of St. Andrews. Fothad, ' chief bishop of Alban,' 

died in IO93. 34 
Went to Gloucester. King Malcolm III. went to Gloucester, 

where King William II. (Rufus) refused to receive him, 

on the 24th of August IO93. 35 
Invaded England a Fifth (and last) Time. King Malcolm 

III. invaded England, ' harrying with more animosity than 

ever behoved him,' in the beginning of November IO93. 36 
Slain. King Malcolm III. (Ceannrnor) was slain by Morel of 

Bamborough, at Alnwick, i3th November IO93. 37 
Aged about 62. 38 



32. Magnus Barefoot Saga, c. 18, 
'berfoettr'; Heimskringla, iv. 103, 
104 ; Collectanea de Rebus Albanicis, 
351, x. Magnus Saga, c. 20. 

33. Symeon, Hist. Dun. Eccles., 
i. 195, s. 20, ii Aug. 1093; Chron. 
Mailros, 60, n Aug. 1093 ; Extracta, 
62, ii Aug. 1093 ; Hoveden, i. 145, 
ii Aug. 1093; Fordun, bk. v. c. 20. 

34. [Ordained by the Scots, after- 
wards consecrated by Thomas 'senior' 
Archbishop of York, between 1071 
and 1093 ;] W. of Coventry, i. 23, 
88; Reg. Prior. S. Andree, 113, 'son 
of Bren'; Annals of Ulster, 370, 
died a 1093 ; Councils and Eccles. 
Docts., i. pt. i, 153, a 1059-1093, 
160, 1072-1093. See above, No. 13. 

35. Saxon. Chron., ii. 196, a 1093 ; 
Symeon, Hist. Regum, ii. 220, s. 173, 
24 Aug. 1093 ; Ailred, 139, bk. ix. ; 
F. Worcester, ii. 31, 24 Aug. ; R. 
Gloucester, ii. 391, ' Wyllam the 
rede kyng'; Hoveden, i. 145, 146, 

24 Aug. 1093 ; Hemingburgh, i. 24, 

25 ; Celtic Scotland, i. 430. 



36. Saxon Chron., ii. 196, a 1093 ; 
Symeon, Hist. Regum, ii. 221, s. 174, 
1093, the five invasions ; Ailred, 
139, bk. ix., the five invasions ; Hove- 
den, i. 146, the five invasions ; For- 
dun, bk. v. c. 20 ; Wyntoun, ii. 164, 
bk. vii. c. 3, 1. 321. 

37. Saxon Chron., ii. 196, a 1093 ; 
Symeon, Hist. Regum, ii. 221, s. 174, 
a 1093 ; Ailred, 139, bk. ix. ; Hove- 
den, i. 146, 13 Nov. 1093 ; Annals of 
Inisfallen, 169, 170, a 1093; Annals 
of Ulster, 370, a 1093; Chron. 
Mailros, 60, a 1093 (Interpolation), 
52, a 1093 ; Annals of Loch Ce, i. 
78, 79, a 1093 ; F. Worcester, ii. 31, 
13 Nov. 1093 R- Wendover, ii. 42, 
a 1092 ; Extracta, 62 ; H. Hunting- 
don, 217, a 1093; R. Gloucester, ii. 
391 ; Hemingburgh, i. 25 ; Lang- 
toft, i. 441 ; Matt. Paris, Chron. 
Maj., vi. 370, 371, letter from R.' 
monk of Kelso, King Malcolm's 
bones found at Tynemouth in 1257 ; 
Fordun, bk. v. c. 20 ; Wyntoun, ii. 
164, bk. vii. c. 3, 1. 328. 

38. See above, p. 25, No. 3. 



1093] 



MALCOLM THE THIRD 



31 



Buried at Tynemouth; his son, King Alexander I., afterwards 

removed his body to Dunfermline. 39 
His Reign lasted 35 years 7 months and 28 days. 40 

REIGN ENDED I3TH NOVEMBER 1093. 



ISSUE 

King Malcolm the Third had by his first wife, Ingibjorg, three 
sons, Duncan, Malcolumb, and Donald : 

(i.) Duncan, king of Scots as Duncan II. from May to i2th 
November I094. 41 

(n.) Malcolumb witnessed a charter of his eldest brother, King 
Duncan II., sometime between April and i2th November io94. 42 
(m.) Donald died a violent death in 1085. 43 

King Malcolm the Third had by his second wife, * St.' Margaret, six 
sons, Eadward, Eadmund, ^Ethelred, Eadgar, Alexander, and 
David ; and two daughters, Matilda, and Mary : 44 
(iv.) Eadward, wounded at Alnwick on the i3th, died at 
Edwardsisle near Jedburgh, on the i6th November 1093. 45 
(v.) Eadmund joined his uncle Donald Bane against his 
eldest half-brother, King Duncan II., and seems to have ruled 
the parts of Scotia south of the Firths of Forth and Clyde, from 



39. Chron. Picts and Scots (B), 
175, No. 19; Chron. Scots (D), 302; 
Extracta, 62 ; Eulogium Hist. , iii. 
39, c. 100, a 1093 ; W. of Malmes- 
bury, ii. 309, bk. iii. s. 250, removed 
to Dunfermline by Alexander I. ; 
Hoveden, i. 147; Scalachron., 117; 
Matt. Paris, Chron. Maj., v. 633, 
bones found a 1257 ; vi. 370, 371, 
letter from ' R.' ; Fordun, bk. v. 
c. 20. 

40. Annals of Scotland, i. 1-47; 
Celtic Scotland, i. 411-432. 

41. See below, pp. 37-40. 

42. Durham Charters, No. 554 ; 
Nat. MSS. Scot., i. 4, No. XL, fac- 
simile transcript and translation ; 
Raine, North Durham, Appendix, I, 
No. i. ; Diplomata Scotise, Plates iv. 
and v. [There seems to be some 



doubt as to whether this Malcolumb 
was brother of King Duncan II.] 

43. Annals of Ulster, 370, a 1085 ; 
Annals of Loch Ce, i. 75. 

44. W. Malmesbury, ii. 278, bk. ii. 
s. 228; Ailred, 131, bk. ix. ; Chron. 
Mailros (Interpolation), 51, a 1067 ; 
Symeon, Hist. Regum, ii. 192, s. 
156 ; Extracta, 63 ; Hoveden, i. 122, 
a 1070 ; 147, a 1093 ; H. Hunting- 
don, 297, Appendix; Matt. Paris, 
Chron. Maj., ii. 2; Fordun, bk. v. 
c. 16, Annals, 74-77, etc., Pedigree; 
Wyntoun, ii. 163, bk. vii. c. 3, 1. 275. 

45. Chron. Mailros, 60, a 1093 
(Interpolation), 52, a 1093; Extracta, 
pp. 62, 63 ; Annals of Loch C6, i. 79, 
81, a 1093; Fordun, bk. v. c. 20; 
Wyntoun, ii. 164, bk. vii. c. 3, 1. 
327 ; Symeon, Hist. Regum, a 1093. 






32 MALCOLM THE THIKD [1057-8 

1 2th November 1094 to October 1097. He became a monk, and 

died at Montague in Somersetshire. 46 

(vi.) ./Ethelred, abbot of Dunkeld, gave land to the Culdees of 

Lochleven. He was buried in the church at Kilrimont. 47 

(vn.) Eadgar, king of Scots from October 1097 to the 8th of 

January no6-7. 48 

(vm.) Alexander, king of Scots as Alexander I. from the 

8th of January 1106-7 to the 23rd of April H24. 49 

(ix.) David, king of Scots as David I. from the 23rd of April 

1124 to the 24th of May H53- 50 

(x.) Matilda, 'The Good Queen Maud,' married to Henry I., 

king of England, 'hallowed to queen at Westminster,' nth 

November uoo, died ist May 1118, buried at Westminster. 

Issue, a son, William, lost at sea, and a daughter : 51 

Matilda, 'The Empress Maud,' married first to Henry V. r 
emperor of Germany (no issue) ; married, secondly, to Geoffrey 
Plantagenet, comte d'Anjou, and had, with other issue : 51 

Henry II., king of England 1154-1 189. 51 

(XL) Mary, married to Eustace, comte de Boulogne, in 1102; 
died on the 3ist of May 1 1 16 ; buried at St. Saviour's monastery, 
Bermondsey. Issue, a son, who died young, and a daughter : 52 

Matilda, married to Stephen, king of England. 52 



46. Chron. of the Scots (B), 132; Hemingburgh, i. 35, 44 ; Hoveden, i. 
Annals of Ulster, 370, a 1094; 157, a uoo; Capgrave, 133, a uoo; 
Extracta, p. 63, fol. 73 ; W. Mai- Langtoft, i. 451 ; F. Worcester, ii. 
mesbury, ii. 477, bk. v. s. 400 ; For- 47, 71 ; W. Malmesbury, ii. 493, bk. 
dun, bk. v. c. 24; Wyntoun, ii. 165, v. s. 418; Matt. Paris, Chron. Maj., 
bk. vii. c. 3, 1. 352. ii. 117, 121, 144 ; Matt. Paris, Hist., 

47. Reg. Prior. S. Andree, 115; i. 188, 189; De Illust. Henricis, 58; 
Reg. Dunfermelyn, 3,5, 222, etc. ; Ex- Fordun, bk. v. 0.29; Wyntoun, ii. 
tracta, 63 ; Fordun, bk. v. cc. 16, 24. 122, bk. vi. c. 16, 1. 1680 ; Book of 

48. See below, pp. 45-49. Pluscarden, bk. viii. c. 16 ; Chron- 

49. See below, pp. 50-57. ology of History, p. 242, a uoo. 

50. See below, pp. 58-70. See also below, Pedigree, p. 280. 

51. Saxon Chron., ii. 204, a uoo; 52. Chron. Mailros, 62, a 1102; 
215, a 1118 ; Symeon, Hist. Regum, Chron. Scots, 131 ; Chron. S. Crucis, 
ii. 232, s. 182, marriage, a uoo; 252, 28, 31 May 1115; Symeon, Hist. 
s. 195, death at Westminster, I May Regum, ii. 235, s. 184, a 1102; Hove- 
u 18; Chron. Mailros, 62, a uoo; den, i. 160; Fordun, bk. v. c. 29; 
Chron. Scots (B), p. 131 ; Chron. S. Wyntoun, ii. 122, bk. vi. c. 16, 1. 
Crucis, 29, a 1118 ; Annals of Loch 1682 ; Book of Pluscarden, bk. viii. 
Ce", i. 109, a 1 1 18 ; Eadmer, 138, 297; c. 16; Tresor de Chronologie, p. 1564. 



1093] 



MALCOLM THE THIRD 



33 



Queen Margaret ('St. Margaret of Scotland'), wife of King 
Malcolm III. (Ceannmor), on hearing of her husband's death, 
died of grief in Edinburgh Castle, on the i6th of November 
1093, and was buried before the high-altar in the church of the 
Holy Trinity at Dunfermline. 53 



53. Chron. Mailros, 60, a 1093 
(Interpolation), 52, a 1093 ; Symeon, 
Hist. Regum, ii. 222, s. 174, a 1093, 
death and character ; Vita S. Mar- 
garetae, Scotorum Reginse (Surtees, 
No. 51), 234-266 ; Annals of Loch Ce, 
i. 81 ; Annals of Ulster, 370, a 1093, 



note c. ; Ailred, bk. ix. 140 ; Hove- 
den, i. 147 ; Hemingburgh, i. 26, 16 
Nov. 1093 ; F. Worcester, ii. 32 ; R. 
Gloucester, ii. 392 ; Fordun, bk. v. c. 
21 ; Wyntoun, ii. 164-5, bk. vii. c. 3, 
U- 33> 359 5 Celtic Scotland, i. 436, a, 
' miraculous mist. ' See below, p. 342. 



A TABLE OF REGNAL YEAES 



1st began 17 Mar. 1057-8, 13th began 17 Mar. 1069-70, 


ended 16 Mar. 1058-9. 


ended 16 Mar. 1070-1. 


2nd began 17 Mar. 1058-9, 


14th began 17 Mar. 1070-1, 


ended 16 Mar. 1059-60. 


ended 16 Mar. 1071-2. 


3rd began 17 Mar. 1059-60, 


15th began 17 Mar. 1071-2, 


ended 16 Mar. 1060- 1. 


ended 16 Mar. 1072-3. 


4th began 17 Mar. 1060-1, 


16th began 17 Mar. 1072-3, 


ended 16 Mar. 1061-2. 


ended 16 Mar. 1073-4. 


5th began 17 Mar. 1061-2, 


17th began 17 Mar. 1073-4, 


ended 16 Mar. 1062-3. 


ended 16 Mar. 1074-5. 


6th began 17 Mar. 1062-3, 


18th began 17 Mar. 1074-5, 


ended 16 Mar. 1063-4. 


ended 16 Mar. 1075-6. 


7th began 17 Mar. 1063-4, 


19th began 17 Mar. 1075-6, 


ended 16 Mar. 1064-5. 


ended 16 Mar. 1076-7. 


8th began 17 Mar. 1064-5, 


20th began 17 Mar. 1076-7, 


ended 16 Mar. 1065-6. 


ended 16 Mar. 1077-8. 


9th began 17 Mar. 1065-6, 


21st began 17 Mar. 1077-8, 


ended 16 Mar. 1066-7. 


ended 16 Mar. 1078-9. 


10th began 17 Mar. 1066-7, 


22nd began 17 Mar. 1078-9, 


ended 16 Mar. 1067-8. 


ended 16 Mar. 1079-80. 


llth began 17 Mar. 1067-8, 


23rd began 17 Mar. 1079-80, 


ended 16 Mar. 1068-9. 


ended 16 Mar. 1080-1. 


12th began 17 Mar. 1068-9, 


24th began 17 Mar. 1080- 1, 


ended 16 Mar. 1069-70. ended 16 Mar. 1081-2. 



MALCOLM THE THIRD 



[1093 



A TABLE OF REGNAL YEARS continued. 



25th began 17 Mar. 1081-2, 

ended 16 Mar. 1082-3. 
26th began 17 Mar. 1082-3, 

ended 16 Mar. 1083-4. 
27th began 17 Mar. 1083-4, 

ended 16 Mar. 1084-5. 
28th began 17 Mar. 1084-5, 

ended 16 Mar. 1085-6. 
. 29th began 17 Mar. 1085-6, 

ended 16 Mar. 1086-7. 
30th began 17 Mar. 1086-7, 

ended 16 Mar. 1087-8. 
Only 7 months and 



31st began 17 Mar. 1087-8, 

ended 16 Mar. 1088-9. 
32nd began 17 Mar. 1088-9, 

ended 16 Mar. 1089-90. 
33rd began 17 Mar. 1089-90, 

ended 16 Mar. 1090-1. 
34th began 17 Mar. 1090-1, 

ended 16 Mar. 1091-2. 
35th began 17 Mar. 1091-2, 

ended 16 Mar. 1092-3. 
36th began 17 Mar. 1092-3, 

ended 13 Nov. 1093. 
28 days of the 36th year. 



CONTEMPORARY SOVEREIGNS 

POPES 



KINGS OF ENGLAND KINGS OF FRANCE 

Anglo-Saxon Dynasty 

EADWARD 
'The Confessor' 



1041-1066. 

HAROLD II. 
1066. 

Norman Line 
WILLIAM I. 
* The Conqueror 
1066-1087. 

WILLIAM II. 

'Rufus' 
1087-1100. 



HENRI I. 
1031-1060. 



PHILIPPE I. 

' 1'Amoureux ; 

1060-1108. 



STEPHEN IX. 
1057-1058. 

NICOLAS II. 
1059-1061. 

ALEXANDER II. 
1061-1073. 

GREGORY VII. 

'Saint' 
1073-1085. 

Papal See 

vacant I year 

1085-1086. 

VICTOR III. 
1086-1087. 

Papal See 

vacant about 

6 months. 

URBAN II. 
1088-1099. 



ANTIPOPES 



Benedict X. 
1058-1059. 

Honorius II. 
1061-1062. 

Clement III. 
1080-1100. 



1093] 35 



DONALD BANE 

KING OF SCOTS 

(First Reign) 

10931094 

First Reign began i3th November 1093, 
ended about I2th May 1094, 
lasted about 6 months. 

Donald Bane. ' King of Scots/ ' King of Alban.' l 

Second Son of Duncan I., king of Scots, by his wife, a cousin 

of Si ward, earl of Northumberland. 2 
Born about IO33. 3 

HIS FIRST REIGN BEGAN I3TH NOVEMBER 1093. 

King of Scots. Donald Bane became king of Scots on the 
death of his eldest brother, King Malcolm III., i3th 
November 1093.* 

Aged about 60 when he became king. 5 

1. Saxon Chron., ii. 196, a 1093 ; 4. Saxon Chron., ii. 196, a 1093 5 
Symeon, Hist. Regum, ii. 222, s. 174, Skene, Chron. Picts and Scots, 449, 
a 1093 ; Skene, Chron. Picts and Donald III. ; Symeon, Hist. Regum, 
Scots, 449, Donald III. ii. 222, s. 174, a 1093, ' elected king'; 

2. Saxon Chron., ii. 196, the Scots Chron. Mailros (Interpolation), 52, a<> 
chose Donald, Malcolm's brother, for ' 93 ; H ' Huntin g don > 217, a 1093 ; 
king ; Symeon, Hist. Regum, ii. 222, He n g b " r g b > *, > IO93 5 Hoveden, 
s. 174, ao 1093, Malcolm's brother ' '' '"' a f IO< * ' ^Worcester, ii. 32 ; 
Wyntoun, ii. 165, 166, bk. vii. c. 3, Lan g toft ' '" 44M Matt. Westminster, 
11 360 37o 232> a IC>92 ' Matt - Paris, Chron. 

Maj., ii. 33 ; Fordun, bk. v. c. 21 ; 

3- [This seems a probable date; it Wyntoun, ii. 165, 166, bk. vii. c. 3, 
would make him seven years old at 11. 369, 370. 
his father's death, i4th Aug. 1040.] 5. See above, No. 3. 






36 DONALD BANE [1094 

All the English who had formerly been with King 
Malcolm III (Ceannmor) were driven out, after his death, 
by the Scots in November IO93. 6 

Deposed. King Donald Bane was deposed by his nephew, 
Duncan II, about the I2th of May IOQ4. 7 

His First Reign lasted about 6 months. 8 

HIS FIRST REIGN ENDED ABOUT THE I2TH OF MAY 1 094. 



6. Saxon Chron., ii. 196, a 1093 ; 217 ; Hoveden, i. 147 ; Matt. West- 
Symeon, Hist. Regum, ii. 222, s. 174, minster, 232, a 1092 ; Matt. Paris, 
a 1093; F. Worcester, ii. 32; Hem- Chron. Maj., ii. 33; Fordun, bk. v. 
ingburgh, i. 26, a 1093. c. 24 ; Wyntoun, ii. 166, bk. vii. c. 

7. Saxon Chron., ii. 197, a 1093 ; 3, 1. 385. 

Symeon, Hist. Regum, ii. 222, s. 174, 8. Chron. Pictsand Scots (B), 175, 

a 1093 ; Chron. Mailros (Interpola- No. 20 ; Annals of Scotland, i. 47-50 ; 

tion), 52, a 1093; F.Worcester, ii. 32; Celtic Scotland, i. 436, 437. See 

Langtoft, i. 443; H. Huntingdon, below, pp. 41 -44, for his second reign. 



EEGNAL YEAR 

(First Reign) 

began 13 Nov. 1093, ended about 12 May 1094. 
Only about 6 months. 



CONTEMPORARY SOVEREIGNS 

KING OF ENGLAND KING OF FRANCE POPE ANTIPOPE 

WILLIAM II. PHILIPPE I. URBAN II. Clement III. 

'Rufus' TAmoureux' 1088-1099. 1080-1100. 

1087-1100. 1060-1108. 



1094] 



37 



DUNCAN THE SECOND 



KING OF SCOTS 



1094 

Reign began about i2th May 1094, 
ended i2th November 1094, 
lasted about 6 months. 

Duncan the Second. 'King of Scots/ 'King of Alban/ 

' King of Scotia.' J 
Eldest Son of Malcolm III., king of Scots, by his first wife 

Ingibjorg, daughter of Earl Finn Arnason, and widow of 

Thorfinn Sigurdson, earl of Orkney. 2 
Born about io6o. 3 

Hostage to William the Conqueror in 1072.* 
Released and Knighted by William II. (Rufus), king of 

England, in loS/. 5 

bk. v. c. 24, and translation, p. 424, 
note xxiv. ; Wyntoun, ii. 166, bk. vii. 
c. 3, 11. 375-387 [erroneously calls him 
illegitimate]. 

3. [His mother's marriage seems to 
have been about 1059. His father's 
second marriage was in or about 1068. 
King Duncan II. was the eldest son 
of the first marriage. ] 

4. Saxon Chron., ii. 179, a 1072 ; 
196, a 1093; H. Huntingdon, 217, 
a 1093; Chron. Huntingdon, 21 1 ; 
Hoveden, i. 146, 147; Matt. Paris, 
Chron. Maj., ii. 33; Fordun, bk. v. 
c. 24. 

5. Aluredus (Hearne), bk. ix. 136 ; 
Symeon, Hist. Regum, ii. 214, B. 169, 
a 1087 ; 222, s. 174 ; Chron. Mailros, 
59, a 1087 ; F. Worcester, ii. 21 ; 
W. Coventry, i. 100, a 1087 ; Hove- 
den, i. 140, knighted Nov. 1087 ; 
Fordun, bk. v. c. 24. 



1. Durham Charters, No. 554; 
Nat. MSS., i. 4, No. n., facsimile, 
transcript, and translation; Raine, 
North Durham, 373, facsimile of 
Charter, 374, PL I., Seal, Appendix, 
I, No. I., transcript ; Diplomata 
Scotise, PI. iv., facsimile of Charter 
and Seal, PI. v., transcript ; Ancient 
Scottish Seals, i. I, No. I : Annals 
of Inisfallen, 170, a 1094; Annals 
of Ulster, 370, a 1094 ; Annals of 
Loch Ce, i. 80, 81, a 1094; Chron. 
Scotorum, a 1090 [wrong year]. 

2. [He must have been legitimate. 
See below, No. 10. Possibly his mother 
Ingibjorg was daughter, not widow, 
of Earl Thorfinn ;] Orkneyinga Saga, 
cc. 14, 23, and p. 46, note I ; Saxon 
Chron. , ii. 196, a 1093 ; Symeon Hist. 
Regum, ii. 222, s. 174, a 1093 ; Liber 
Vitae,fol. 12, 'Dunacan rex, '[misspelt 
' Duncan' in Surtees,No. 13]; Fordun, 




38 DUNCAN THE SECOND [1094 

Married his cousin JSthelreda, daughter of Earl Gospatric of 
Dunbar (formerly earl of Northumberland), about 



REIGN BEGAN IN MAY 1094. 

King of Scots. Duncan II. became king of Scots after he 

had deposed his uncle King Donald Bane, in May IO94. 7 
Aged about 34 when he became king. 8 
He gave Lands to the Church at Durham, Dunfermline, 

and St. Andrews, between the month of April and the 

1 2th of November IO94. 9 
One of the Earliest Charters relating to Scotland, now 

extant, was granted by King Duncan II. between April 

and the I2th November IO94. 10 
He Styled Himself ' I Dunecan, son of King Malcolurnb, by 

hereditary right king of Scotia.' His brother Malcolumb, 

and his half-brother Eadgar, his next heirs, were witnesses 

to the above charter in IO94. 11 
Insnared and Betrayed to Death by his half-brother 

6. Cal. Doc. Scot. ii. 16, No. 64, PL v., transcript; Reg. Dunfermelyn, 
par. 8; Chron. Cumbriae, Dug. Mon. 3, No. i; 5, No. 2; 19, No. 35; 
i. 400. 28-30, No. 50; 40, 42, No. 74; 46, 

7. Chron. Mailros, 60, a 1094 ; 48, No. 8 1 ; 321, 322, No. 434 ; Reg. 
Saxon Chron.. ii. 197, a 1093 ; Prior. S. Andree, 115. 

Symeon, Hist. Regum, ii. 222, s. 174, 10. Durham Charters, No. 554; 

a 1093; F. Worcester, ii. 32; H. Nat. MSS., i. 4, No. n., facsimile, 

Huntingdon, 217, a 1093 ; R- Wend- transcript, and translation of No. 

over, ii. 42, a 1092 ; Hemingburgh, 554, charter at Durham ; Diplomata 

i. 26; Hoveden, i. 147 ; Langtoft, i. Scotiae, PL iv., facsimile of Charter 

443; Matt. Westminster, 232, a and Seal; PI. v., transcript ; Raine, 

1092; Matt. Paris, Chron. Maj., ii. North Durham, 373, facsimile of 

33 ; Fordun, bk. v. c. 24 ; Wyntoun, Charter, 374, PL I., Seal, Appendix, 

ii. 1 66, bk. vii. c. 3, 1. 375, etc. i, No. I., transcript. [The fact of 

8. See above, p. 37, No. 3. his brother Malcolumb and his half- 

9. Durham Charters, No. 554 ; brother Eadgar, his next heirs, being 
Nat. MSS., i. 4, No. II. , facsimile, witnesses to the above charter, de- 
transcript, and translation ; Raiue, claring that he (Duncan II. ) was ' by 
North Durham, 273, facsimile, 374, hereditary right King of Scotia,' 
PI. i., Seal, Appendix, I, No. I., appears to be a sufficient proof of his 
transcript ; Diplomata Scotiae, PL legitimacy.] 

iv., facsimile of Charter and Seal, n. Ibid. 



1094] 



DUNCAN THE SECOND 



39 



Eadmund, and his paternal uncle Donald Bane, I2th 

November IO94. 12 
Slain. King Duncan the Second was slain by Malpeder 

MacLoen, mormaer of the Mearns, at Monacheden, I2th 

November IOQ4. 13 
Aged about 34. u 
Buried in lona. 15 
His Reign lasted about 6 months. 16 

REIGN ENDED I2TH NOVEMBER 1094. 



ISSUE 

King Duncan the Second had by his wife, ^Ethelreda of Dunbar, a 

son: 

William Fitz Duncan, married Alice, daughter of Robert de 
Rumely, by whom he had issue, a son, William, and three 
daughters, Cecilia, Amabilis, and Alicia : 17 

(i) William, 'The Boy of Egremont,' died young. 18 



12. Saxon. Chron., ii. 198, a 1094; 
Symeon, Hist. Regum, ii. 224, s. 175, 
a 1094; Annals of Ulster, 370, a 
1094; Annals of Loch C6, i. 80, 81, 
a 1094 ; F. Worcester, ii. 35 ; For- 
dun, bk. v. c. 24. 

13. Saxon Chron., ii. 198, a 1094; 
Symeon, Hist. Regum, ii. 224, s. 175, 
a 1094 ; Chron. Mailros, 60, a 1094 
(Interpolation), 52 ; Annals of Inis- 
f alien, 170, a 1094 ; Chron. Picts and 
Scots (B), 175, No. 20; Chron. Picts 
and Scots (C), 206; Chron. Picts 
and Scots (D), 289; Chron. Scots 
(D), 303 ; Annals of Ulster, 370, a 
1094 ; Chron. Scotorum, a 1090 
[wrong year] ; Annals of Loch Ce, i. 
81, a 1094; H. Huntingdon, 217, a 
1094 ; Langtoft, i. 443 ; Hoveden, i. 
149, a 1094 ; Hemingburgh, i. 26 ; 
Ex. Obit. Dun., 147, 12 Nov.; Ex. 
Obit. Dun. Minor, 152, 12 Nov.; For- 
dun, bk. v. c. 24; Wyntoun, ii. 166, 
bk. vii. c. 3, 1. 393. [Monacheden, now 
Mondynes, is in Kincardineshire.] 



14. See above, p. 37, No. 3. 

15. Chron. Picts and Scots (C), 
207; Scalachron., 117; Fordun, bk. 
v. c. 24. 

16. Chron. Scots (B), 132, 6 
months ; Chron. Picts and Scots (B), 
175, No. 20, '6 months'; Chron. 
Picts and Scots (C), 206, ' vi. moys ' ; 
Chron. Picts and Scots (D), 289, 
' 6 months ' ; Chron. Scots (C), 296, 
' 6 months ' ; Chron. Scots (D), 300, 
'half a year'; Chron. Mailros (Inter- 
polation), 52, a 1093, ' one year and 
a half ' ; Fordun, bk. v. c. 24; Annals 
of Scotland, 50-52 ; Celtic Scotland, 

i. 437-439- 

17. Reg. Epis. Glas., i. 9, No. 3 ; 
10, No. 4; Cal. Doc. Scot., ii. 15- 
17, No. 64; Chron. Cumbrise, Dug. 
Mon., i. 400; Fordun, bk. r. c. 24, 
Annals, 16; Translation, 432, note 16. 
See also below, p. 40, No. 22. 

1 8. Cal. Doc. Scot., ii. 16, No. 64; 
Orkneyinga Saga, 46, c. 23, 'William 
Odling' (the Noble) ; also note 2. 



40 DUNCAN THE SECOND [1094 

(2) Cecilia, married to William the Gross, earl of Albemarle. 19 

(3) Amabilis, married to Reginald de Lucy. 20 

(4) Alicia, married first to Gilbert Pypard; secondly, to 
Robert de Courteney. 21 

William Fitz Duncan had also two sons : 

(5) Gospatric, witness to a charter of Gospatric, 2nd earl of 
Dunbar. There is no evidence to prove that he was a full 
brother of William, ' The Boy of Egremont.' 22 

(6) Donald Ban Macwilliam, slain with five hundred of his 
men on the moor of Mam Garvia, near Moray, on the 3ist 
of July 1187. He seems to have left two sons, Gothred and 
Dovenald Ban : 23 

(A) Gothred, ' son of Macwilliam,' seized through his own 
men's treachery, was beheaded at Kincardine, in i2ii. 24 

(B) Dovenald Ban, * son of Macwilliam,' slain with Kenneth 
MacHeth, by Makintagart, in Moray, i5th June I2I5- 25 

19. Cal. Doc. Scot.,ii. 16, 17, No. 64. this was Garvyach in Aberdeenshire] ; 

20. Ibid. Benedict, ii. 7, 8, a 1187 ; Hoveden, 

21. Ibid. ii. 318; Fordun, Annals, 16, 31 July 

22. Durham Charters, 778; Nat. 1187; Translation, 432, note xvi. 
MSS., i. 14, No. xxv., facsimile, * Not son of Alice deRumeli'; Celtic 
transcript, and translation ; Raine, Scotland, i. 479. See also below, 
North Durham, Appen. 25, No. cxi. William, p. 80, No. 26. 

23. Chron. Mailros, 96, killed at 24. Chronica de Mailros, 112. 
Mam Garvia, 31 July 1187 [possibly 25. Ibid. 117. 



REGNAL YEAR 

began about 12 May 1094, ended 12 Nov. 1094. 
Only about 6 months. 



CONTEMPORARY SOVEREIGNS 

KING OF ENGLAND KING OF FRANCE POPE ANTIPOPE 

WILLIAM II. PHILIPPE I. URBAN II. Clement III. 

'Rufus' TAmoureux' 1088-1099. 1080-1100. 

1087-1100. 1060-1108. 



1094] 41 



DONALD BANE 

KING OF SCOTS 

(Second Reign) 

10941097 

Second Reign began I2th November 1094, 

ended about 8th October 1097, 

lasted 2 years 10 months and about 26 days. 

Donald Bane. ' King of Scots/ ' King of Alban.' l 

Second Son of Duncan L, king of Scots, by his wife, a cousin 

of Siward, earl of Northumberland. 2 
Born about IO33- 3 

HIS FIRST REIGN BEGAN I3TH NOVEMBER 1093. 

King of Scots. Donald Bane became king of Scots on the 
death of his eldest brother, King Malcolm III., I3th 
November 1093.* 

Aged about 60 when he became king. 5 

1. Saxon Chron., ii. 196, a 1093 ; 4. Saxon Chron., ii. 196, a 1093 ; 
Symeon, Hist. Regum, ii. 222, s. 174, Skene, Chron. Picts and Scots, 449, 
a 1093 J Annals of Loch Ce, i. 81 ; Donald III. ; Symeon, Hist. Regum, 
Skene, Chron. Picts and Scots, 449, ii. 222, s. 174, a 1093, ' elected king' ; 
Donald III. Chron. Mailros (Interpolation), 52, a 

1093 ; H. Huntingdon, 217, a 1093 ; 

2. Saxon Chron., n. 196, a<> 1093, Hemingburgh, i. 26, a 1093 ; Hove- 
Malcolm's brother ; Symeon, Hist. d j &0 F Worcesterj 

Regum ii. 222, s. 174, a<> 1093, ' Mai- {{ Langtoft, i. 441 ; Matt. West- 
colms brother' ; Wyntoun, ii. 165, mingt &0 . Matt . Paris , 

166, bk. vu. c. 3, 11. 369, 370- Chron Maj ? - ^ . Fordunj bk> v . 

3. [This seems a probable date ; it c. 21 ; Wyntoun, ii. 165, 166, bk. vii. 
would make him seven years old at c. 3, 11. 369, 370. 

his father's death, 1 4th Aug. 1040.] 5. See above, No. 3. 



42 DONALD BANE [1094 

Deposed. King Donald Bane was deposed by his nephew 

Duncan II., about the I2th of May 1094. 
His First Reign lasted about 6 months. 7 



HIS SECOND REIGN BEGAN I2TH NOVEMBER 1094. 

King of Scots a Second Time. Donald Bane regained the 

kingdom on the death of his nephew King Duncan II., 

1 2th November IO94. 8 
Aged about 61 when he regained the kingdom, i2th 

November IO94. 9 

Shared the Sovereignty with his nephew Eadmund. 10 
Deposed. King Donald Bane was deposed by his nephew 

Eadgar, with the help of the English, in October IO9;. 11 
His Second Reign lasted 2 years 10 months and about 

26 days. 12 

HIS SECOND REIGN ENDED ABOUT 8TH OCTOBER IO97- 

Taken Prisoner. Donald Bane was taken prisoner by his 

6. Saxon Chron., ii. 197, a 1093; F. Worcester, ii. 35; Langtoft, i. 
Symeon, Hist. Regum, ii. 222, s. 174, 443 ; Hoveden, i. 149; Hemingburgh r 
a 1093 ; Chron. Mailros (Interpola- i. 26 ; Fordun, bk. v. c. 24 ; Wyn- 
tion), 52, a 1093 ; F. Worcester, ii. toun, ii. 166, bk. vii. c. 3, 1. 394. 
32; Langtoft, i. 443; H. Hunting- 9. See above, p. 41, No. 3. 

don, 217; Hoveden, i. 147; Matt. 10. W. Malmesbury, bk. v. s. 400 ; 

Westminster, 232, a 1092 ; Matt. Fordun. bk. v. c. 24. 

Paris, Chron. Maj., ii. 33; Fordun, n. Saxon Chron., 198, a 1094, 

bk. v. c. 24 ; Wyntoun, ii. 166, bk. 202, a 1097 ; Symeon, Hist. Regum, 

vii. c. 3, 1. 385. ii. 224, s. 175, a 1094; ii. 227, s. 

7. Chron. Picts and Scots (B), 175, 179, a 1097 ; Chron. Mailros, 61, a 
No. 20 ; Annals of Scotland, i. 47- 1097 ; Chron. Picts and Scots (B), 
50; Celtic Scotland, i. 436, 437. 175, No. 20; Chron. Picts and Scots 

8. Saxon Chron., ii. 198, a 1094 ; (C), 207 ; Chron. Picts and Scots (D), 
Symeon, Hist. Regum, ii. 224, s. 175, 289 ; H. Huntingdon, 230 ; Hoveden, 
a 1094; Chron. Mailros (Interpola- i. 149, a 1094, 153, a 1097; For- 
tion), 52 ; Annals of Inisf alien, 170, dun, bk. v. cc. 24, 25, 26 ; Wyntoun, 
a 1094 ; Chron. Picts and Scots (B), ii. 166, bk. vii. c. 3, 1. 396; Annals 
175, No. 20 ; Chron. Picts and Scots of Scotland, i. 47-52 ; Celtic Scotland,, 
(C), 207 ; Chron. Picts and Scots (D), i. 436-440. 

289 ; Annals of Ulster, 370, a 1094 ; 12. See above, Nos. 8 and ii. 



1097] DONALD BANE 43 

nephew King Eadgar in 1099. He was condemned to per- 
petual imprisonment, and was deprived of his eyesight. 
It is said, that out of revenge for this treatment, he 
strangled Malcolm, elder son of his nephew Earl David. 13 

Died. Donald Bane, ex-king of Scots, died at Roscolpin 
(Rescobie), in Forfarshire. 14 

Aged upwards of 66. 15 

Buried at Dunkeld, in Perthshire. His bones were after- 
wards transferred to lona. 16 

ISSUE 

Donald Bane, ex-king of Scots, had an only child : 

Bethoc, married to Huctred (or Gothric) of Tynedale, son of 
Waldef, about 1145. Issue, a daughter : 17 

Hextilda, or Histilla, married first to Richard Cumyn, secondly 
to Malcolm, 2nd or 3rd earl of Athol. 18 
Her great-great-grandson : 

John Cumyn of Tynedale and Badenoch was a Com- 
petitor for the Crown, 3rd August 1291. He married 
Alianora, sister of John Balliol, king of Scotland. 19 

13. Tighernac, 141, a 1099; Chron. (C), 207 ; Chron. Picts and Scots (D), 
Picts and Scots (B), 175, No. 20; 289. 

H. Huntingdon, 230 ; Fordun, bk. v. 17. Cal. Doc. Scot., i. 449, No. 

c. 26; Wyntoun, ii. 167, bk. vii. c. 2287; Wyntoun, ii. 193, bk. vii. c. 7, 

3,1.405; 193-195,11.1235-1296. See 1. 1250; 308, bk. viii. c. 6, 1. 1057, 

also Orderic Vitalis, iii. 402, 403, bk. etc. 

viii. c. 22, for another version of the 18. Hexham, i. 8, note 2, par. 5 ; 

story. 148, note ix. ; 169, note x. No. 6 ; Cal. 

14. Chron. Picts and Scots (B), Doc. Scot., i. 449, No. 2287. See also 
175, No. 20; Chron. Elegiacum, 181 ; The Scots Peerage (1904), vol. i. p. 
Chron. Picts and Scots (D), 289; 417; and Early Kings, ii. 192. 
Chron. Scots (D), 303 ; Wyntoun, ii. 19. Cal. Doc. Scot., i. 449, No. 
195, bk. vii. c. 7, 11. 1293-1296. 2287. See below, David I., p. 66, No. 

15. -See above, p. 41, No. 3. 58; The First Interregnum, p. 112, 

1 6. Chron. Picts and Scots (B), No. 15; and Pedigree of the Com- 
175, No. 20; Chron. Picts and Scots petitors, p. 283, No. ix. 



44 DONALD BANE [1097 

A TABLE OF KEGNAL YEAKS 

(Second Reign) 



1st began 12 Nov. 1094, ended n Nov. 1095. 
2nd began 12 Nov. 1095, ended n Nov. 1096. 
3rd began 12 Nov. 1096, ended about 8 Oct. 1097. 
Only 10 months and about 26 days of the 3rd year. 



CONTEMPORARY SOVEREIGNS 

KING OF ENGLAND KING OF FRANCE POPE ANTIPOPE 

WILLIAM II. PHILIPPE I. URBAN II. Clement III. 

'Rufus' ' 1' Amoureux ' 1088-1099. 1080-1100. 

1087-1100. 1060-1108. 



1097] 45 



EADGAB, 

KING OF SCOTS 

1097 II06-7 

Reign began about 8th October 1097, 
ended 8th January 1106-7, 
lasted 9 years and about 3 months. 

Eadgar. ' King of Scots/ ' King of Alban,' ' A sweet and 
amiable man.' * 

Seventh Son of Malcolm III., king of Scots, and his fourth 
son, by his second wife, 'St.' Margaret, daughter of 
Eadward JEtheling. 2 

Born about IO74. 8 

Witness to the charter of King Duncan II., his eldest half- 
brother, between April and i2th November 1094.* 

REIGN BEGAN IN OCTOBER 1097. 

King of Scots. Eadgar became king of Scots after King 
Donald Bane (his father's brother) had been deposed, with 

i. Durham Charters, Nos. 555-558, bk. v. c. 27 ; Celtic Scotland, i. 440- 

four original charters granted by 446. 

King Eadgar (2 with seals); Nat. 2 Nat. MSS., i. 6, No. vii., Charter 

Mss.,i.5,6,No S .iii.-vi.,photo Z inco- of William IL , king of England; 

graphs, transcripts, and transla- Extracta, 63 ; H. Huntingdon, 210 ; 

tions ; Raine, North Durham, Ap- H oveden, i. 122 ; Fordun, bk. v. cc. 

pendix, 1-3, transcripts of King 2 =; 26 
Eadgar's charters ; Diplomata Scotise, 

PL VL, 2 charters of King Eadgar, 3- [He was the fourth son of his 

PL vii. , transcripts of same ; Ancient f ather ' s second Carriage, which took 

Scottish Seals, i, 2, No. 2 ; Symeon, P lace about 1068-70.] 

Hist. Regum, ii. 238, s. 1 86; Annals 4. Durham Charters, No. 555; 

of Ulster, 371, a 1 106; H. Hunting- Nat. MSS., i. 4, No. n. ; Raine, 

don, 212; Ailred, 193, 'Genealogia North Durham, Appendix, I, No. i.; 

regum ap. Twysden,' 367 ; Fordun, Diplomata Scotise, Pis. vi. vii. 



46 



EADGAR 



[1097 



the help of the English under Eadgar ^Etheling (his 
mother's brother), about the 8th of October lop?. 5 
Aged about 23 when he became king. 6 

Orkney and the Western Isles were subdued anew by 
Magnus (Barefoot), king of Norway, in logS. 7 

The Islands to the West of Scotland were ceded to Mag- 
nus (Barefoot), king of Norway, by King Eadgar in iO98. 8 
King Eadgar gave Lands to the Church at Durham, Cold- 

ingharn, Dunfermline, and St. Andrews. 9 
His Charters were addressed ' to all in his kingdom, Scots 
and English.' 10 

Donald Bane, ex-king of Scots, was taken prisoner by 
his nephew King Eadgar in IO99. 11 

William II. (Rufus), king of England, was killed in the 
fourth year of King Eadgar's reign, 2nd August I ioo. 12 



5. Durham Charters, Nos. 555-558 ; 
Nat. MSS., i. 5, 6, Nos. m.-vi.; Dip- 
lomata Scotise, Pis. vi. vn. ; Raine, 
North Durham, Appendix, 1-3; 
Ancient Scottish Seals, I, 2, No. 2; 
Saxon Chron., ii. 202, a 1097; 
Symeon, Hist. Regum, ii. 228, s. 
179, a 1097 ; Chron. Mailros, 61, a 

1097 (Interpolation), 52, a 1096-7 ; 
H. Huntingdon, 230, a 1097 ; Hem- 
ingburgh, i. 26 ; Langtoft, i. 445 ; 
Hoveden, i. 153, a 1097 ; F. Wor- 
cester, ii. 41 ; Matt. Paris, Chron. 
Maj., ii. 2; Fordun, bk. v. cc. 25, 
26 ; Wyntoun, ii. 167, bk. vii. c. 4, 
1. 417, a 1098. 

6. See above, p. 45, No. 3. 

7. Collectanea de Rebus Albanicis, 
347.351; Magnus Barefoot Saga, cc. 
9-12; Heimskringla, iv. 91-96; 
Symeon, Hist. Regum, ii. 228, s. 
I79 a 1098; Chron. Mailros, 61, a 

1098 ; Chron. Man. (Johnstone), 6, 7, 
a 1098 ; Chron. Man. (Munch), 41 ; 
Fordun, bk. v. cc. 26, 27; Wyntoun, 
ii. 168, bk. vii. c. 4, 1. 435; Celtic 
Scotland, i. 440-443. 

8. Same references as No. 7. 



9. Durham Charters, Nos. 555- 
558; Nat. MSS., i. 5, 6, Nos. III.-VL; 
Raine, North Durham, Appendix, 
1-3 ; Diplomata Scotise, Pis. vi. 
vii. ; Reg. Dunfermelyn, 3, 5, Nos. 
i, 2; Reg. Prior. S. Andree, 115; 
Fordun, bk. v. c. 26, Inspeximus, 
Henry III., 10 May 1253 ; Cal. Doc. 
Scot., i. 360, No. 1924; Fordun, bk. 
v. c. 26; Wyntoun, ii. 168, bk. vii. 
c. 4, 1. 429. 

10. Durham Charters, Nos. 555- 
560 ; Nat. MSS., i. 5, 6, Nos. IIL- 
vi. ; Raine, North Durham, Appen- 
dix, 1-3. 

11. Tighernac (Continuation of), 
141, a 1099 ; Fordun, bk. v. c. 26. 

12. Saxon Chron., ii. 203, 'morning 
after Lammas day,' a I ioo ; Symeon, 
Hist. Regum, ii. 231, s. 181, 2 Aug. 
i ioo; F. Worcester, ii. 44, 45, 2 
Aug. i ioo; W. Coventry, i. 117, 2 
Aug. i ioo ; Chron. Mailros, 62, a 
i ioo; Capgrave, 132; Langtoft, i. 
447-449 ; R. Gloucester, ii. 419, 
'Wyliam the red Kyng' killed 2 
Aug. i ioo; Matt. Paris, Chron. 
Maj., ii. in ; Fordun, bk. v. c. 27. 



i io6-7] EADGAR 47 

Matilda, ' The Good Queen Maud/ sister of King Eadgar, 
was married to Henry I., king of England, at Westminster, 
nth November noo. 13 

Mary, sister of King Eadgar, was married to Eustace, 
comte de Boulogne, in i IO2. U 

The Bishops of St. Andrews. After Fothad the second, 
Gregorius or Girich, Cathre, Edmar, and Godric appear 
as dying ' elected.' 15 

'A Camel, which is an animal of wonderful size,' was 
presented by Eadgar, king of Alban, to Murchertach 
O'Briain in i IO5. 16 

The Sovereignty of Alban and of Lothian north of the 
Lammermoors, including Stirling and Edinburgh, was 
delegated by King Eadgar, when dying, to his brother Earl 
Alexander, in January iio6-7. 17 

The Sovereignty of Cumbria and of Lothian south of 
the Lammermoors was delegated by King Eadgar, when 
dying, to his brother Earl David, in January i io6-7. 18 
Died. King Eadgar died unmarried, in Edinburgh Castle, 
8th January i io6-7. 19 

13. [Sometimes Mahald.] Saxon 18. Ibid. 

Chron., ii. 204, a noo; Symeon, 19. Ailred, i93('Genealogiaregum 

Hist. Regum, ii. 232, s. 182, a uoo ; ap. Twysden,' 367), 8 Jan. 1107; 

Chron. Mailros, 62, a noo ; Chron. Symeon, Hist. Regum, ii. 238, s. 186, 

Soots (B), 131; Capgrave, 133; De 8 Jan. 1107; Chron. Mailros, 63, 8 

Illust. Henricis, 58 ; H. Huntingdon, Jan. 1107; ExObit.Eccles.Dun., 140, 

211, 213, a 1 100 ; Langtoft, i. 451 ; 8 Jan. ; Fordun, bk. v. cc. 27, 28, 'at 

Hoveden, i. 157 ; Fordun, bk. v. c. Dundee,' 8 Jan. 1107 ['Dundee' 

xx vii. 40, note 50; 65, note 14; 70, note is probably a mistake for Dunedin 

14; Wyntoun,ii.i68,bk.vii. 0.4,1.451. (Edinburgh)]; Hoveden, i. 164, 8 

14. Chron. Mailros, 62, a 1102; Jan. 1107; Chron. Picts and Scots 
Symeon, Hist. Regum, ii. 235, s. (B), 175, No. 21, 'in Dunedin'; F. 
184, a 1 102; Hoveden, i. 122, 160; Worcester, ii. 55, 6 Jan.; Chron. 
Fordun, bk. v. c. xxvii. 41, note 51. Mailros (Interpolation), 52, 7 Jan. ; 

15. Scotichron., i. 339, 340. Ex Obit. Eccles. Min. Dun., 149, 9 

16. Annals of Inisfallen, 170, a Jan.; Saxon Chron., ii. 210, 13 Jan. 
1105; Collectanea de Rebus Albani- 1106-7 ['Id. Jan.' (13 Jan.) is quite 
cis, 278, 279 [error of date in clear in the MS. , beautifully written 
brackets]; W. Malmesbury, Gest. nearly 800 years ago, now (1906) in 
Reg., bk. v. s. 409. the Bodleian Library at Oxford. 

17. Ailred, 193, a 1138; Celtic But the scribe may have meant ' on 
Scotland, i. 445. one of the (eight) days of the Ides of 



48 



EADGAR 



[1097 



Aged about 33. 20 

Buried before the great altar, in the church at Dunfermline. 21 

His Reign lasted 9 years and about 3 months. 22 

REIGN ENDED 8TH JANUARY 1 1 06-7. 



ISSUE 



King Eadgar left no issue. 23 



January,' or he may have inadvert- 
ently omitted to write ' vi.' before 
' Id. Jan.,' which would have made 
it ' 8th January,' the date given by 
Ailred and Symeon, two north- 
country contemporaries of King 
Eadgar] ; R. Wendover, ii. 184 ; 
Hemingburgh, i. 40, 41 ; H. Hunt- 
ingdon, 236 ; Matt. Westminster, 
238; Matt. Paris, Chron. Maj., ii. 
134; Matt. Paris, Hist., i. 208; 
Wyntoun, ii. 173, bk. vii. c. 5, 11. 
601-611 ; Celtic Scotland, i. 444. 



20. See above, Nos. 3 and 19. 

21. Chron. Picts and Scots (B), 
175, No. 21 ; Chron. Scots (D), 303 ; 
Fordun, bk. v. cc. 27, 28 ; Wyntoun, 
ii. 173, bk. vii. c. 5, 1. 607. 

22. Annals of Scotland, i. 52, 53 
Celtic Scotland, i. 440-446 ; Early 
Kings, i. 160-170. See also above, 
p. 46, No. 5, and p. 47, No. 19. 

23. Chron. Huntingdon, 210 ; For- 
dun, bk. v. c. 28, ' succeeded by his 
brother Alexander ' ; Wyntoun, ii. 
173, bk. vii. c. 5, 1. 609. 



A TABLE OF REGNAL YEARS 



1st began about 8 Oct. 1097, 
ended about 7 Oct. 1098. 

2nd began about 8 Oct. 1098, 
ended about 7 Oct. 1099. 

3rd began about 8 Oct. 1099, 
ended about 7 Oct. 1 100. 

4th began about 8 Oct. noo, 
ended about 7 Oct. noi. 

5th began about 8 Oct. noi, 
ended about 7 Oct. 1102. 



6th began about 8 Oct. 1102, 
ended about 7 Oct. 1 103. 

7th began about 8 Oct. 1103, 
ended about 7 Oct. 1104. 

8th began about 8 Oct. 1104, 
ended about 7 Oct. 1105. 

9th began about 8 Oct. 1105, 
ended about 7 Oct. 1 106. 

10th began about 8 Oct. 1106, 
ended 8 Jan. 1106-7. 



Only about 3 months of the loth year. 



iio6-7] 



EADGAR 



49 



CONTEMPORARY SOVEREIGNS 



KINGS OF ENGLAND KING OF FRANCE 

WILLIAM II. PHILIPPE I. 

' Rufus ' ' PAmoureux ' 

1087-1100. 1060-1108. 

HENRY I. 
' Beauclerc ' 
1100-1135. 



POPES ANTIPOPES 

URBAN II. Clement III. 

1 088- 1 099. 1 080- 1 1 oo. 

PASCAL II. Albert 

1099-1118. 1 100. 

Theodoric 

1 100. 

Silvester IV. 
1 1 06. 



NOTE 

(Continued from page 57). 

The first Earl Gospatric married the sister of Eadmund, 
supposed to be Gunhilda, younger daughter of Harold II. 
Symeon of Durham writes (between 1 1 20 and 1 1 30) as 
if the earl were still alive. 

The third Earl Gospatric died 'in Albania' in 1166 
(Hoveden, i. 253). If this earl had become a monk, 
Hoveden, his contemporary, would have mentioned it. 
In any case, it is not likely that this earl's body was 
carried all the way from Scotland to the monks' burial- 
ground at Durham. Hoveden seems to have confused 
the first and third earls, as it is probable that it was the 
third earl who was buried at Norham. Tradition says that 
his horse was buried with him there. 24 

24. See above, p. 5, No. 27, and note ; also p. 6, No. 29, and note. 



50 [i 106-7 



ALEXANDER THE FIRST 

'THE FIERCE' 

KING OF SCOTS 

IIO6-7 II2 4 

Reign began 8th January 1 106-7, 
ended 23rd April 1124, 
lasted 17 years 3 months and 16 days. 

Alexander the First. 'The Fierce/ 'Alexander the Earl,' 

' King of Scots,' ' King of Alban/ ' King of Scotia,' ' A 

lettered and godly man.' 1 
Eighth Son of Malcolm III., king of Scots, and his fifth 

son by his second wife ' St.' Margaret, daughter of Eadward 

,Etheling. 2 
Born about io77. 3 
' Alexander, the Earl,' brother of Eadgar, king of Scots, was 

i. Durham Charters, Nos. 561-563, ii. 275, s. 210; Ailred (Ethelredus 

each with its original seal [three Abbas Rievallis, Scriptores x.), 368, 

detached seals of King Alexander I. character of Alexander ; Chron. 

are numbered 583, 584, and 585] ; Mailros, 63 ; Orderic Vitalis, bk. v. 

Nat. MSS., i. 7, Nos. vm.-x., photo- c. 9 ; Extracta, 65 ; Annals of Ulster, 

zincographs of the 3 charters and 371, a 1124; Annals of Loch Ce, i. 

seals now at Durham, with tran- 117, a 1124; H. Huntingdon, 236, 

scripts and translations; Diplomata a 1107; Fordun, bk. v. c. 28; 

Scotise, Pis. vin. -x., facsimiles and Wyntoun, ii. 175, bk. vii. c. 5, 1. 

transcripts of his 3 charters now at 654, ' Alysandyr the Fers.' 

Durhamfonesealobverseandreverse]; 2. Symeon, ii. 192, s. 156 ; Hove- 

Raine, North Durham, Appendix, 3, den, i. 122. See also above, Mal- 

Nos. ix. -XL , transcripts of King Alex- colm III. , No. 49. 

ander's 3 charters ; Ancient Scottish 3. [Probably about 1076-7, as he 

Seals, i. 2, Nos. 3, 4 ; Saxon Chron. , was the fifth son of his father's second 

ii. 2io,aiiO7; Symeon, Hist. Regum, marriage.] 



I 1 2 4 ] 



ALEXANDER THE FIRST 



51 



present at the Translation of St. Cuthbert, at Durham, 
4th September 1 104.* 



REIGN BEGAN 8TH JANUARY 1 106-7. 

King of Scots. Alexander I. became king of Scots in 
Alban, and in Lothian north of the Lainmermoors, on the 
death of his brother King Eadgar 8th January 1106-7? 
Aged about 3 1 when he succeeded his brother. 6 

The Bishopric of St. Andrews. Turgot, the prior of 
Durham, was elected bishop of St. Andrews on the 2Oth 
of June no/. 7 

The Bishopric of Dunkeld seems to have been recon- 
stituted about the 2Oth of June no/. 8 

The Bishopric of Moray seems to have been founded 
about the 2Oth of June i lo?. 9 



4. Symeon, Hist. Dun. Auctarium, 
i. 247-261, c. 7, detailed account of 
the Translation of St. Cuthbert ; 
258, cc. 7, n, Alexander, brother of 
King Eadgar, present ; Symeon 
(Surtees, No. 51), i. 158-201, transla- 
tion of St. Cuthbert ; Simeonis Dun. 
Hist. (Scriptores x. ), 229 ; Symeon, 
Hist. Regum, ii. 236, s. 185, a 1104 ; 
Orderic Vitalis, bk. v. c. 9 ; Wyn- 
toun, ii. 172, 173, bk. vii. c. 4, 11. 
589-600. 

5. F. Worcester, ii. 55, 6 Jan. ; 
Chron. Mailros (Interpolation), 52, 

7 Jan.; Ailred, 19, 8 Jan. 1107; 
Symeon, Hist. Regum, ii. 238, s. 186, 

8 Jan. 1107; Simeonis Dun. Hist. 
(Scriptores x.), 230, 8 Jan. 1107 
[Ailred and Symeon were contem- 
poraries of King Alexander] ; Chron. 
Mailros, 63, 8 Jan. 1107 ; Hoveden, 
i. 164, 8 Jan. 1107 ; Fordun, bk. v. 
c. 28, 8 Jan. 1107 ; Ex. Obit. Eccles. 
Dun., 140, 8 Jan. ; Ex. Obit. Eccles. 
Dun. Miu., 149, 9 Jan. ; Saxon 
Chron., ii. 210, 13 Jan. 1107; R. 
Wendover, ii. 184, 1107; H. Hunt- 
ingdon, 236, and note a, 1107; 



Hemingburgh, i. 40, 41, 1107 ; Matt. 
Westminster, 238, 1 107 ; Matt. Paris 
Chron. Maj., ii. 134, 1107; Matt. 
Paris, Hist., i. 208, 1107; Chron. 
Picts and Scots (B), 175, No. 22; 
Wyntoun, ii. 173, bk. vii. c. 5, 1. 612 ; 
Celtic Scotland, i. 445. 

6. See above, No. 3. 

7. [Two years elapsed before Tur- 
got was consecrated at York, I Aug. 
1 109 ;] Liber de Scon, 4, Nos. 3, 4 ; 
Eadmer, 198 ; Chron. Mailros, 64, 
i Aug. 1 109 ; F. Worcester, ii. 60, 
I Aug. 1109; Symeon, Hist. Regum, 
ii. 204, s. 162 ; 241, s. 189 [in 1109 
30 July was Friday, not Sunday] ; 
Wyntoun, ii. 175, 176, bk. vii. c. 5, 
11. 663-726 ; Councils and Eccles. 
Docts., ii. pt. i, 170; Ruddiman's 
Introduction to Diplomata Scotise, 
40, etc. ; Celtic Scotland, i. 448-451 ; 
ii. 366-368. 

8. Councils and Eccles. Docts., ii. 
pt. i, 171 ; Celtic Scotland, ii. 368, 

370-372. 

9. Councils and Eccles. Docts., ii. 
pt. i, 171 ; Celtic Scotland, ii. 368- 
370, also 368, note 6. 



52 



ALEXANDER THE FIRST [1106-7 



Married. King Alexander I. married Sybilla, illegitimate 
daughter of Henry I., king of England, by Sybille Corbet, 
uterine sister of Renaud de Dunstanville. 10 
King Alexander I. gave Lands to the Church at Durham, 

Dunferinline, and Scone. 11 

His Charters were addressed ' to all throughout his king- 
dom, Scots and English.' 12 

The Monastery at Scone in Perthshire was founded 
by Alexander I. and Sybilla, king and queen of Scots, with 
consent of two bishops and seven earls, (?) about ni3-i4. 13 
The Two Bishops were Gregory and Cormac. Gregory 
seems to have been bishop of Moray and* Cormac bishop of 
Dunkeld. 14 

The Seven Earls were: Beth, comes (? Angus); Gos- 
patricius (Dunbar) ; Mallus, comes (Stratherne) ; Madach, 
comes (Athol); Rothri, comes (Mar); Gartnach, comes 
(Buchan) ; Dufagan, comes (? Fife). 15 

The Bishopric of Glasgow was reconstituted by c Earl 
David/ brother of King Alexander I., about 1 1 1 5- 16 

Matilda, 'The Good Queen Maud,' wife of Henry I., 
king of England, died at Westminster, in the I2th year 



10. Liber de Scon, i, Nos. i, 3, 
No. 2 ; Orderic Vitalis, iii. 401, bk. 
viii. note i ; Wyntoun, ii. 174, bk. 
vii. c. 5, 1. 619 [makes her daughter 
instead of granddaughter of William 
the Conqueror]. 

11. Durham Charters, Nos. 561, 
562 ; Nat. MSS. , i. 7, Nos. vm. x. ; 
Diplomata Scotise, Pis. vm. ix. ; 
Raine, North Durham, Appendix, 
3, Nos. ix. x. ; Reg. de Dunfermelyn, 
3, 5, etc. ; Liber de Scon, Nos. 1-4. 

12. Ibid. 

13. Liber de Scon, i, No. i. [Sir 
Archibald Lawrie pronounces this 
charter to be spurious. See Early 
Scottish Charters, p. 28, No. xxxvi., 
and his note, pp. 279-288.] Fordun, 
bk. v. c. 28; Wyntoun, ii. 175, bk. 



vii. c. 5, 1. 658; Chron. Scots (F), 
387, 'in the 7th year of his reign,' 
between 8 Jan. 1112-13 and 7 J an 
1113-14. 

14. Liber de Scon, 2, No. i ; 
Keith, Bishops, 7 ; Eadmer, Hist. 
Novorum, 198 ; Councils and Eccles. 
Docts., ii. pt. I, 171 ; Celtic Scotland, 
368, and note 6. 

15. Liber de Scon, 2, 3, No. I ; 
Reg. Dunfermelyn, 235, No. 348; 
Fordun, Annals, 29 ; Translation, 433, 
note 29; Capgrave, 121, 'vii per- 
sones schul chese the emperoure ' ; 
Celtic Scotland, i. 448. See also 
below, p. 57, NOTE and continuation. 

16. Reg. Ep. Glasguensis, 1-7, 
No. i ; Keith, Bishops, 230, 231, 
etc. ; Celtic Scotland, ii. 375, 376. 



1 1 24] 



ALEXANDER THE FIRST 



53 



of the reign of her brother King Alexander I., on the ist 

of May ni8. 17 

Sybilla, queen of King Alexander L, died suddenly at 

Loch Tay, I2th July ii22. 18 
Died. King Alexander the First died at Stirling; according to 

the 'Anglo-Saxon Chronicle,' on the 23rd of April U24. 19 
Aged about 48.2 
Buried in state, near his father, before the great altar at 

Dunfermline, on the 25th of April H24. 21 
His Reign lasted 17 years 3 months and 16 days. 22 

REIGN ENDED 2 3RD APRIL 1124. 

ISSUE 

King Alexander the First left no issue by his wife Sybilla. 23 
He had an illegitimate son, Malcolm : 

Malcolm made two ineffectual attempts to wrest the kingdom 
from his uncle King David I. 24 



17. Saxon Chron., ii. 215; Ailred 
(Ethelredus Abbas Rievallis, Scrip- 
tores x.), 368, her virtues; Chron. 
Mailros, 66, a 1118 ; Symeon, Hist. 
Regum, ii. 252, s. 195, i May 1118; 
Fordun, bk. v. c. 29, her epitaphs ; 
c. 30, her virtues ; See also above, 
p. 32, Malcolm III., No. 51. 

18. Liber de Scon, 3, No. 2; Chron. 
Mailros, 67, 13 July 1122; Symeon, 
Hist. Regum, ii. 265, s. 203, 12 July 
1122; Liber Vitse, 144; Ex. Obit. 
Eccles. Dunelm., 12 July; Liber 
Vitse, 149, Ex. Obit. Min. Eccles. 
Dunelm., 13 July; Extracta, 68, 
aii22; Wyntoun, ii. 179, bk. vii. 
c. 5, 1. 811, a 1121. 

19- [The death of Alexander L, 
king of Scots, has been variously 
assigned by ancient and modern 
writers to the years 1123, 1124, 1125, 
and 1 126 ; and to the days 22, 23, 24, 
25, 26, and 27 Apr. ; the Anglo- 
Saxon Chronicle records his death on 
23 Apr. 1124, and there does not 
appear to be any good reason to 



doubt the accuracy of that date. ] A 
list of ancient and modern statements 
is subjoined below at pages 54-56. 

20. See above, p. 50, No. 3. 

21. Chron. Picts and Scots (B), 
175, No. 22 ; Chron. Picts and Scots 
(C), 207 ; Chron. Picts and Scots (D), 
290 ; Chron. Scots (D), 303 ; Scala- 
chronica, 117; Fordun, bk. v. cc. 
28, 30. 

22. Skene, Chron. Picts and Scots, 
I 3 2 > J 75> I 8i, 207, 212, 290, 296, 300, 
303> 337, 387; Scalachronica, 117; 
Fordun, bk. v. c. 30 ; Wyntoun, ii. 
173, bk. vii. c. 5, 1. 615; Annals of 
Scotland, i. 53-74 ; Early Kings, i. 
170-186; Celtic Scotland, i. 447-454. 

23. Chron. Mailros, 67, ' to him 
succeeded his brother David ' ; Chron. 
Huntingdon, 210; Fordun, bk. v. 
c. 3 1, succeeded by his brother David. 

24. Orderic Vitalis, iii. 403, bk. viii. 
c. xxii. ; 404, a 1130, and note I ; 
Fordun, bk. v. c. xxxiii. ; Celtic 
Scotland, i. 460, 461. See also be- 
low, David I., p. 60, No. 19. 






54 



ALEXANDER THE FIRST [1106-7 



REFERENCES TO THE DEATH OF ALEXANDER THE FIRST, 
KING OF SCOTS. 



Ancient. 



F. Worcester, ii. 78, 25 Apr. 1123 
[this is certainly the wrong year ] ; 
Anglo-Saxon Chronicle (Rolls Series, 
No. 23), ii. 221, 23 Apr. 1124 
[this date was recorded in the 
Anglo-Saxon Chronicle about 200 
years before Fordun was born, and 
about 250 years before he wrote his 
History of Scotland. The authors of 
the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle must have 
taken a personal interest in the Scot- 
tish Kings Eadgar, Alexander I., 
and David I., because, besides being 
sons of an Anglo-Saxon princess, 
they were brothers of 'the Good 
Queen Maud,' wife of Henry I., king 
of England ; ] Fordun, bk. v. c. 30, 
'died at Stirling,' 24 Apr. 1124; 
Fordun adds, 'He was buried in 
state at Dunfermline on St. Mark's 
Day.' [It is not likely that he could 
have been buried on that day (the 
25th) at Dunfermline, if he had died 
at Stirling the very day before, so 
that the day of his death seems more 
probably to have been the 23rd than 
the 24th. In any case, as the 25th 
was the festival of St. Mark, it was 
a very convenient day, in after years, 
on which to commemorate the anni- 
versary. Fordun is not always 
trustworthy in his early dates ; for 
instance, bk. v. c. 34, he is two days 
wrong in recording the death of 
David I., king of Scots, brother of 
King Alexander I. ;] Scotichronicon 
(Goodall), ii. 291, bk. v. c. 40, 24 
Apr. 1 1 24 [copied from Fordun, bk. 
v. c. 30] ; Extracta, 67, ' died at 
Stirling,' 24 Apr. 1124 [copied from 
Fordun, bk. v. c. 30]; Chron. Mailros, 
67, 25 Apr. 1124; Chron. Sanctce 
Crucis, 29, 25 Apr. 1124; Liber 
Vitte (Surtees, No. 13), 143, Ex- 



cerpta ex Obituario Ecclesiae Dunel- 
mensis, 25 Apr. [no year] ; Liber 
Vitse, 150, Excerpta ex Obituario 
minori Ecclesise Dunelmensis, 25 
Apr. [no year] ; Symeonis Dunel- 
mensis Opera, i. (Surtees, No. 51), p. 
125, Hist. Continuatio, 'reigned 18 
years and 3 months' [one year too 
many], 25 Apr. 1124; Symeon, Hist. 
Rogum (Rolls Series, No. 75), ii. 
275, s. 210, 26 Apr. 1124; Simeonis, 
Dun. Hist. (Scriptorea x.), 251, 26 
Apr. 1124; Chron. Mailros (Interpo- 
lation), 52, 26 Apr. 1124; Annals of 
Loch Co", i. 117, after Easter 1124 
[Easter fell on 6 Apr., a 1124]; 
Annals of Ulster, 371, a 1124 [the 
year is given thus : ' Kal. Jan. iij. f. 
1. xij. Anno Domini Mcxxiiij,' that is 
Kalendis Januariis, tertia, f eria, lunee, 
duodecimo [die], i.e. I Jan. was on 
the third day of the week (Tuesday), 
and the twelfth of the moon, in tin- 
year of our Lord 1 124] ; W. Malmes- 
bury, ii. 627, a 1124; Chron. Scot,;-, 
(F), 388, a 1124; Wyntoun, ii. 180, 
bk. vii. c. 6, 1. 813, a 1124; Chron. 
Smyth, Harl. MS. 2363; a" 1124; 
Records of the monastery of Kinloss, 
Appendix, p. 4 (copy of Harl. MS. 
2363), a 1124; Orderic Vitalis, bk. 
viii. c. 22, a 1125; R. Hoveden, i. 
205, a 1125; Matt. Paris, Chron. 
Maj., ii. 152, a 1125 [copied from II 
Hoveden, i. 205] ; Matt. Paris, His- 
toria Anglorum (sive minor), i. 235, 
a 1125 [copied from R.,Hoveden, i. 
205]; Chron. Picts and Scots (B), 
175, No. 22, 'died in Crasleth, 
buried in Dunfermline ' [no year] ; 
Chron. Elegiacum, 181, 'died at 
Stirling ' [no year]; Chron. Picts and 
Scots (C), 207, ' lies at Dunfermline ' 
[no year]; Chron. Picts and Scots (D), 



1 124] ALEXANDER THE FIRST 



55 



290, 'died atStrafleth, and is buried 
in Dunfermline ' [no year] ; Chron. 
Scots (D), 303, ' died in Cruflet, and 
is buried in Dunfermlino ' [no year]. 
[Crasleth, Strafleth, and Cruflet may 
have been old Pictish or Gaelic 
names of Stirling. Sir David Dal- 
rymple does not appear to have 
known where Crasleth was (Advo- 
cates' Library MS. , No. 31. 4. 13. vol. 
i. p. 63, in margin, ' ubi estl'). W. 
F. Skene did not know where Cras- 
leth was, Chronicles of the Picts and 



Scots, Index, p. 444, 'Crasleth (per- 
haps Paisley),' also p. 429, under 
Alexander I. ; The Annals of Loch 
Ce", vol. i. p. 562, record (in Irish) ' a 
battle at Srubh-leith in Alba, a 
1314,' which probably means a 
battle (Bannockburn) at Stirling, in 
Scotland. Sruibhleath is said to be 
the Forth, and Sruibhlinn Stirling, 
in Gaelic.] Scalachronica, p. 117, 
' regna xvij. aunz et iij. moys et 
demy, et gist a Dunfermlyn* [no 
year]. 



Modern. 



English Historical Review, No. 29, 
vol. viii., January 1893, ' Notes and 
Documents,' p. 81 (J. H. Round), 
25 Apr. 1123 [this is certainly the 
wrong year from F. Worcester, ii. 
78] ; Translation of the Anglo-Saxon 
Chronicle, by the Rev. J. Ingram 
(1823), p. 350, 22 Apr. 1 124 [trans- 
lator's error] ; Translation of the 
Anglo-Saxon Chronicle in Bohn's 
Antiquarian Library, p. 493, 22 Apr. 
1124 [error]; L'Art de Verifier les 
Dates (ed. 1783), i. 843, 24 Apr. 
1124; Burke's Peerage, Baronetage 
and Knightage (1897), cxvi., 24 Apr. 
1124 [Vfrom Fordun, bk. v. c. 30]; 
Scotland under her Early Kings, by 
E. W. Robertson (1862), i. 183, 25 
Apr. 1124 [? from Chron. Mailros, 
67]; Annals of Scotland, by Sir 
David Dalrymple, MS., No. 31. 4. 
13. in the Advocates' Library, Edin- 
burgh, vol. i. p. 63, ' Alexander I. 
died 27 Apr. 1124.' [This is not a 
manuscript, it seems to be a proof of 
the first printed edition with manu- 
script notes. Its printed title is, 
'Annals of Scotland from the Acces- 
sion of Malcolm III., surnamed Can- 
more, to the Accession of Robert I. , 
by Sir David Dalrymple, Edinburgh, 
printed by Balfour and Smellie, for 
J. Murray, No. 32 Fleet Street, Lon- 



don, MDCCLXXVI.' The first edition 
was printed in Edinburgh in 1776; 
the second edition in 1797; the third 
edition, three vols., in 1819. In all 
three editions, 27 Apr. 1124 is stated 
to be the date of the death of Alex- 
ander I., the authority quoted being 
Symeon of Durham, but Symeon, 
Surtees (No. 51, 125), gives 25 
Apr. 1124, and Symeon, Rolls Series 
(No. 75, ii. 275), gives 26 Apr. 1124 
(not 27) as the date of his death ! It 
appears therefore that (i) King 
Alexander I. had been dead 652 
years before 27 Apr. was erroneously 
stated to be the day of his death ; 
and (2) the mistake of stating that 
27 Apr. was the day of the death of 
King Alexander I. , appears to have 
arisen about 120 years ago, either 
from an unfortunate slip of Sir 
David Dalrymple, or from a printer's 
error] ; Douglas's Peerage, Wood's 
ed. (1813), i. xiij., a table of kings 
(from Annals of Scotland, second ed. 
I797)> 2 7 Apr. 1124; Chronology of 
History, Sir Harris Nicolas, new ed. 
(1843), 380, 27 Apr. 1124 ; 'A List of 
some of the Parliaments and General 
Councils of Scotland ' prefixed to 
'The Acts of the Parliaments of 
Scotland,' i. (published in 1844), 
63, red (55, black), states that the 



56 



ALEXANDER THE FIRST [1106-7 



reign of Alexander I. ended 27 Apr. 
1 1 24. [This is sometimes quoted as if 
from The Acts of the Parliaments 
of Scotland,' and is accepted as con- 
temporary evidence by the unwary, 
whereas it is of no authority what- 
ever, having been inserted by the 
editor, I Nov. 1844]. Handy Book 
of Rules and Tables, John J. 
Bond (1869), 309, 27 Apr. 1124; 
Woodward and Gates (ed. 1872), p. 
1263, 27 Apr. 1124; Annals of Eng- 
land (1876), 106, 27 Apr. 1124; 
Haydn (ed. 1892), 866 [no day,] 
1124; Whitaker's Almanack (1906), 



p. 76 (David I. began to reign), 27 
Apr. 1124. [No authorities given.] 

[Alexander the First, king of Scots, 
appears from the foregoing refer- 
encesto have died in April 1124, 
and although there may be differ- 
ences of opinion as to the exact 
day on which he died, it seems to 
have been a modern invention to 
assign his death to the 27th of 
April. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, 
perhaps the most trustworthy of all 
the 'authorities,' records (ii. 221) that 
King Alexander the First died on the 
23rd of April 1124.] 



A TABLE OF REGNAL YEARS 



1st began 8 Jan. 1 106-7, 
ended 7 Jan. 1107-8. 


10th began 8 Jan. 1115-16, 
ended 7 Jan. 1116-17. 


2nd began 8 Jan. 1 107-8, 
ended 7 Jan. 1108-9. 


llth began 8 Jan. 1116-17, 
ended 7 Jan. 1117-18. 


3rd began 8 Jan. 1108-9, 
ended 7 Jan. 1109-10. 


12th began 8 Jan. 1117-18, 
ended 7 Jan. 1118-19. 


4th began 8 Jan. 1109-10, 
ended 7 Jan. ino-ii. 


13th began 8 Jan. 1118-19, 
ended 7 Jan. 1119-20. 


5th began 8 Jan. uio-ii, 
ended 7 Jan. 1111-12. 


14th began 8 Jan. 1119-20, 
ended 7 Jan. 1120-21. 


6th began 8 Jan. 1111-12, 
ended 7 Jan. 1112-13. 


15th began 8 Jan. 1120-21, 
ended 7 Jan. 1121-22. 


7th began 8 Jan. 1112-13, 
ended 7 Jan. 1113-14. 


16th began 8 Jan. 1121-22, 
ended 7 Jan. 1122-23. 


8th began 8 Jan. 1113-14, 
ended 7 Jan. 1114-15. 


17th began 8 Jan. 1122-23, 
ended 7 Jan. 1123-24. 


9th began 8 Jan. 1114-15, 
ended 7 Jan. 1115-16. 


18th began 8 Jan. 1123-24, 
ended 23 Apr. 1124. 


Only 3 months and 16 days of the i8th year. 



1 1 24] 



ALEXANDER THE FIRST 



57 



CONTEMPORARY SOVEREIGNS 



KING OF ENGLAND KINGS OF FRANCE 



HENRY I. 

* Beauclerc ' 
1100-1135. 



PHILIPPE I. 

' PAmoureux 

1060-1108. 

Louis VI. 
'leGros' 
1108-1137. 



POPES 

PASCAL II. 
1099-1118. 

GELASIUS II. 
1118-1119. 

CALIXTUS II. 
1119-1124. 



ANTIPOPE 



Gregory VIII. 

1118, 
exiled 1121. 



NOTE 

Gospatricius, the second of the seven earls who gave 
their assent to the Foundation Charter of Scone (see above, 
p. 52, No. 15), was the second of the three Earls Gospatric 
of Dunbar. He was a witness to the Inquisition of Earl 
David (about 1115), and also to the Foundation Charters 
of Selkirk (1113), and of Holyrood (1128), but in none of 
these cases does the word ' Gomes ' (Earl) appear after his 
name, although some years later he styles himself ' Gos- 
patric the Earl, brother of Dolphin,' in his only known 
extant charter (Nat. MSS., i. No. xxv.). He was killed at 
the battle of the Standard, 22nd August 1 138. His name 
is erroneously placed after his younger brother Waltheof 
in the Scots Peerage (iii. 243-245): ['the earliest authori- 
ties' are not named] thus ignoring the Inquisition of Earl 
David. 

An explanation of the case has been suggested, viz. that 
his father, Gospatric the first earl, recovered from his 
grievous illness after he had been shrived by Aldwyn and 
Turgot, and that he lived to an advanced age as the 
' Comes et Monachus,' whose name appears in the Durham 
obituary, and whose grave-cover, inscribed long after his 
death, was found in the monks' burial-ground at Durham 
in 1821. 

(Continued at page 49, q.v.) 



58 



DAVID THE FIEST 

'THE SAINT' 

KING OF SCOTS 

11241153 

Keign began 2 3rd April 1124, 
ended 24th May 1153, 
lasted 29 years i month and 2 days. 

David the First. ' King of Scots,' ' Earl David,' ' Prince of 
Cumberland,' 'King of Alban/ 'King of the Britons,' 
' King of Scotia/ ' Saint David/ ' A pious and God-fearing 
man/ (The first feudal king of the Scots.) 1 

Ninth and Youngest Son of Malcolm III., king of Scots, 
and his sixth son by his second wife 'St.' Margaret, 
daughter of Eadward ^Etheling. 2 

Born about io8o. 3 

His Youth was spent at the Court of Henry I., king of 

i. Durham Charters, Nos. 564- (Scriptores x.), 347-350; Collectanea 

575 [of these 12 original charters, de Rebus Albanicis, 280, a 1153 (An. 

granted when king, 6 have seals Buellan) ; Fordun, bk. vii. cc. 31, 

attached ; there are also 4 charters 36 ; Wyntoun, i. bk. vii. c. 6 ; Book 

granted when earl, 3 have seals of Pluscarden, bk. vi. c. 17 ; Celtic 

attached]; Nat. MSS., i. 8-13, Nos. Scotland, i. 454-469 , an account of 

xi. -xiii. and xv.-xxn. ; Diplomata his reign; 459, feudal Scotland. 
Scotise, Pis. x.-xix. ; Raine, North 2. Chron. Huntingdon, 210, 211 ; 

Durham, Appendix, 23, Nos. xcix.- Hoveden, i. 122; Fordun, bk. v. c. 

en. , charters when earl, 3-6, Nos. xn. - 3 1 ; c. 50, his pedigree, on the father's 

xxvi. , charters when king ; Ancient side, to Noah ; c. 52, his pedigree, on 

Scottish Seals, i. 2, Nos. 5, 6 ; Reg. the mother's side, to Adam. 
Epis. Glasguensis, i. 3-7, No. i ; 3. [He was the 6th son of his 

Saxon Chron., ii. 221 ; Symeon, Hist. father's 2nd marriage, and may have 

Regum, Contin., ii. 287, s. 3 ; Ailred been younger than his two sisters.] 



iiS3] DAVID THE FIRST 59 

England, who married his sister Matilda, ' the good Queen 
Maud,' on the nth of November noo. 4 
Married Matilda, daughter and heir of Waltheof, earl of 
Huntingdon, granddaughter of Siward, earl of Northum- 
berland, and widow of Simon de St. Liz, about 1 1 I3-I4- 5 

The Earldom of Northampton and the Honour of 
Huntingdon were held by Earl David in right of his wife. 6 

The Sovereignty of Cumbria, and of Lothian south of 
the Lammermoors, was delegated by Eadgar, king of Scots 
when dying, to his brother Earl David, in the beginning 
of January i io6~7. 7 

The Church at Durham had grants of land from Earl 
David. 8 

The Monastery at Selkirk was founded and endowed 
by Earl David about 1 1 1 3. 9 

The Bishopric of Glasgow was reconstituted by Earl 
David about ni5. 10 

The Abbey at Jedburgh was founded by Earl David 
in the year 1 1 1 8. 11 



REIGN BEGAN 2 3RD APRIL 1124. 

King of Scots. David I. became king of Scots on the 
death of his brother King Alexander L, 23rd April H24. 12 

4. W. Malmesbury, ii. 627; For- 9. Symeon, Hist. Regum, ii. 281, 
dun, bk. v. c. 30, 'still a youth,' in s. 213, moved to Kelso, a 1128; 
1 100 or later. Reg. Kelso, 5, No. 2; Celtic Scot- 

5. Chron. Huntingdon, 211 ; Chron. land, i. 455. 

Johannis Bromton (Scriptores x.), 10. Reg. Epis. Glasguenais, i. 4-7, 

975, I- 9; Fordun, bk. v. cc. 31, 32, No. i ; Celtic Scotland, ii. 375, 376. 
her pedigree; Wyntoun, ii. 184, bk. n. Wyntoun, ii. 179, bk. vii. c. 5, 

vii. c. 6, 1. 940. 11. 785-788 ; Reg. Cambuskenneth, 

6. Saxon Chron., ii. 221, a 1124; 71, 72, No. 51, Osbert, prior of 
Celtic Scotland, i. 457. Jeddewrt, a witness ; Fordun, bk. v. 

7. Ailred, 337; Celtic Scotland, i. c. 38; Scotichron., i. 301, bk. v. c. 
445, and note 26. 48 ; Hexham (Surtees, No. 44), i. 

8. Durham Charters, Nos. 564- 169, No. 5 ; Keith, Bishops, 392, 
575; Nat. MSS., i. 8-13, Nos. xi. No. 23 ; 453, No. 9. 

xii., etc.; Raine, North Durham, 12. Saxon Chron., i. 221, a 1124 ; 
Appendix, 3-6, Nos. xn.-xxvi. Symeon, Hist. Regum, ii. 275, s. 210, 



60 DAVID THE FIRST [1124 

Aged about 44 when he succeeded his brother. 13 

Cumbria and Lothian were reunited with Alban under 
King David I. when he succeeded his brother King Alex- 
ander I., 23rd April ii24. 14 

Coldingham and Lands in Lothian were given by 
King David I. to the monks of St. Cuthbert at Durham, 
by charter, dated 'in the third year of my reign/ at 
Peebles in the year H26. 15 

The Abbey at Holyrood was founded by King David I. 
in the year ii28. 16 

The Abbey at Kelso was founded by King David I. in 
the year 1 128. 17 

The Bishoprics of Ross and Caithness were founded by 
King David I. about 1 128. 18 

Moray. Edward, son of Siward, and the men of Alban, 
with the loss of a thousand men, defeated and slew Oengus 
and four thousand of the men of Moray in battle, at 
Strakathro in Forfarshire, in 1 1 3O. 19 

Queen Matilda, wife of King David I., died, and was 

26 Apr. 1124; Chron. Mailtos, 67, 17. Nat. MSS. of Scotland, i. 17, No. 

a 1124 (Interpolation), 52, a 1124 ; xxxu., King David's charter con- 

Extracta, 69, a 1 124 ; F. Worcester, firmed by his grandson Malcolm IV. ; 

ii. 78 ; Matt. Paris, Chron. Maj., ii. Reg. Cartarum de Kelso, No. I, etc.; 

2; Matt. Paris, Hist., i. 235; For- Chron. Mailros, 69, 3 May 1128; 

dun, bk. v. c. 31 ; Wyntoun, ii. 180, Symeon, Hist. Regum, ii. 281, s. 213, 

bk. vii. c. 6, 1. 824. See also above, a 1128; Hexham (Surtees, No. 44), 

Alexander I., p. 53, No. 19. i. 169, notex., No. i. See also below, 

13. See above, p. 58, No. 3. Malcolm IV., p. 74, NOTE. 

14. Nat. MSS. , i. 9, No. xv. ; Saxon 18. Reg. Dunfermelyn, 4, No. i; 
Chron., ii. 221, a 1124. See also 7, No. 2; Celtic Scotland, ii. 377, 
above, Eadgar, p. 47, Nos. 17, 18. 378, and 382-384. See Map No. 

15. Durham Charters, No. 567 ; in. 

Nat. MSS., i. 9, No. xv. [an early 19. Saxon Chron. , ii. 227, a 1130; 

instance of a Regnal Year] ; Raine, OrdericVitalis, iii. 404, bk. viii. c. 22; 

North Durham, Appendix, 4, No. Chron. Mailros, 69, a 1130; Annals 

xv. of Inisf alien, 170, a 1130; Annals 

16. Nat. MSS. of Scotland, i. 10, of Ulster, 371, 372 ; Annals of Loch 
No. xvi., The great charter of Holy- Ce, i. 107; Extracta, 71; Fordun, 
rood; Liber Cartarum Sanctae Crucis, bk. v. c. 33, at Strucathrow, Annals, 
No. i; Chron. Mailros, 68, a 1128; i; and Translation, p. 428, note; 
Hexham (Surtees, No. 44), i. 169, Celtic Scotland, i. 460-463; Mac- 
note x. , No. 6. pherson, Geographical Illustrations. 



"53] 



DAVID THE FIRST 



61 



buried at Scone in the 7th year of King David's reign, 
between 23rd April 1130 and 22nd April ii3i. 20 

The Abbey at Melrose was founded by King David I. 
in the year 1 1 36. 21 

Invaded England. King David I. took Carlisle and New- 
castle, advancing as far as Durham, in 1 136. 22 

The Bishopric of Aberdeen was founded by King 
David I. in the I3th year of his reign, between the 23rd of 
April 1 136 and the 22nd of April 1 137. 23 

Scotland Invaded. Stephen, king of England, invaded 
the sheriffdom of Roxburgh about the beginning of Feb- 
ruary II37-8. 24 

The Battle of Clitheroe. William Fitz Duncan, 
nephew of King David I., with an army of Scots, invaded 
England, and after having ravaged Northumberland and 
Lancashire, defeated the English at Clitheroe, on the pth 
of June H38. 25 

The Battle of the Standard. The English totally 
defeated the Scots, under King David L, in the battle of 
the Standard, near Northallerton. 22nd August 1 138. 26 



20. Fordun, bk. v. c. 33, died in 
the 7th year of King David, and was 
buried at Scone; Wyntoun, ii. 194, 
bk. vii. c. 7, 1. 1280; Extracta, 71. 
See also above, p. 59, No. 5. 

21. Nat. MSS., i. u, No. xvn. 
[King David's charter is addressed 
to his bishops, abbots, earls, and 
good men, and to all his liege men 
of his whole kingdom, French and 
English, and Scots and Galwegians] ; 
Liber de Melros, i. 2-5, No. I ; 
Chron. Mailros, 70, 23 Mar. 1136; 
Hexham (Surtees, No. 44), i. 169, 
note x., No. 2. 

22. Symeon, Hist. Regum, ii. 287, 
s. 3, a 1136, as far as Durham ; H. 
Huntingdon, 258; W. Coventry, i. 1 58, 
a 1136; Trivet, 7; Hemingburgh, 
i. 56, 57; Hoveden, i. 190, a 1136; 
Matt. Paris, Chron. Maj., ii. 164. 



23. Reg. Episcopatus Aberdonen- 
sis, xvij. xviij. 5 ; The Book of Deer, 
Preface, liv. Iv. c.-cij. ; Fordun, bk. 
iv. c. 40 [in error] ; Celtic Scotland, 
ii. 378-380. 

24. Hexham (Surtees, No. 44), i. 
8 1 ; B. Cotton, 64, a 1138; H. 
Huntingdon, 260, a 1138 ; Hoveden, 
i. 193, a 1138 ; W. Coventry, i. 160, 
a 1138 ; Matt. Paris, Hist., i. 257. 

25. Hexham (Surtees, No. 44), i. 
117, 9 June 1138, battle of Clitheroe 
(in Lancashire), etc. ; Simeonis, 
Dun. Hist., Contin. (Scriptores x.), 
259-261, battle of Clitheroe, 9 June 
1138 ; Symeon, Hist. Regum, ii. 291, 
s. 5, 9 June 1138. 

26. Ailred, de Bello apud Stan- 
dardum (Scriptores x.), 337-346; 
Saxon Chron., ii. 232, a 1138; 
Symeon, Hist. Regum, Contin., ii. 
293-295, s - 6> 22 A ug- 1138; Hex- 




62 



DAVID THE FIRST 



[1124 



Provincial Council. The Scottish bishops, abbots, 
priors, and barons held a council, under Alberic, the Papal 
legate, in the cathedral at Carlisle, from the 26th to the 
2Qth of September H38. 27 

The Abbey at Neubotle was founded by King David L, 
ist November ii4o. 28 

The Abbey at Dundrennan was founded by King 
David I. in H42. 29 

The Abbey at Cambuskenneth was founded by King 
David I. in H47. 30 

Henry II., king of England, spent his youth at the 
Court of his mother's brother, David L, king of Scots, 
and was knighted by him at Carlisle in 1 149- 31 

The Bishoprics of Dunblane and Brechin were founded 
by King David I. about 1 1 5O. 32 

The Abbey at Holmcultram was founded by King 
David I. and his son Earl Henry, ist January i I5O. 33 



ham (Surtees, No. 44), 77-106, a 
1138, and notes; R. Wendover, ii. 
224, 225 ; Chron. Mailros, 71 ; H. 
Huntingdon, 260-264 ; Hemingburgh, 
i. 59; Hoveden, i. 193-196; Trivet, 
8, 9 ; W. Newburgh, bk. i. 34, c. 5, 
a 1138; Langtoft, i. 474-483; Matt. 
Paris, Hist., i. 259, 260, a 1138; 
Fordun, bk. v. c. 32, 21 Aug. 1137 
[a year and a day wrong] ; see also 
Translation, 425, note to c. 32 ; 
Wyntoun, ii. 1 86, bk. vii. c. 6, 11. 
1015-1026. 

27. Hexham (Surtees, No. 44), i. 
121 ; Symeon, Hist. Regum, ii. 298, 
s. 8, a 1138; Councils and Eccles. 
Docts., ii. pt. i, 31-32, 26-29 Sep. 
1138. 

28. Reg. Neubotle, 3, 4, No. 2, 
founded i Nov. 1140; 5, No. 5, 'the 
church was founded in 1 141 ' ; Chron. 
Mailros, 71, note m, a 1140; Hex- 
ham (Surtees, No. 44), i. 169, note x., 
No. 3. 



29. Chron. Mailros, 72, a 1142; 
Fordun, bk. v. c. 38; Scotichron., i. 
301, bk. v. c. 48. 

30. Reg. Cambuskenneth, No. 51, 
charter of King David ; Fordun, bk. 
v. c. 38; Scotichron., i. 301, bk. v. 
c. 48 ; Wyntoun, ii. 181 ; bk. vii. c. 
6, 1. 854. 

3 1 . Symeon, Hist. Regum, Contin. , 
ii. 323, s. 22, a 1150; De illust. 
Henricis, 69 ; Chron. Mailros, 74, a 
1149. 

32. Reg. Ep. Brechin., 3 ; Book of 
Deer, Preface, Ix, cxx ; Reg. Dun- 
fermelyn, 24, No. 41 ; Councils and 
Eccles. Docts., ii. 231 ; Celtic Scot- 
land, ii. 395-399. See below, Map 
No. in. 

33. Chron. Mailros, 74, i Jan. 
1150; Hexham (Surtees, No. 44), i. 
169, note x., No. 4; Fordun, bk. v. 
c. 38; Scotichron., i. 301, bk. v. c. 
38; Wyntoun, ii. 181, bk. vii. c. 6, 
1. 849. 



"53] 



DAVID THE FIRST 



63 



The Abbey at Kinloss was founded by King David L, 
on the 21 st of May ii5o. 34 

Duffus Castle. King David L, in order to superintend 
the building of the abbey at Kinloss, stayed at Duffus 
Castle in Moray during the whole summer of 1 1 5O. 35 

The Abbey at Dryburgh was founded by King David 
L, or by Hugo de Morville, constable of Scotland, in 
the year ii5o. 36 

Bishoprics and Abbeys. Six bishoprics, viz. : Glasgow, 
Ross, Caithness, Aberdeen, Dunblane, and Brechin ; and 
ten abbeys, viz. : Jedburgh, Holyrood, Kelso, Melrose, 
Neubotle, Dundrennan, Cambuskenneth, Holmcultram, 
Kinloss, and Dryburgh were founded or reconstituted 
under King David I. 37 

The Culdees. The superseding of the Culdees was hardly 
completed until the second half of the I3th century. 38 

Silver Coins. King David I. seems to have been the 
first king of the Scots who instituted a silver coinage. 39 

36. Liber de Dryburgh, Preface, 
5, 'The Founder'; Preface, 69, 
charter of foundation ; Chron. 
Mailros, 74, ii Nov. 1150 [the 
editor erroneously translates the 
date as the loth], 78, a 1162, Hugo 
de Morville, ' founder of the church 
of Dryburgh ' ; Fordun, Annals, 137; 
Translation, pp. 371, 372. 

37. For Bishoprics and Abbeys, 
see below, Map No. in. Wyntoun, 
ii. 181, bk. vii. c. 6, 1. 487, nine or 
ten abbeys [the particulars of these 
will be found above, under their 
names]. 



34. Chron. Mailros, 74, founded 
21 May 1150 [this maybe the date 
of Constitution : it was an off-shoot 
of Melrose] ; Ferrerii, Historia de 
Kynlos ; Fordun, bk. v. c. 38 ; 
Wyntoun, ii. 189, bk. vii. c. 6, 11. 
1123-1130, 'founded by King David 
30 Dec. 1150'; Records of the 
Monastery of Kinloss, Preface, p. x. 
[the editor quotes Chron. Mailros, 
74, erroneously, giving the date as 
20 June 1151, whereas it is 'Anno 
Mel. xij. kalendas Junii,' 21 May 
1 1 50]. See also Appendix to Preface, 
p. 5, note i. 

35. [Duffus Castle is in the parish 
of Duffus, which is on the south 
coast of the Moray Firth. The 
castle was formerly surrounded by 
the Loch of Spynie, and is supposed 
to have been built in 1 120 ;] Ferrerii, 
Historia deKynlos, 16 ; Recordsof the 
Monastery of Kinloss, Preface, p. x ; 
Bartholomew, 242, 'Duffus Castle,' 

time David II.' [error for David I.]. 



38. Liber Prior. S. Andree, 43, 
48-50, Bull of Pope Eugenius IV., 
30 Aug. 1147; Chartulary of the 
Abbey of Lindores, p. 118, Bull of 
Pope Innocent IV. ; Scotichronicon, 
i. bk. vi. c. 44 ; Celtic Scotland, ii. 
226-277, c. 6. 

39. See the collection of coins in 
the Scottish National Museum of 
Antiquities, Edinburgh. 



64 



DAVID THE FIRST 



[1124 



Died. King David the First died at Carlisle, on the 24th 

of May 1 1 S3- 40 
Aged about 73. 41 
Buried in state, in the pavement before the high-altar in the 

church of the Holy Trinity, at Dunfermline. 42 
His Reign lasted 29 years i month and 2 days. 43 

REIGN ENDED 24TH MAY 1153. 



ISSUE 

King David the First had by his wife, Matilda of Huntingdon, 
two sons, Malcolm and Henry, and two daughters, Claricia and 
Hodierna, all of whom predeceased their father. Henry was 
the only one who lived to maturity : 

(i.) Malcolm, elder son of King David I., was strangled when a 
child by Donald Bane, ex-king of Scots. 44 

(n.) Claricia, elder daughter of King David I., died unmarried. 45 
(in.) Hodierna, younger daughter of King David L, died 
unmarried. 46 
(iv.) ' Henry, the Earl,' earl of Northumberland and Huntingdon, 



40. Symeon, Hist. Regum, Contin. , 
ii. 330, s. 26, 24 May 1153 ; Chron. 
Mailros, 75, 24 May 1153; Hexham 
(Surtees, No. 44), 168, at Carlisle, 
24 May 1153; Chron. Picts and 
Scots (B), 175, No. 23 ; Chron. S. 
Crucis, 31, a 1153; Hoveden,i. 212, 
aii53; Matt. Paris, Chron. Maj., 
ii. 190 [a 1152, wrong year]; For- 
dun, bk. v. c. 34, at Carlisle, 22 May 
11 53 [wrong day], bk. v. c. 49, 24 
May; Wyntoun, ii. 191, bk. vii. c. 
7, 11. 1187-1200, at Carlisle, 24 May 

"53- 

41. See above, p. 58, No. 3. 

42. Chron. Picts and Scots (B), 
175, No. 23 ; Chron. Picts and Scots 
(C), 207; Chron. Picts and Scots 
(D), 290 ; Fordun, bk. v. c. 34 ; 
Wyntoun, ii. 192, bk. vii. c. 7,1. 1198. 



43. Fordun, bk. v. c. 34 ; Wyn- 
toun, ii. 192, bk. vii. c. 7, 1. 1221; 
Annals of Scotland, i. 74-116; Early 
Kings, i. 187-344; Celtic Scotland, 
i. 457-469 ; Chron. Picts and Scots 
(B), 175, No. 23, 29 years and 3 
months ; Chron. Picts and Scots (D), 
290, 29 years and 3 months ; Chron. 
Scots (D), 303, 29 years and 3 
months [these last three are about 
two months wrong] ; Chron. Picts 
and Scots (C), 207, 39 years and 3 
months [about 10 years and 2 months 
wrong]. 

44. Wyntoun, ii. 193-195, bk. vii. 
c. 9, 11. 1235-1296. See also above, 
Donald Bane, p. 43, No. 13. 

45. Orderic Vitalis, iii. 402, 403, 
bk. viii. c. 22, also 403, note i. 

46. Ibid. 



"S3] 



DAVID THE FIRST 



65 



younger son of King David L, married in 1139 Ada, daugh- 
ter of William, earl of Warenne, 2nd earl of Surrey. Earl 
Henry predeceased his father, King David L, i2th June 1152, 
and was buried at Kelso. 47 
Ada, Widow of Earl Henry, died in nyS. 48 
Earl Henry had three sons, Malcolm, William, and David ; and 
three daughters, Ada, Margaret, and Matilda : 

(1) Malcolm, eldest son of Earl Henry, was king of Scots as 
Malcolm IV., 'The Maiden,' from the 24th May 1153 to the 
9th December n65- 49 

(2) William, second son of Earl Henry, was king of Scots 
as William 'The Lion' from the gih December 1165 to the 
4th December i2i4. 50 

(3) David, third son of Earl Henry, born about 1144, earl 
of Huntingdon, married Maud, daughter of Hugh, earl of 
Chester, 26th August 1190. He founded the abbey at Lun- 
dors [now Lindores] in Fife, and died at Jerdelay, i;th June 
1219. Buried in the abbey at Sawtrey in Huntingdonshire. 51 



47. Durham Charters, eight char- 
ters, each with an impression of his 
seal attached; Nat. MSS., i. 13, 14, 
Nos. xxiii. xxiv. ; Raine, North 
Durham, Appendix, 24, 25, Nos. 
cm. -ex. ; Diplomata Scotiee, Pis. xx. 
xxi. , two charters, one seal ; Ancient 
Scottish Seals, ii, i, No. 2, and PI. 
iv., fig. i ; Hexham (Surtees, No. 
44), i. 165 ; Hoveden, i. 198, Stephen, 
king of England, gave the earldom 
of Northumberland to Earl Henry, 
212, died a 1152; Matt. Paris, 
Hist., i 254, a 1136; Hemingburgh, 
i. 57 ; Langtoft, i. 471 ; Symeon, 
Hist. Regum, ii. 327, s. 25 ; W. 
Newburgh, bk. i. 70-72, c. 23 ; 
Chron. Mailros, 74, died a 1152 
(Interpolation), 52, died a 1152; 
Chron. S. Crucis, 31, died 12 June 
1152; Fordun, bk. v. c. 33, and 
Annals, 74, died 12 June 1 152, buried 
at Kelso; Wyntoun, ii. 190, bk. vii. 
c. 6, 11. 1140-1160; Book of Plus- 
carden, bk. viii. c. 13. 



48. Fordun, bk. v. c. 33, her 
pedigree ; Chron. Mailros, 89, a- 
1178; Reg. Prior. S. Andree, 207- 
209. 

49. See below, Malcolm IV., 'The 
Maiden, 'pp. 71-75. 

50. See below, William ' The Lion,' 
pp. 76-86. 

51. Chron. Mailros, 82, 31 May 
1170, knighted; 99, 26 Aug. 1190, 
married; W. Newburgh, bk. ii. 180, 
c. 31 ; 195, c. 37 ; Fcedera, i. 48, 24 
June 1190, the Honor of Hunting- 
don ; Hoveden, ii. 4, knighted ; 285, 
Earl of Huntingdon ; iii. 74, 
married ; Fordun, bk. v. c. 3, 
Annals, 30, 31, died 17 June 1219 ; 
Annals, 75, pedigree ; also Transla- 
tion, p. 426, Notes, c. xxxm. [Fordun 
erroneously makes David older than 
William] ; Book of Pluscarden, bk. 
vii. c. 5. See also below, Pedigree, 
pp. 282, 283 (grandfather of No. xn. , 
great-grandfather of No. xi.). 



66 DAVID THE FIRST [1124 

Earl David had four sons, David, Robert, Henry, and John ; 
and three daughters, Margaret, Isabella, and Ada : 

(A) David, eldest son of Earl David, appears to have died 
young ; he is mentioned by his father in the Foundation 
Charter of the abbey at Lundors. 52 

(B) Robert, second son of Earl David, died young ; buried 
in the abbey at Lundors. 53 

(c) Henry, third son of Earl David, died unmarried. 54 

(D) John le Scot, fourth son of Earl David, was earl of 
Chester and earl of Huntingdon ; he died without issue. 55 

(E) Margaret, eldest daughter of Earl David, was married 
to Alan, lord of Galloway, in 1209, and had, with other 
issue, a daughter, Dervorgulla : 56 

Dervorgulla was married to John Balliol, who died in 
1269. 'Dervorgulla of Galloway, Lady Balliol,' in her 
widowhood, gave a charter to Balliol College, Oxford, 22nd 
August 1282. She had, with other issue, a son John, and 
a daughter Alianora, and died 28th January 1289-90 : 57 

(a) John Balliol, only surviving son of Dervorgulla, was 
a Competitor in 1291, and was king of Scotland from 
the i yth of November 1292 until his abdication, on the 
loth of July I296. 58 

(b) Alianora, daughter of Dervorgulla, was married to 
John Corny n, 'Senior,' of Badenoch and Tynedale, who 
was a Competitor in 1291. Her son : 59 

52. Chartulary of the Abbey of husband John de Balliol, founder of 
Lindores, charters ii. and iii. Balliol College, Oxford, died 1269]; 

53. Fordun, Annals, 30. Nat. MSS., ii. 4, No. iv., her charter 

54. Ibid. to Balliol College, Oxford ; Fordun, 

55. Chron. Mailros, 141, 30 May Annals, 31, 75; Wyntoun, ii. 321- 
1227, knighted; 143, a 1232, sue- 323, bk. viii. c. 8, 11. 1463-1524 ; Cal. 
ceeded his uncle Ranulph, earl of Doc. Scot., ii. No. 405. See also 
Chester ; R. Wendover, iv. 256, a below, Pedigree of the Competitors, 
1232, also note 2 ; Trivet, 221, died p. 283 (mother of No. XI.). 

a 1237 ; Fordun, Annals, 31. 58. Fcedera, i. pt. 2, 776, his elder 

56. Chron. Mailros, 108, married brothers, Sir Hugh, Aftan, and Alex- 
a 1209; 144, a 1234, 3 daughters; ander, predeceased him without issue. 
Fordun, Annals, 3 1 . See also below, See below, John, pp. 115-118. See also 
Pedigree of the Competitors, p. 283 Pedigree, p. 283, No. xi. 
(grandmother of No. xi.). 59. Fcedera, i. pt. 2, 776; Cal. 

57. Chron. Mailros, 143, a 1233, Doc. Scot., ii. Preface, 56, pedigree; 
married to John de Balliol ; 144, her and Nos. 228, 249. See also below, 
father's death and heirs; 217 [her Pedigree, p. 283 (wife of No. IX.). 



ii53] DAVID THE FIRST 67 

John Comyn, 'the son,' 'the Red Corny n No. 2,' 
married Johanna, sister of Aymar de Valence. He was 
stabbed by Robert Brus, earl of Carrick, at Dumfries, 
on the loth of February 1 305-6. 60 

(F) Isabella, second daughter of Earl David, was married 

to Robert Brus, lord of Annandale. 61 

Issue, two sons, of whom the elder : 

Robert Brus, lord of Annandale, was a Competitor in 
1291, and married Isabella, daughter of Gilbert de Clare, 
earl of Gloucester. 62 Issue, a son : 

Robert Brus, lord of Annandale, earl of Carrick (in 
right of his wife), married in 1271, Marjorie, daughter 
and heir of Neil, earl of Carrick, and widow of Adam 
de Kilconquhar. Issue, five sons, Robert, Edward, 
Thomas, Alexander, Nigel, and several daughters : 63 

(a) Robert Brus, earl of Carrick, king of Scots as 
Robert I. from 2yth March 1306 to yth June I329. 64 

(b) Edward, king of Ireland. Crowned, 2nd May 
1316. Slain near Dundalk, 5th October 1318. Un- 
married ; he had an illegitimate son, Alexander. 65 

(c) Sir Thomas, taken prisoner in Galloway, was exe- 
cuted at Carlisle in February 1306-7. No issue. 66 

(d) Alexander, dean of Glasgow, taken prisoner in 
Galloway, was executed with his brother Sir Thomas, 
at Carlisle, in February 1306-7. No issue. 67 

(e) Nigel, taken prisoner at Kildrummie, was hanged, 
and his corpse was afterwards beheaded at Berwick 
in 1306. No issue. 68 

60. Hemingburgh, ii. 245, 246 63. Chron. Mailros, 219, a 1270; 
[stabbed by Brus], iv. Id. Feb. [10 Fordun, Annals, 60, 76. See also be- 
Feb.] 1305-6; Trivet, 407 [stabbed low, Pedigree, p. 283 (son of No. xn.). 
by Brus], iv. Kal. Feb. [29 Jan.] 64. See below, Robert I., pp. 126- 
1 55-6 [Kal. is a mistake for Id.]; 144. See also Pedigree of the Com- 
Cal. Doc. Scot., ii., Preface, 56, petitors, p. 283 (grandson of No. XII.). 
pedigree ; Fordun, Annals, 117. See 65. Fordun, Annals, Nos. 125, 132 ; 
also below, Pedigree of the Competi- Exchequer Rolls, i. cxxxi. See below, 
tors, p. 283 (son of No. IX.). Robert I., pp. 1 34, 135, Nos. 33, 36,39. 

61. Foedera, i. pt. 2, pp. 776, 777 ; 66. Fordun, Annals, No. 120. See 
Fordun, Annals, 76. See also be- below, Robert!., p. 131, No. 19. 
low, Pedigree of the Competitors, p. 67. Ibid. 

283 (mother of No. xn.). 68. Fordun, Anuals, No. 120. See 

62. Fordun, Annals, 31, 76. See below, Robert I., p. 130, No. 16. 
also below, Pedigree, p. 283, No. xn. and p. 131, No. 19. 



68 DAVID THE FIRST [1124 

(/) Isabella was married, in 1293, as his second 
wife, to Eric II., king of Norway. 69 

(G) Ada, third daughter of Earl David, was married to 
Henry de Hasty nges; her grandson John, 2nd baron Has- 
tynges, was a Competitor in i29i. 70 
Earl David had two illegitimate sons : 
Henry of Stirling and Henry of Brechin, and an illegitimate 
daughter, Ada, married to Malise, brother of Earl Ferteth 
of Stratherne. 71 

(4) Ada, eldest daughter of Earl Henry, was married, in 
1161, to Florent III., comte de Hollande; her great-grandson 
Florent V., comte de Hollande, was a Competitor in i29i. 72 

(5) Margaret, second daughter of Earl Henry, was married 
first, in 1 1 60, to Conan IV., due de Bretagne, earl of 
Richmond ; and secondly, to Humphrey de Bohun, earl of 
Hereford. By her first husband she had a daughter : 73 

Constance, sole heir of Conan IV., due de Bretagne, was 
married first to Geoffrey, son of Henry II., king of Eng- 
land ; secondly, to Randulph de Blundevill, earl of Chester ; 
and thirdly, to Guy, Vicomte de Thouars; she had with 
other issue a son : 74 

Arthur, posthumous son of Geoffrey, became dejure king 
of England on the death of his uncle, Richard I., 'Cceur 
de Lion/ 6th April 1199, but the crown was assumed by 
his uncle John ('Lackland'). Arthur died, or was 
murdered on the $rd of April I203. 75 

' 69. Cal. Doc. Scot., ii. 158, No. 73. Chron. Mailros, 77, married 

675. See below, Margaret, p. 108, aii6o; 95, a 1187, and note b, had 

note 26, and Pedigree, p. 281. a daughter Constance; Matt. Paris, 

70. Fcedera, i. pt. 2, 776 ; Fordun, Chron. Maj., ii. 244; Hoveden, i. 
Annals, 31, married to Henry de 217, ist marriage a 1160; iv. 174, 
Hastings. See also below, Pedigree 2nd marriage, and death a 1201 ; W. 
of the Competitors, p. 283 (grand- Coventry, ii. 189, a 1201 death; 
mother of No. x.). Fordun, bk. v. c. 33 ; Annals, 3. 

71. Chartulary of the Abbey of 74. Tresorde Chronologic, p. 1573; 
Lindores, p. xxvi. Chron. Mailros, 95, a 1187, and note 

72. Fcedera, i. pt. 2, 775 ; Chron. b ; Fordun, bk. v. c. 33 ; Die. Nat. 
Mailros, 78, a 1162; Chron. S. Biography, v. 267. 

Crucis, 34, a 1162, 'Elda'; Hove- 75. Chron. Mailros, 95, born on 

den, i. 219, a 1162; Fordun, bk. v. Easter Day [29 Mar.] 1187 ; Tresor 

c. 33; Annals, 3. See also below, de Chronologie, p. 1573 ; Fordun, bk. 

Pedigree of the Competitors, p. 283 v. c. 33 ; Annals of England, 138, 

(great-grandmother of No. i.). note i. See also below, pp. 86, 281. 



H53] 



DAVID THE FIRST 



69 



(6) Matilda, third daughter of Earl Henry, died in child- 
hood, in the year ii52. 76 

Marjorie, who was married to John Lindesay, may have 
been a daughter of Earl Henry (not by his wife) ; Robert 
de Pinkeny, one of the Competitors, claimed to be her great- 
grandson in August i29i. 77 



76. [The youngest of six children, 
died thirteen years after her father's 
marriage, so she must have been in 
her childhood at her death in 1 152 ;] 
Chron. Mailros, 74 ; Hoveden, i. 
212 ; Fordun, bk. v. c. 33. 

77. Fredera, i. pt. 2, p. 775; 



Annals of Scotland, i. 253, 254, 
and note.* [There does not appear 
to be any authority to show that 
this Marjorie was a daughter of 
Earl Henry.] See also below, Pedi- 
gree of the Competitors, p. 283 
(great grandmother of No. v. ). 



A TABLE OF REGNAL YEARS 



1st began 23 Apr. 1124, 
ended 22 Apr. 1125. 


llth began 23 Apr. 1134, 
ended 22 Apr. 1135. 


2nd began 23 Apr. 1125, 
ended 22 Apr. 1126. 


12th began 23 Apr. 1135, 
ended 22 Apr. 1136. 


3rd began 23 Apr. 1 1 26, 
ended 22 Apr. 1127. 


13th began 23 Apr. 1 1 36, 
ended 22 Apr. 1137. 


4th began 23 Apr. 1127, 
ended 22 Apr. 1128. 


14th began 23 Apr. 1137, 
ended 22 Apr. 1138. 


5th began 23 Apr. 1128, 
ended 22 Apr. 1129. 


15th began 23 Apr. 1138, 
ended 22 Apr. 1139. 


6th began 23 Apr. 1129, 
ended 22 Apr. 1130. 


16th began 23 Apr. 1139, 
ended 22 Apr. 1140. 


7th began 23 Apr. 1130, 
ended 22 Apr. 1131. 


17th began 23 Apr. 1140, 
ended 22 Apr. 1141. 


8th began 23 Apr. 1131, 
ended 22 Apr. 1132. 


18th began 23 Apr. 1141, 
ended 22 Apr. 1142. 


9th began 23 Apr. 1132, 
ended 22 Apr. 1133. 


19th began 23 Apr. 1142, 
ended 22 Apr. 1143. 


10th began 23 Apr. 1133, 
ended 22 Apr. 1134. 


20th began 23 Apr. 1143, 
ended 22 Apr. 1144. 



70 



DAVID THE FIRST 



"S3 



A TABLE OF REGNAL YEARS continued. 



21st began 23 Apr. 1 144, 
ended 22 Apr. 1145. 


26th began 23 Apr. 1149, 
ended 22 Apr. 1150. 


22nd began 23 Apr. 1145, 
ended 22 Apr. 1146. 


27th began 23 Apr. 1 1 50, 
ended 22 Apr. 1151. 


23rd began 23 Apr. 1 146, 
ended 22 Apr. 1147. 


28th began 23 Apr. 1151, 
ended 22 Apr. 1152. 


24th began 23 Apr. 1147, 
ended 22 Apr. 1148. 


29th began 23 Apr. 1152, 
ended 22 Apr. 1153. 


25th began 23 Apr. 1148, 
ended 22 Apr. 1149. 


30th began 23 Apr. 1153, 
ended 24 May 1153. 


Only i month and 2 days of the 3oth year. 



CONTEMPORARY SOVEREIGNS 



KINGS OF ENGLAND KINGS OF FRANCE 



POPES 



ANTIPOPES 



HENRY I. 


Louis VI. 


CALIXTUS II. 




1 Beauclerc ' 


* le Gros ' 


1119-1124. 




1100-1135. 


1108-1137. 










HONORIUS II. 




House of Blots 


Louis VII. 


1124-1130. 




STEPHEN 


* le Jeune ' 






1135-1154. 


1137-1180. 


INNOCENT II. 


Anacletus II. 






1130-1143. 


1130-1138. 






CELESTINE II. 


Victor IV. 


> 




1143-1144. 


1138. 






Lucius II. 








1144-1145. 








EUGENIUS III. 








II45-II53- 








"S3] 



MALCOLM THE FOUETH 

'THE MAIDEN' 

KING OF SCOTS 

11531165 

Eeign began 24th May 1153, 
ended pth December 1165, 
lasted 12 years 6 months and 16 days. 

Malcolm the Fourth. ' The Maiden,' ' King of Scots.' Called 
' The Maiden ' from his youthful and feminine appearance. 1 

Eldest Son of ' Henry the Earl/ earl of Northumberland 
and Huntingdon, by his wife Ada, daughter of William, 
earl of Warenne in Normandy, 2nd earl of Surrey. 
Malcolm IV. was grandson of David L, king of Scots. 2 

Born 20th March 1141-2* 

REIGN BEGAN 24-TH MAY 115^ 

King of Scots. Malcolm IV. became king of Scots on the 
death of his grandfather, King David I., 24th May 1153.* 

i. Durham Charters, Nos. 576- 2. Reg. Prior. S. Andree, 205, 207 ; 

581 [of these six, 4 have seals Chron. Johannis Bromton (Scriptores 

attached]; Nat. MSS., i. 1 6, 17, Nos. x.), 975, 1. 12; Hoveden, i. 213; 

xxix. xxxn. ; Diplomata Scotia?, Fordun, bk. v. c. 33, and Annals, I. 

Pis. xxn. xxv. ; Reg. Cart, de 3. Chron. Mailros, 72, 20 Mar. 

Kelso, 3-7, and coloured facsimile. 1141 ; Fordun, bk. v. c. 33. 

His charter is addressed 'to all his 4. Nat. MSS., i. 16, 17, Nos. xxix.- 

friends, French and English, and xxxn. ; Hexham (Surtees, No. 44), 

Scots'; Raine, North Durham, i. 170; Symeon, Hist. Regum, ii. 

Appendix, 6, 7, Nos. xxvu.-xxxu. ; 327, 330, 331, a. 26, 24 May 1153; 

Ancient Scottish Seals, i. 3, Nos. 7, Chron. S. Crucis, 31, 24 May 1153; 

and 8 ; Fordun, Annals, i ; Wyntoun, Chron. Mailros, 75, 24 May 1 153 (In- 

ii. 195, bk. vii. c. 7, 1. 1297; Book terpolation), 52, a 1153 ; Matt. Paris, 

of Pluscarden, bk. vi. c. 21. Hist., i. 293, a 1152 [wrong year;. 



72 



MALCOLM THE FOURTH 



[iiS3 



Aged 1 1 years 2 months and 5 days when he succeeded his 

grandfather. 5 
Made King at Scone, according to the custom of the 

nation. 6 
Portraits of King Malcolm IV. and of his grandfather, 

King David I., are illuminated in the initial letter of his 

charter to Kelso. 7 
Aberdeen was Plundered by the Northmen under 

Eystein Haraldson, king of Norway, in H53. 8 
Scotia was Invaded by Somerled and his nephews, 

the sons of Malcolm MacHeth, 6th November H53- 9 
Northumberland, Cumberland, and Westmoreland were 

ceded by Malcolm IV., king of Scots, to Henry II., king of 

England, in exchange for the earldom of Huntingdon, in 

the year H5/. 10 
Went to France. Malcolm IV., king of Scots, went to 

France, against the will of his ' great men,' with Henry II., 

king of England, and was present at the siege of Toulouse 

in the year 1 1 59. 11 
Knighted. King Malcolm IV. was knighted by Henry II., 



5. See above, p. 71, No. 3. 

6. Hexham, i. (Surtees, vol. 44), 
1 70 [the word Sconam is erroneously 
printed Scotiam. To make certain, 
a small piece of tracing-paper was 
sent(i9th May 1889) to the late Rev. 
S. S. Lewis, Librarian C.C.C.C., who 
traced the word in the original MS. 
(No 139); the paper was returned, 
and still 1906) has the word 'fcona' 
(Sconam), distinctly pencilled on it] ; 
Symeon, Hist. Regum (Rolls Series), 
ii. 331, s. 26 [has the same error]; 
Extracta, 72 ; Fordun, Annals, i ; 
Wyntoun, ii. 195, bk. vii. c. 7, 11. 
1297-1302. 

7. Reg. Cart, de Kelso, Preface, 
3-7, and facsimile. Coloured por- 
traits; Nat. MSS., i. 17, No. xxxn. 
[the initial letters, together with the 



coloured portraits, are also repro- 
duced on the title-page of each of the 
three Parts of the National MSS. of 
Scotland ;] Diplomata Scotise, PI. 
xxv. [the portraits are in outline 
uncoloured]. 

8. Saga of Sigurd, Inge and Eye- 
stein, the sons of Harald, c. 20; 
Heimskringla, iv. 243. 

[This seems to have been the last 
plundering expedition the Northmen 
made in Scotland.] 

9. Chron. S. Crucis, 31, 6 Nov. 
1153 ; Fordun, Annals, I, in the first 
year of King Malcolm. 

10. Chron. S. Crucis, 32, a 1157; 
W. Newburgh, bk. ii. 105, 106, c. 4 ; 
Trivet, 43 ; B. Cotton, 71, a 1157; 
Fordun, Annals, 2. 

11. Fordun, Annals, 2. 



Ii6 5 ] 



MALCOLM THE FOURTH 



73 



king of England, at Tours, in the 7th year of his (King Mal- 
colm's) reign, between 24th May 1 1 59 and 23rd May i i6o. 12 
Returned to Scotland from France in i i6o. 13 
Besieged in the Castle at Perth by six earls, but by the 
advice of the clergy, he was 'brought back to a good 
understanding with his nobles' in i i6o. u 
Galloway was finally subdued in ii6o. 15 
Moray. Some of the rebellious inhabitants were ex- 
pelled from Moray, and peaceable settlers were introduced 
to replace them in i i6i. 16 

The Abbey at Cupar in Forfarshire was founded by 
King Malcolm IV., i2th July n64. 17 

Somerled was Defeated and slain at Renfrew in ii64. 18 
Died Unmarried. King Malcolm the Fourth, ' The Maiden,' 

died unmarried, at Jedburgh, pth December ii65. 19 
Aged 23 years 8 months and 20 days. 20 
Buried, on the right of his grandfather, King David I., in the 



12. Chron. Mailros, 76, a 1159; 
Trivet, 47, a 1159 ; Hoveden, i. 217 ; 
Fordun, Annals, 2 ; Wyntoun, ii. 
197, bk. vii. c. 7, 11. 1379-1384; 
Book of Pluscarden, bk. vi. c. 18. 

13. Chron. Mailros, 77, a 1160; 
Hoveden, i. 217 ; Fordun, Annals, 3. 

14. Chron. Mailros, 77, a 1160; 
Hoveden, i. 217 ; Fordun, Annals, 3, 
and Translation, 430, note in. ; Wyn- 
toun, ii. 197-8, bk. vii. c. 7, 11. 1385- 
?397 ; Celtic Scotland, i. 471. 

15. Chron. Mailros, 77, a 1160; 
Chron. S. Crucis, 33, a 1160; Hove- 
den, i. 217 ; Fordun, Annals, 3 ; Wyn- 
toun, ii. 198, bk. vii. c. 7, 11. 1398- 
1402. 

16. Fordun, Annals, 4 ; Ane Ac- 
count of The Familie of Innes, 2, 
Charter of Malcolm IV. ; Celtic Scot- 
land, i. 472, 473. 

17. Chron. Mailros, 78, a 1164; 
Hoveden, i. 223, 224, a 1164; For- 



dun, Annals, 5 ; Wyntoun, ii. 200, 
bk. vii. c. 7, 11. 1465-1474, a 1164. 

18. Chron. Mailros, 79, a 1164; 
Hoveden, i. 224, a 1164; Symeon, 
ii., Appendix, 2, 385-388; Fordun, 
Annals, 4 ; Wyntoun, ii. 201, bk. vii. 
c. 7, 11. 1491-1504. 

19. Chron. Mailros, 80, 9 Dec. 
1 165, in his 25th year [error for 24th] ; 
Chron. Picts and Scots (B), 175, 
No. 24 ; Chron. Huntingdon, 212 ; 
Annals of Ulster, 372 ; Hemingburgh, 
i. 94 ; W. Newburgh, bk. ii. 147, 
c. 19; Trivet, 57; Hoveden, i. 231, 
a 1165; Fordun, Annals, 5, died 
9 Dec, 1 165, 'in the bloom of his lily 
youth ' the 26th year of his age 
[error for 24th] ; Wyntoun, ii. 201, 
bk. vii. c. 7, 11. 1505-1512; 203, bk. 
vii. c. 8, 11. 1556-1559 ; Book of Plus- 
carden, bk. vi. c. 21. 

20. Chron. Mailros, 72, born 20 
Mar. 1141-2; Fordun, bk. v. c. 33. 



74 MALCOLM THE FOURTH [1153 

middle of the pavement, before the high-altar, in the church 
of the Holy Trinity at Dunfermline. 21 
His Reign lasted 12 years 6 months and 16 days. 22 

REIGN ENDED Qth DECEMBER 1165. 



ISSUE 

King Malcolm the Fourth, ' The Maiden/ had an illegitimate son 
who predeceased him. 23 



NOTE 

King Malcolm IV. was grandson of David I., king 
of Scots, notwithstanding which, the translation of ' The 
Great Charter to Kelso,' in the National MSS., erroneously 
makes Malcolm IV. describe King David (four times) 
as ' my uncle ' ! 24 



21. Chron. Mailros, 80, a 1165; No. 21, ordains that the Church of 
Chron. Picts and Scots (B), 175, No. Inverlethan, ' in which my son's body 
24; Fordun, Annals, 6, ' in the middle rested the first night after his death, 
of the pavement,' etc. ; Wyntoun, ii. shall have a right of sanctuary in 
20 1, bk. vii. c. 7, 1. 1514; Book of all its territory '; Fordun, Annals, 4, 
Pluscarden, bk. vi. c. 21. 5 ; Book of Pluscarden, bk. vi. c. 21. 

22. Chron. Huntingdon, 212, 12 [Both Fordun and the author of the 
years 6 months and 13 days ; Annals Book of Pluscarden appear to have 
of Scotland, i. 117-130, Reign of been ignorant of the existence of No. 
Malcolm IV. ; Early Kings, i. 345- 21 Charter in the Register of Kelso.] 
361 ; Celtic Scotland, i. 469-474. 24. Nat. MSS. of Scotland, pt. i. 

23. Reg. Cart, de Kelso, 22, 23, 17, No. xxxn., translation. 



n6s] MALCOLM THE FOURTH 

A TABLE OF REGNAL YEARS 



75 



1st began 
ended 

2nd began 
ended 

3rd began 
ended 

4th began 
ended 

5th began 
ended 

6th began 
ended 



24 May 1153, 7th began 24 May 1159, 

23 May 1154. ended 23 May 1160. 

24 May 1154, 8th began 24 May 1160, 

23 May 1155. ended 23 May 1161. 

24 May 1155, 9th began 24 May 1161, 

23 May 1156. ended 23 May 1162. 

24 May 1156, 10th began 24 May 1162, 

23 May 1157. ended 23 May 1163. 

24 May 1157, llth began 24 May 1163, 

23 May 1158. ended 23 May 1164. 

24 May 1158, 12th began 24 May 1164, 
23 May 1159. ended 23 May 1165. 

13th began 24 May 1165, 

ended 9 Dec. 1165. 

Only 6 months and 16 days of the I3th year. 



CONTEMPORARY SOVEREIGNS 



KINGS OF ENGLAND KING OF FRANCE 



POPES 



ANTIPOPES 



House of Blois 
STEPHEN 
1135-1154. 


LOUIS VII. EUGENIUS III. 

'leJeune' 1145-1153. 

1137-1180. 
ANASTASIUS IV. 

1153-1154. 




House of Anjou 
'Plantagenet' 
HENRY II. 
1154-1189. 


ADRIAN IV. 25 
Nicolas Breakspear 
[an Englishman] 
1154-1159. 






ALEXANDER III. 
1159-1181. 


Victor V. 
1159-1164. 






Pascal III. 
1164-1168. 



25. Adrian IV. (Nicolas Break- 
spear) was the only English pope. 



He adopted Hadrianus as his name. 
See below, p. 303, note 10, and p. 325. 




76 



[ii6 5 



WILLIAM 

'THE LION' 



KING OF SCOTS 
1165 1214 

Reign began gih December 1165, 
ended 4th December 1214, 

lasted 48 years 1 1 months and 26 days. 

William ' The Lion.' ' William Garbh ' [The Brawny], ' King 
of Scots,' ' King of Alban,' ' Rei d'Escose.' 1 

Second Son of 'Henry the Earl/ earl of Northumber- 
land and Huntingdon, by his wife Ada, daughter of 
William, earl of Warenne in Normandy, 2nd earl of 
Surrey. William * The Lion ' was grandson of David I., 
king of Scots. 2 

Born in the year 1 143- 3 

The Earldom of Northumberland was assigned to William 
' The Lion ' by his grandfather, King David I., in 1152.* 



i. Durham Charters, Nos. 586-602, 
and 604-613 [of 27 original Char- 
ters, 24 have seals attached] ; Nat. 
MSS., i. 19-21, Nos. xxxv. -XL. ; Dip- 
lomata Scotiae, Pis. xxvi.-xxix. ; 
Raine, North Durham, Appendix, 
7-12, Nos. xxxui. -LIX. ; Ancient Scot- 
tish Seals, i. 3, Nos. 9, 10 ; Annals of 
Loch Ce, i. 251-3, ' William Garm' ; 
Annals of Ulster, 371, a 1214; Ex- 
tracta, 74 j Jordan Fantosme, 202, 

I. 7; 222, 1. 255; 226, 1. 272; 271, 

II. 798-800 ; Fordun, Annals, 7 ; Book 
of Pluscarden, bk. vi. c. 22. 



[Some of his charters are addressed 
' to the bishops, abbots, earls, barons, 
justices, sheriffs, provosts, officers/ 
. . . ' French and English, Scots and 
Galwegians, clergy and laity. '] 

2. Reg. Prior. S. Andree, 213; 
Benedict, i. 314, a 1184, consan- 
guinity; Fordun, bk. v. c. 33, and 
Annals, I. 

3. Chron. Mailros, 72, a 1143. 

4. Extracta, 74; W. Newburgh, 
bk. i. 71, c. 23; Wyntoun, ii. 191, 
bk. vii. c. 7, 11. 1177-1186. See also 
above, Malcolm IV., p. 72, No. 10. 



1214] WILLIAM 77 



REIGN BEGAN QTH DECEMBER 1165. 

King of Scots. William became king of Scots on the death 
of his brother, King Malcolm IV., Qth December u65. 6 

Aged about 22 when he succeeded his brother. 6 

Consecrated King by the bishop of St. Andrews at Scone, 
24th December n65. 7 

Went to Normandy with Henry II., king of England, in 
the year n66. 8 

Spent Easter, with his brother David, at the Court of Henry 
II., king of England, at Windsor, 5th April i ijo? 

Thomas Becket, archbishop of Canterbury, was mur- 
dered in the cathedral at Canterbury, 29th December 
1170, and was canonised (St. Thomas of Canterbury) by 
Pope Alexander III., 3rd March II73-4. 10 

A Parliament was held by William, king of Scots, in the 
year H74- 11 

Invaded England. King William besieged Carlisle, and 
took some castles in Northumberland and Westmoreland 
in, or soon after, April 1 1 74- 12 

5. Nat. MSS., i. 19-21, Nos. xxxv.- translated from the Icelandic, gives 
XL.; Chron. Mailros, 80, a 1165; an account of his life and death 
Trivet, 57, a 1165; Hemingburgh, without dates; Wyntoun, ii. 205, 
i. 94; W. Newburgh, bk. ii. 148, bk. vii. c. 8, 11. 1619-1624; Annals 
c. 19, a 1165; Hoveden, i. 231, a of England, 122, murdered, 29 Dec. 
1165; Fordun, Annals, 7; Wyntoun, 1170. 

ii. 203, bk. vii. c. 8, 1. 1562. 1 1. Jordan Fantosme, 226, 1. 288 ; 

6. Chron. Mailros, 72, a 1143. Stubbs, Constit. Hist., i. 538 [the 

7. Chron. Mailros, 80, a 1165; word 'Parliament,' as applied to a 
Extracta, 74 ; Fordun, Annals, 7. deliberative assembly, is believed to 

8. Chron. Mailros, 80, a 1 1 66; occur for the first time in reference 
Hoveden, i. 253, a 1166; Fordun, to this king's parliament of 1 1 74]. 
Annals, 8; Book of Pluscarden, bk. 12. Chron. Mailros, 86, a 1174; 
vi. c. 23. Benedict, i. 64, a 1 174; W. Coventry, 

9. Chron. Mailros, 82, a 1170; i. 225, 226, aii74; Hemingburgh, 
Benedict, i. 4, a 1170 ; W. Coventry, i. 103 ; W. Newburgh, ii. 177, bk. ii. 
i. 188, a 1170 ; Hoveden, ii. 4. c. 32, a 1173 ; Hoveden, ii. 57, 60, a 

10. [Thomas Becket, ?io 'a Becket.'] 1174; Matt. Paris, Chron. Maj., ii. 
R. Wendover (Rolls Series, No. 84), 289, a 1173; Fordun, Annals, n ; 
i. 84, murdered ; 93, canonised ; iii. Wyntoun, ii. 205, bk. vii. c. 8, 11. 
122; Chron. Mailros, 83, 29 Dec. 1641-1654, a 1174 ; Book of Pluscar- 
1171; Thomas Saga Erkibyskups, den, bk. vi. c. 26. 



78 



WILLIAM 



[1165 



Taken Prisoner by Kanulph de Glanville, at Alnwick in 

Northumberland, I3th July H74. 13 
Prisoner first at Richmond in Yorkshire, afterwards at 

Northampton, and he was taken as a prisoner to France, 

8th August H74. u 
Surrendered the Independence of his Kingdom to Henry 

II., king of England, by signing a convention at Falaise in 

Normandy, 8th December U74. 15 
Released. King William returned to Scotland, on the 2nd 

of February U74-5. 16 

The Scottish Church. The bishops of the Scottish 

Church declined to submit to the jurisdiction of the arch- 
bishop of York, at Northampton, 25th January H75-6. 17 
An Ecclesiastical Council was held by Cardinal Vivian, 

papal legate, and the ecclesiastics of the Scottish Church, 

in Edinburgh Castle, ist August H77. 18 

The Abbey at Arbroath, dedicated to the honour of GOD 



13. Chron. Mailros, 87, a 1174; 
Jordan Fantosme, 380, 11. 1747-1812 ; 
Benedict, i. 67, 72 ; W. Coventry, i. 
227, 13 July 1174; F. Worcester, ii. 
154; Hemingburgh, i. 106-109; W. 
Newburgh, ii. 183-190, bk. ii. cc. 32, 
35, a 1 174 ; Trivet, 79 ; Hoveden, ii. 
63; Matt. Paris, Chron. Maj., ii. 
293, 296 ; Fordun, Annals, 1 1 ; Book 
of Pluscarden, bk. vi. c. 26. 

14. Chron. Mailros, 87, a 1174; 
Benedict, i. 74, a 1 174; W. Coventry, 
i. 231, a 1174; Cotton, 77, 78, a 
1174; Langtoft, ii. II ; Hoveden, ii. 
64, 65, a 1174; 80-82, a 1175; Matt. 
Paris, Chron. Maj., ii. 296; Fordun, 
Annals, n ; Wyntoun, ii. 206, bk. 
vii. c. 8, 11. 1668-1678 ; Book of Plus- 
carden, bk. vi. c. 26. 

15. Foedera, i, pt. i, 30 ; Hoveden, 
ii. 80-82. 

1 6. Foedera, i. pt. i, 30, 8 Dec. 
1174; Red Book of the Exchequer, 
fol. 1 66, 8 Dec. 1174; Chron. Mail- 
ros, 87, a 1175 ; W. Newburgh, bk. 



ii. 197, 198, c. 38 ; Hemingburgh, i. 
116 ; F. Worcester, ii. 154 ; Benedict, 
i. 96, Convention; W. Coventry, i. j 
248-250; Hoyeden, ii. 80-82; Matt. \ 
Paris, Chron. Maj., ii. 297, a 1175; j 
Fordun, Annals, 13; Wyntoun, ii. 
208, bk. vii. c. 8, 1. 1720; Book of 
Pluscarden, bk. vi. c. 28. 

17. Benedict, i. 107, in, about 25 
Jan. 1 175-6 ; Hoveden, ii. 86, 25 Jan. 
1175-6, also 91, 92 ; W. Coventry, i. i 
259, 25 Jan. 1175-6 ; Fordun, Annals, 
14, 15, at Northampton, 29 Jan. 1175- 

6 ; Scotichron., i. 476, bk. viii, c. 26 ; 
Wyntoun, ii. 208, bk. vii. c. 8, 1. 
1741 ; Book of Pluscarden, bk. vi. 
cc. 29-31, 29 Jan. 1175-6. 

18. Chron. Mailros, 88, a 1177; 
Benedict, i. 166, i Aug. 1177; W. 
Coventry, i. 291, i Aug. 1177; For- 
dun, Annals, 14, i Aug. ; Book of 
Pluscarden, bk. vi. c. 29, i Aug. ; 
Provincial Councils of the Scottish 
Clergy, 5, 6, and notes. 



214] WILLIAM 79 

and of St. Thomas (Becket) of Canterbury, was founded 
and endowed by King William in or before 1 178. 19 

Ross Subdued. King William, with his brother David 
and a large army, advanced into Ross against Donald Ban 
Mac William, and fortified two castles there, viz., Dunscath 
and Edderdour, in 1 179.2 

The Golden Rose was sent by Pope Lucius III. to 
William, king of Scots, in 1 182. 21 

Heraldry. Armorial bearings began to appear upon the 
shields of the ' mounted effigies ' on Scottish seals towards 
the end of the i2th century. 22 

Scottish Royal Arms. 'Or, a lion within a bordure 
flory, gules,' is an early blazon. [King William 'The Lion' 
may have borne these arms on his shield, and on his 
banner, but there does not appear to be an impression of 
any seal of his which bears a lion rampant.] 23 

The Earldom of Huntingdon was given to William, king 
of Scots, by Henry II., king of England, in 1 185. 24 
Married. King William married Ermengarde, daughter of 
Richard, vicecomes de Bellomonte, at Woodstock, in 
Oxfordshire, on the 5th of September n86. 25 



19. Reg. de Aberbrothoc, Preface, at Durham ; Raine, North Durham, 
tc.;Fordun, Annals, 29; Scotichron., Appendix, 26, 27, Nos. cxvi. cxvu., 
. 475, bk. viii. c. 24, founded in transcripts of the above charters ; 

1178; Wyntoun, ii. 221, bk. vii. c. 8, Scottish arms, ii. 7, No. vn. 8, 9, 

11. 2141-2148, 9 Aug. 1197; Book of No. XL, family arms; Proceedings 

Pluscarden, bk. vi. c. 31. of the Society of Antiquaries of Scot- 

20. Chron. Mailros, 90, a 1179; land, xxii. 189, impalement; Scot- 
Fordun, Annals, 16, a 1179; Book tish Heraldry, 192. 

of Pluscarden, bk.vi.c. 31; Benedict, 23 Matt> p aris , Chron. Maj., vi. 

. 277, 281, a 1181 ; W. Coventry, i. 47 g_ [AU i ions were 'rampant' when 

315, a u8i; Hoveden, ii. 263, a<> heraldry was first introduced.] 

".' Chron. Mailros, 92, a 1182; 2 4- Chron ' Mailros ' 94, a 1185; 

Fordun, Annals, 28 ; Wyntoun, ii. Matt ' Paris Chron ' Ma J- "' 324, a 

214, bk. vii. c. 8, 11. 1929-1932; Book Il8 5 ; Wyntoun, ii. 214, bk. vii. c. 

of Pluscarden, bk. vi. c. 44. 8 > 1L J 935-I942. 

22. Durham Charters, Nos. 764 25. [Richard was son of Rosce- 

and 766, Charters of Patric, 5th earl lin, vicecomes de Bellomonte, by 

>f Dunbar (each with his arms on the Constance, illegitimate daughter of 

seal), to St. Cuthbert and the monks Henry I., king of England.] Chron. 



80 



WILLIAM 



[1165 



Donald Ban MacWilliam and five hundred of his men 
were slain on the moor of Mam Garvia (? Garvyach) near 
Moray, sist July nS/. 26 

The Scottish Church was taken under the immediate 
protection of the papal see by Pope Clement III., whose 
letter to King William is dated at the Lateran, in Rome, 
on the 1 3th of March ii87-8. 27 

Nine Episcopal Sees, viz., St. Andrews, Glasgow, Dun- 
keld, Dunblane, Brechin, Aberdeen, Moray, Ross, and 
Caithness, existed in the Scottish Church on the I3th 
of March ii8;-8. 28 

The Colour of the Crusaders' Crosses. In the third 
Crusade it was agreed that the crosses of the French 
should be red, of the English white, and of the Flemish 
green (in the year 1 188). 29 

The Cross of the Scottish Kings. 'It has been the 



Mailros, 94, 5 Sep. 1186; Benedict, 
i. 347, 351, a 1186; Hoveden, ii. 
309, 310, a 1 1 86; W. Coventry,!. 
340, a 1186; Fordun, Annals, 23; 
Wyntoun, ii. 214, 215, bk. vii. c. 8, 
11. I943-I95 6 - 

26. Chron. Mailros, 96, killed at 
Mam Garvia, 31 July 1 187 ; Benedict, 
ii. 7, 8, a 1187; W. Coventry, i. 
344, killed a 1187; Hoveden, ii. 
318; Fordun, Annals, 16, note, 432, 
at Macgarvy, 31 July 1187; Mac- 
pherson, Geographical Illustrations, 
' Mamgarvia, near Inverness ' ; Celtic 
Scotland, i. 479, c. 9, note, 92. [Pos- 
sibly Garvyach, in Aberdeen shire.] 

See also above, Duncan II., p. 40, 

No. 22. 

27. Benedict, ii. 234, 235, Clement 
III., 13 Mar., and note, 4; Hove- 
den, ii. 360, 361, Clemens III., 13 
Mar., anno primo (1187-8); iii. 172, 
note, 4, 173, 174, Ccelestinus, 13 Mar. 
1191-2; W. Coventry, i. 363, a 1188 ; 
Fordun, Annals, 28, Ijinocent III., 



Celestine III.; Book of Pluscarden, 
bk. vi. c. 45, Innocent III., c. 46, 
Celestine III. ; Scotichron., i. 522, 
bk. viii. c. 67, p. 523, c. 68 ; Nat. 
MSS., i. 25, No. XLVII. ; Bull of 
Honorius III. to King Alexander 
II. , in which the pope mentions that 
he follows the example of his prede- 
cessors Celestine and Innocent ; 
[this Bull, addressed to King Alex- 
ander II. , was not written until four 
years after the death of King Wil- 
liam ; but in the National MSS. of 
Scotland, for some unexplained rea- 
son, it is included among the docu- 
ments relating to the reign of King 
William, although it is addressed to 
his son. It seems possible that 
Clement III., Celestine III., and 
Innocent III., each sent a letter or 
Bull to King William.] 

28. The same references as in No. 
27. See also below, Map No. in. 

29. Matt. Paris, Chron. Maj., ii. 
330, aii88. 



1 2 14] 



WILLIAM 



81 



constant practice of our kings to carry a white saltier cross 
on a blue banner.' 30 

The Independence of the Scottish Kingdom was 
acknowledged, and the pledges were restored by Kichard I., 
king of England, at Canterbury, 5th December i iSp. 31 
Subdued Caithness. King William defeated Harald, earl 
of Orkney, son of Madach, in i ig6. 32 

A Battle in Moray. The king's men slew Kodoric, and 
defeated Thorfinn, son of Earl Harald, in a battle in Moray, 
near the castle of Inverness, in iiQ/. 33 

His Son and Heir Born. Alexander, who subsequently suc- 
ceeded his father, King William 'The Lion,' as Alex- 
ander II., was born at Haddington, 24th August i igS. 34 

The Bishopric of Argyll, which was afterwards recon- 
stituted as the bishopric of Lismore, was established about 
the year 1 2OO. 35 



30. The Science of Herauldry, 100, 
'The white cross of St. Andrew in 
a blue field,' p. 102 [erroneously 98], 
' Azure a cross of St. Andrew argent, 
for Scotland, St. Andrew being 
Patron thereof ' ; Nisbet's Heraldry, 
ist edition, i. 133, 134, c. 16, and 
PI. vi. , No. 27 ; ii. 80 ; 2nd edi- 
tion, i. 131, 132, c. 1 6, and PI. vi., 
No. 27 ; ii. pt. iii. 100 ; pt. iv. 80 ; 
Nisbet states ' it has been the con- 
stant practice of our kings to carry a 
white saltier cross on a blue banner.' 
See below, Robert II., p. 163, No. 26. 

[An appropriate difference from the 
white cross of St. George on its red 
banner, possibly adopted in the third 
Crusade. See above, p. 80, No. 29.] 

31. Nat. MSS., i. 24, No. XLVI. ; 
Foedera, i. pt. 2, 50 ; Benedict, ii. 
98, 102, 104, a 1189; F. Worcester, 
ii. 257 ; Hoveden, iii. 25, 26, a 1189 ; 
W. Coventry, i. 385, 386, a 1189; 
Matt. Westminster, 256, 257, a 1189; 
W. Newburgh, bk. iv. 304, c. 5, a 
1189; Trivet, H7; Matt. Paris, Hist., 



ii. 13, a 1189; R. Devizes, 8, 9, a<> 
1189; Chron. Mailros, 98, a 1190; 
For dun, Annals, 20, a 1190; Scoti- 
chron., i. 501, bk. viii. c. 49, and 
note; Wyntoun, ii. 217, bk. vii. c. 8, 
11. 2037-2066 ; Book of Pluscarden, 
bk. vi. c. 33, 34. 

32. Hoveden, iv. 10-12, a 1196; 
W. Coventry, ii. 100, a i!96;For- 
dun, Annals, 22, a 1196. 

33. Chron. Mailros, 103, a 1197;. 
W. Coventry, ii. 100, 101 ; Fordun, 
Annals, 22, a 1197; Book of Plus- 
carden, bk. vi. c. 36. 

34. Chron. Mailros, 103, 24 Aug. 
1198 ; Extracta, 83, born at Hadding- 
ton, 24 Aug. 1198 ; Hoveden, iv. 54, 
Aug. 1198; W. Coventry, ii. 125, 
Aug. 11985 Fordun, Annals, 23, at 
Haddington, St. Bartholomew's Day 
(24 Aug. ) 1 198 ; Book of Pluscarden, 
bk. vi. c. 36. See below, Alexander 
II., pp. 87-93. 

35. Origines Parochiales Scotia^ 
ii. pt. I, 159, and notes; 160, notes 
1-3 ; Celtic Scotland, ii. 408-410. 



82 WILLIAM [1165 

Alexander, Prince of Scotland, then in his fourth year, 
was acknowledged heir to the crown, and all the nobles 
swore fealty to him, in a general council held at Mussel- 
burgh near Edinburgh, about the 28th October i2oi. 36 

An Insurrection in Ross was subdued by King William 
with a large army between the 24th June and the autumn, 
in the year 121 1. 37 

Gothred Mac William, the instigator of the insurrection 
in Ross, betrayed by his own men, was beheaded at 
Kincardine, in the summer of 1211. 38 
Died. King William died at Stirling, 4th December I2I4. 39 

Aged 7 1- 40 

Buried before the high-altar in the church of the monastery 

at Arbroath, loth December I2I4. 41 
His Reign lasted 48 years 1 1 months and 26 days. 42 

REIGN ENDED 4TH DECEMBER 1214. 



ISSUE 

King William had by his wife, Ermengarde de Bellomonte, a son, 
Alexander, and three daughters, Margaret, Isabella, and Marjorie: 

36. Extracta, 83, at Musselburgh, 39. Chron. Mailros, 114, 4 Dec. 
about 28 Oct. 1 201 ; Fordun, Annals, 1214; Chron. Picts and Scots (B), 
24 ; Book of Pluscarden, bk. vi. c. 38. 175, No. 25 ; Annals of Loch Ce", i. 

[Musselburgh was formerly of much 251, a 1213; Annals of Ulster, 373, 

more importance than it is at present ; a 1214; W. Coventry, ii. 217, a 

a tradition of its ancient glory is pre- 1214; Fordun, Annals, 28, 4 Dec. 

served in the popular lines : 1214; Scotichron., ii. 534, 536, bk. 

' Musselburgh wes a Burgh viii. c. 79, 4 Dec. 1214; Wyntoun, 

When Edinburgh wes nane, ii. bk. vii. 228, c. 8, 11. 2387-2393. 

Musselburgh will be a Burgh 4O . See above, p. 76, No. 3. 

When Edinburgh 'sganen ^ ^ Q ^ picts ^ ^^ ^ 

37. Scotichron., i. 531, 532, bk. viii. 175, No. 25 ; Chron. Picts and Scots 
c. 76, ai2ii. (C), 207; Fordun, Annals, 29, 10 

38. Chron. Mailros, 112, a 1211 ; Dec. 1214; Book of Pluscarden, bk. 
Extracta, 85 ; W. Coventry, ii. 206, vii. c. i ; Reg. Vetus de Aberbrothoc, 
a 1212; Chron. Lanercost, 370,371, Preface, etc. 

notes ; Fordun, Annals, 27 ; Scoti- 42. For an account of his reign, 

chron., i. 531, 532, bk. viii. c. 76, a<> see Annals of Scotland, i. 130-169; 

1212 ; Book of Pluscarden, bk. vi. Early Kings, i. 362-444, c. 12 ; Celtic 

c. 42. See also above, p. 40, No. 24. Scotland, i. 474-483, c. 9. 



WILLIAM 83 

(i.) Alexander, king of Scots, as Alexander II. from 4th Decem- 
ber 1214 to 8th July I249. 43 

(H.) Margaret, was married to Hubert de Burgh, justiciary of 
England and Scotland, at York, in i22i. 44 

Issue, a daughter who died young. 

(in.) Isabella, married to Roger Bigod, earl of Norfolk. No issue. 45 
(iv.) Marjorie, was married to Gilbert, earl of Pembroke, Earl 
Marshal of England, at Berwick, 1st August 1235. She sur- 
vived her husband, and died iyth November 1244; buried in 
London. No issue. 46 

Queen Ermengarde, widow of William, king of Scots, died 
on the nth of February 1233-4, and was buried in the abbey 
at Balmerino in Fife. 47 

King William had several illegitimate sons and daughters, viz. : 
(v.) Robert de London, gave the church at Rothven to the abbey 
at Arbroath, between 1180 and i2i4. 48 

(vi.) Henry Galithly, had a son, Patric Galithly, who was a 
Competitor in i29i. 49 

(VII.) Isabella, whose mother was a daughter of Robert Avenel, 
was married first to Robert de Brus in 1183, and secondly to 
Robert de Ros, at Haddington, in 1191. Her great-grandson, 
William de Ros, was a Competitor in i29i. 60 



43. See below, Alexander II., pp. 48. Reg. Vetus de Aberbrothoc, 
87-93. 6 > 7> 22 2 4 2 9> 3> etc 'J 35 8 [John 

44. Chron. Mailros, 108, a 1209 ; and William may have been his 
138, a 1221 ; Matt. Paris, Chron. brothers] ; Liber de Scon, 20, No. 25, 
Maj., ii. 525, a 1209; vol. vi. 71; with a facsimile of the charter ' Rob. 
Matt. Paris, Hist., ii. 248, a 1221 ; de London fiT meo'; Raine, North 
W. Coventry, ii. 250, a 1221 ; Book Durham, Appendix, 10, n, No. LI., 
of Pluscarden, bk.vi.c. 41; Wyntoun, 'Rob. de London filio meo ' witness 
ii. 229, bk. vii. c. 8, 11. 2421, etc. to a charter of King William, also 

45. Chron. Mailros, 108, a 1209; note* [John and Philip may have 
141, unmarried, a 1223 ; Wyntoun, been brothers of Robert]. 

ii. 229, bk. vii. c. 8, 1. 2423. 49. Foedera, i. pt. 2, 775. See also 

46. Chron. Mailros, 147, i Aug. below, Pedigree of the Competitors, 
1235 ; Matt. Paris, Chron. Maj., iii. p. 282 (father of No. vii.). 

373, a 1236; iv. 396, a 1244; Matt. 50. Chron. Mailros, 92, ist mar- 
Paris, Hist., ii. 498, a 1244. riage, a 1183 ; 99, 2nd marriage, a 

47. Chron. Mailros, 143, died ii 1191; Foadera, i. pt. 2, 775; Book 
Feb. 1233; Fordun, Annals, 46; of Pluscarden, bk. vi. cc. 35, 44. 
Wyntoun, ii. 242, bk. vii. c. 9, 11. See also below, Pedigree, p. 282 
2839-2846. (great-grandmother of No. IT.). 



84 



WILLIAM 



[1165 



(vin.) Ada, was married in 1184 to Patric de Dunbar, 5th earl 
of Dunbar. She died in 1200. Her great-grandson, Patric de 
Dunbar, 8th earl, was a Competitor in i29i. 51 
(ix.) Margaret, whose mother was a daughter of Adam de 
Hythus, was married to Eustace de Vesci. Her grandson, 
William de Vesci, was a Competitor in i29i. 52 
(x.) Aufrica, was married to William de Say. Her great- 
grandson, Roger de Mandeville, was a Competitor in i29i. 53 



51. Chron. Mailros, 92, a 1184; 
Foedera, i. pt. 2, 775 . See also below, 
Pedigree of the Competitors, p. 282 
(great-grandmother of No. n. ). 

52. Chron. Mailros, 100, a 1193, 
married to Eustace de Vesci ; Foedera, 
i. pt. 2, 775 ; Matt. Paris, Chron. 



Maj., ii. 666, a 1216; Matt. Paris, 
Hist., ii. 187; Book of Pluscarden, 
bk. vi. c. 35. See also below, Pedi- 
gree, p. 282 (grandmother of No. in. ). 
53. Foedera, i. pt. 2, 776. See also 
below, Pedigree, p. 282 (great-great- 
grandmother of No. viii.). 



A TABLE OF REGNAL YEARS 



1st began 9 Dec. 1165, 
ended 8 Dec. 1166. 


10th began 9 Dec. 1174, 
ended 8 Dec. 1175. 


2nd began 9 Dec. 1166, 
ended 8 Dec. 1167. 


llth began 9 Dec. 1175, 
ended 8 Dec. 1176. 


3rd began 9 Dec. 1167, 
ended 8 Dec. 1168. 


12th began 9 Dec. 1176, 
ended 8 Dec. 1177. 


4th began 9 Dec. 1168, 
ended 8 Dec. 1169. 


13th began 9 Dec. 1177, 
ended 8 Dec. 1178 


5th began 9 Dec. 1169, 
ended 8 Dec. 1170. 


14th began 9 Dec. 1178, 
ended 8 Dec. 1179. 


6th began 9 Dec. 1170, 
ended 8 Dec. 1171. 


15th began 9 Dec. 1 1 79, 
ended 8 Dec. 1180. 


7th began 9 Dec. 1171, 
ended 8 Dec. 1172. 


16th began 9 Dec. 1180, 
ended 8 Dec. 1181. 


8th began 9 Dec. 1172, 
ended 8 Dec. 1173. 


17th began 9 Dec. 1181, 
ended 8 Dec. 1182. 


9th began 9 Dec. 1173, 
ended 8 Dec. 1174. 


18th began 9 Dec. 1182, 
ended 8 Dec. 1183. 



1 2 14] WILLIAM 

A TABLE OF KEGNAL YEARS continued. 



85 



19th began 9 Dec. 1183, 
ended 8 Dec. 1 1 84. 

20th began 9 Dec. 1184, 
ended 8 Dec. 1185. 

21st began 9 Dec. 1185, 
ended 8 Dec. 1186. 

22nd began 9 Dec. 1186, 
ended 8 Dec. 1187. 

23rd began 9 Dec. 1187, 
ended 8 Dec. 1188. 

24th began 9 Dec. 1 188, 
ended 8 Dec. 1189. 

25th began 9 Dec. 1 1 89, 
ended 8 Dec. 1190. 

26th began 9 Dec. 1190, 
ended 8 Dec. 1191. 

27th began 9 Dec. 1191, 
ended 8 Dec. 1192. 

28th began 9 Dec. 1192, 
ended 8 Dec. 1193. 

29th began 9 Dec. 1193, 
ended 8 Dec. 1194. 

30th began 9 Dec. 1194, 
ended 8 Dec. 1195. 

31st began 9 Dec. 1195, 
ended 8 Dec. 1196. 

32nd began 9 Dec. 1196, 
ended 8 Dec. 1197. 

33rd began 9 Dec. 1197, 
ended 8 Dec. 1198. 



34th began 9 Dec. 1198, 
ended 8 Dec. 1199. 

35th began 9 Dec. 1199, 
ended 8 Dec. 1200. 

36th began 9 Dec. 1200, 
ended 8 Dec. 1201. 

37th began 9 Dec. 1201, 
ended 8 Dec. 1202. 

38th began 9 Dec. 1202, 
ended 8 Dec. 1203. 

39th began 9 Dec. 1203, 
ended 8 Dec. 1204. 

40th began 9 Dec. 1204, 
ended 8 Dec. 1205. 

41st began 9 Dec. 1205, 
ended 8 Dec. 1206. 

42nd began 9 Dec. 1206, 
ended 8 Dec. 1207. 

43rd began 9 Dec. 1207, 
ended 8 Dec. 1208. 

44th began 9 Dec. 1208, 
ended 8 Dec. 1209. 

45th began 9 Dec. 1209, 
ended 8 Dec. 1210. 

46th began 9 Dec. 1210, 
ended 8 Dec. 1211. 

47th began 9 Dec. 1211, 
ended 8 Dec. 1212. 

48th began 9 Dec. 1212, 
ended 8 Dec. 1213. 



49th began 9 Dec. 1213, 
ended 4 Dec. 1214. 

Only 1 1 months and 26 days of the 49th year. 



86 



WILLIAM 



[1214 



CONTEMPORARY SOVEREIGNS 



KINGS OF ENGLAND KINGS OF FRANCE 



POPES 



ANTIPOPES 



House of Anjou 


Louis VII. 


ALEXANDER III. 


Pascal III. 


1 Plantagenet ' 


le Jeune' 


1159-1181. 


1164-1168. 


HENRY II. 


1137-1180. 






1154-1189. 




Lucius III. 


Calixtus III. 




PHILIPPE II. 


1181-1185. 


1168-1178. 


RICHARD I. 


'Auguste' 






* Coeur de Lion ' 


1180-1223. 


URBAN III. 


Innocent III. 


1189-1199. 




1185-1187. 


1178, 








exiled 1180. 


JOHN 54 




GREGORY VIII. 




'Lackland' 




1187. 




1199-1216. 












CLEMENT III. 








1187-1191. 








CELESTINE III. 








1191-1198. 








INNOCENT III. 








1198-1216. 





54. ' King John his young nephew, 

In one two nought two, 
In a castle of Rouen, 
Most cruelly slew.' 



Outlines of English History, by 
Henry Ince and James Gilbert. 
[Error for 'one two nought three.' 1 
See above, David I., p. 68, No. 75.] 



1 2 H 87 



ALEXANDER THE SECOND 

KING OF SCOTS 
1214 1249 

Reign began 4th December 1214, 
ended 8th July 1249, 
lasted 34 years 7 months and 5 days. 

Alexander the Second. ' King of Scots,' ' King of Alba/ 
' King of Scotia/ l 

Only Son of William ' The Lion/ king of Scots, by his wife 
Ermengarde, daughter of Richard, vicecomes de Bello- 
monte. 2 

Born at Haddington, 24th August i igS. 3 

Knighted by John, king of England, in St. Bridget's hos- 
pital at Clerkenwell, 4th March 1211-12* 

REIGN BEGAN 4TH DECEMBER 1214. 

King of Scots. Alexander II. became king of Scots upon 

1. Nat. MSS., i. 25, No. XLVII., born on St. Bartholomew's Day (24 
Bull of Pope Honorius III. ; Chron. Aug.) 1198. 

Mailros, 112, a 1211, p. 117, a 1215 ; 4. Cal. Doc. Scot., i, 90, No. 518, 

Annals of Loch Ce, i. 253; Fordun, 4 Mar. 1211-12; B. Cotton, 99, a 

Annals, 29; Diplomata Scotiae, 1212; Trivet, 184; R. Wendover, 

Plates xxx. -xxxv., charters ; CLVII., iii. 238; Matt. Paris, Chron. Maj., 

silver coins; Ancient Scottish Seals, ii. 533; Matt. Paris, Hist., ii. 126, 

i. 3, 4, Nos. n, 12. a 1212 ; Chron. Mailros, 113, 8 Mar. 

2. Fordun, Annals, 23. I212 ; ^ rdun ' A als ' 2 8 ^ 

121 2 ; Wyntoun, 11. 231, bk. vn. c. 

3- Chron. Mailros, 103, born 24 8, 1. 2479 ; Book of Pluscarden, bk. 
Aug. 1198 ; Fordun, Annals, 23, vi. c. 42. 



88 



ALEXANDER THE SECOND [1214 



the death of his father, King William ' The Lion/ on the 
4th of December I2I4. 5 
Aged 1 6 years 3 months and n days when he succeeded 

his father. 6 

' Raised to the Throne ' in the presence of William Malvoi- 
sin, bishop of St. Andrews, and of seven earls at Scone, on 
the 6th of December I2i4. 7 

The Seven Earls were, Fife, Stratherne, Athol, Angus, 
Menteth, Buchan, and Dunbar (6th December I2I4). 8 

Insurrection in Moray. Dovenald Ban, son of Donald 
Ban Mac William, and Kenneth MacHeth, with others, 
the king's enemies, were slain by Makintagart, in Moray, 
on the isth of June 121 5. 9 

The Scottish Church. Pope Honorius III., ' following 
the example of his predecessors Celestine and Innocent,' 
took the Scottish Church under the immediate protection 
of the papal see, by Bull, dated at the Lateran in Kome, in 
the third year of his Pontificate, 2ist November I2i8. 10 



5. Chron. Mailros, 114, 4 Dec. 
1214 [his father's death]; Annals of 
Ulster, 373, a 1214; Annals of Loch 
Ce, i. 253, a 1214; Fordun, Annals, 
28, 29 ; his father died 4 Dec. 1214; 
Wyntoun, ii. 231, bk. vii. c. 9, 11. 
2485-2490. [His charters are ad- 
dressed to the bishops, abbots, 
priors, earls, justices, barons, sheriffs, 
provosts, officers, and to all the good 
men of his whole land, clergy and 
laity.] 

6. See above, Nos. 3 and 5. 

7. Chron. Mailros, 114, 6 Dec. 
1214; Fordun, Annals, 29, the day 
before St. Nicolas (5 Dec. 1214) ; 
Wyntoun, ii. 231, bk. vii. c. 9, 1. 
2492 ; Book of Pluscarden, bk. vii. c. 
i, on the Feast of St. Nicolas (6 
Dec. ). 

8. Fordun, Annals, 29 ; Translation, 
433, note 29 ; Liber de Scon, 2, 3, 
No. I ; Ileg. de Dunfermelyn, 235, 
No. 348; Ezra vii. 14, 'forasmuch 



as thou art sent of the king, and of 
his seven counsellors, to inquire con- 
cerning Judah and Jerusalem ' ; 
Esther i. 14, 'the seven princes of 
Persia and Media, which saw the 
king's face, and which sat the first 
of the kingdom ' ; Capgrave's Chron- 
icle of England, 121, 'vii. persones 
schul chese the emperoure ' ; Celtic 
Scotland, i. 448; Palgrave, i. xxi., 
Nos. 4, 5 ; Edinburgh Review, LXVI. 
October 1837, No. 135, Art. 2, pp. 
46-52, 'Although there were seven 
provinces in Alban no constitutional 
body called ' The Seven Earls ' ever 
exist ed. ' See also above, Alexander 
I., p. 52, Nos. 13, 14, 15. 

9. Chron. Mailros, 117; Fordun, 
Annals, 32 ; Translation, 434, note 
xxxii. ; Celtic Scotland, i. 483. 

10. Original Bull in H.M. Record 
Office, dated 21 Nov. 1218 ; Nat. 
MSS., i. 25, No XLVII., photozinco- 
graph, transcript, and translation 



1249] ALEXANDER THE SECOND 89 

Nine Scottish Sees, viz., St. Andrews, Dunblane, Glas- 
gow, Dunkeld, Brechin, Aberdeen, Moray, Ross, and Caith- 
ness, are named in the Bull of Pope Honorius III., dated 
at the Lateran in Rome, 2ist November 121 8. 11 
Married First. King Alexander II. married as his first 
wife, Joan, daughter of John and sister of Henry III., kings 
of England, at York, iQth June I22I. 12 

Argyll was Subdued after Whitsunday (which was on 
the 22nd May) in I222. 13 

.His Armorial Bearings. A lion rampant, within a tressure 
neurdelise, appears upon the shield of the ' mounted effigy ' 
on the great seal of King Alexander II., appended to a 
charter, dated at Kinross, 26th July I222. 14 

The Bishop of Caithness Burned. Adam, bishop of 
Caithness, was burned alive by the men of his diocese in 
his own house at Haukirk in Caithness, on the nth of 
September I222. 15 

Balmerino Abbey, in Fife, was founded and endowed 
by King Alexander II. and his mother, Queen Ermengarde, 
1 3th December 1229. 



[this Bull is addressed to King 13. Fordun, Annals, 40; Wyn- 

Alexander II. four years after toun, ii. 240, bk. vii. c. 9, 1. 2775. 

his father's death notwithstanding Q ^ jfi ^^ of R 

which, in the National MSS. of Alexander IL at Durham of these 

Scotland it is included among the haye ^ ^ ^ ^^ 

.documents relating to his father, ^ Qne NQ ^ ( d Kinros 

King WiUiam ' The Lion '] ; Themer, xx anno ' nos P tri octayo , 

Vetera Monumenta, 8, No. 18. (26t J h July ^^ Raine> North 

11. The same references as No. 10, Durham> Appendix, 13, No. LXIII. ; 
p. 88. See also below, Map No. in. Ancient Scottish Seals, i. 3, No. u ; 

12. Fcedera, i. 161, 15 June 1220, Diplornata Scotise, PI. xxx. 
promise to marry ; Chron. Mailros, 

138, 19 June 122! ; B. Cotton, iii. '5- Chron. Mailros, 139, ii Sep 

a 1221 ; Matt. Paris, Chron. Maj., I222 ' Fordun ' Anna ^> V* w ^ hln , 8 

ii. 661 ; iii. 66, 67, 25 June 122! ; ^ s after xr the Blessed * T ? S 

Matt. Paris, Hist., ii. 248, 25 June Nativit y ' Wyntonn, u. 239, bk. vii. 

1221 ; W. Coventry, ii. 249, a ,221 c ' 9, U. 2 73 5-2753 ; Book of Plus- 

[erroneously calls Henry III. Henry carden ' bk ' V1K c ' 9 ' 

IV.]; Fordun, Annals, 40, June 16. Chron. Mailros, 141, ai229; 

1220 ; Wyntoun, ii. 238, bk. vii. c. Fordun, Annals, 46 ; Book of Plus- 

9, 11. 2709-2717, a 1221. carden, bk. vii. c. 10. 



90 ALEXANDER THE SECOND [1214 

Queen Ermengarde, mother of King Alexander II. > 
and widow of William, king of Scots, was buried in the 
abbey at Balmerino in Fife. She died on the nth of 
February 1 233-4. 17 

Insurrection in Galloway was subdued by King Alex- 
ander II., with the help of Makintagart, earl of Ross, on 
the 1 6th of July I235. 18 

Pluscarden Priory, in Moray, was founded by King 
Alexander II. in the 22nd year of his reign. The founda- 
tion charter is dated at Edinburgh, 7th April I236. 19 

The Bishopric of Lismore (Argyll) was reconstituted 
by Bull of Pope Gregory IX., dated ;th July 1236.2 

Queen Joan, wife of King Alexander II., was buried 
at the convent of Tarente. She died near London, on 
the 4th of March I23/-8. 21 

Scottish Students at Oxford. There were Scottish 
and Welsh students at Oxford in I2$8. 22 
Married Secondly. King Alexander II. married, as his 
second wife, Marie, daughter of Enguerand III., 'dit le 
grand/ baron de Coucy in Picardy, at Roxburgh, I5th 
May I239. 23 

17. Chron. Mailros, 143, died n bk. vii. c. n [confuses Queen Joan 

Feb. 1233 ; buried in the abbey at with the first wife of King Alexander 

Balmerino ; Fordun, Annals, 46 ; III. See also below, p. 95, No. 10]. 
Wyntoun, ii. 242, bk. vii. c. 9, 11. 

2839-2846. 22 - Matt - Paris > Hist -> " 4 8 > a 

1238 ; Rotuli Scotise (in the follow- 

18 Chron. Mailros, 145, a<> 1235 ; { centu , L 8o8> 886> ^ 
Fordun, Annals, 43 ; Wyntoun, 11. 
242, bk. vii. c. 9. 23. [Marie was 2nd daughter of 

19. Nat. MSS., i. 26, No. XLVIII., Enguerand III. by his 3 rd wife, 
foundation charter to the brethren Marie > daughter of Jean, Seigneur de 
of the Order of Valiscaulium ; Book Montmirel en Brie.] Mas Latne, p. 
of Pluscarden, bk. vii. c. 10, no date, J 59o; Chron. Mailros, 149, 15 May 

1239 ; Extracta, 97, Whitsunday, i 

20. Theiner, Vetera Monumenta, May 12 ^. Matt p ariSj Chron . 

33, No. 84. Maj - ? m 53Q) I5 May I239; Matt> 

21. Fcedera,i. 235, her will, 21 Feb. Paris, Hist., ii. 419, 15 May 1239]; 
1237-8; Chron. Mailros, 148, died 4 Fordun, Annals, 44, 15 May 1239; 
Mar. 1237-8; Matt. Paris, Hist., ii. Wyntoun, ii. 238, bk. vii. c. 9, 11. 
405; Fordun, Annals, 44, died 4 2718-2722, p. 245, bk. vii. c. 9, 1. 2937; 
Mar. 1237-8; Book of Pluscarden, Book of Pluscarden, bk. vii. c. n. 



1249] ALEXANDER THE SECOND 



91 



His Son and Heir, afterwards Alexander III., was born at 

Roxburgh, 4th September 1241.^ 
Died. King Alexander the Second died in the island of 

Kerrera, 8th July 1 249. 25 
Aged 50 years 10 months and 15 days. 26 
Buried at Melrose. 27 
His Reign lasted 34 years 7 months and 5 days. 28 

REIGN ENDED 8TH JULY 1249. 



ISSUE 

King Alexander the Second had, by his first wife, Joan of 

England, no issue. 29 
King Alexander the Second had, by his second wife, Marie de 

Coucy, an only son : 



24. Chron. Mailtos, 154, 4 Sep. 
1241 ; Extracta, 97, 4 Sep. ; Fordun, 
Annals, 44, 4 Sep. ; Wyntoun, ii. 
238, bk. vii. c. 9, 11. 2721, 2943, a 
1242. 

25. Chron. Mailros, 178, died 8th 
f July 1249; Matt. Paris, Chron. 

Maj., v. 88, 89; Chron. Man. 
Munch), 24, a 1249; Wyntoun, ii. 
251, bk. vii. c. 9, 11. 3087-3092 ; 
Fordun, Annals, 46, 1249 [errone- 
ously states that he was buried 8 
July]; Chron. Lanercost, 55 [the 
late of the death of King Alexander 
s given as 'idibus Julii,' 15 July, 
and four lines lower down his son is 
stated to have succeeded him ' tertio 
idus Julii' (i 3th), two days before 
what is stated to be the date of his 
ather's death ! Possibly ' viii. ' has 

een left out by mistake before 
idiis, as that would make it 8 July 
the correct date. The dates in the 

hronicon de Lanercost are fre- 
quently open to suspicion ; in several 
cases like the above they can be 
proved to be incorrect] ; Celtic Scot- 



land, i. 490 [erroneously states that 
King Alexander II. was buried 8 
July 1249; whereas he died on that 
day. The late learned author of 
Celtic Scotland acknowledged this 
to be an error]. 

26. See above, Nos. 3 and 25. 

27. Chron. Mailros, 178, buried at 
Melrose ; Chron. Man. (Munch), 24, 
a 1249 ; Fordun, Annals, 46, buried 
at Melrose on Thursday, 8 July 1249 
[the 8th of July did fall on Thurs- 
day in 1249, but that was the day of 
King Alexander II. 's death, not of 
his burial] ; Celtic Scotland, i. 490 
[repeats Fordun's error. See above, 
No. 25]; Extracta, 99, 100, gives 
his epitaph, copied from Fordun's 
Annals, 46. 

28. Chron. Mailros, 114, a 1214; 
178, 8 July 1249 ; Fordun, Annals, 
28 ; Celtic Scotland, i. 483-490. See 
above, Nos. 5 and 25. 

29. Chron. Mailros, 148, died with- 
out children, 4 Mar. 1238 ; Fordun, 
Annals, 44, 'neither son nor 
daughter ' ; Chron. Lanercost, 47. 



92 



ALEXANDER THE SECOND [1214 



Alexander, king of Scots as Alexander III., from 8th July 1249 
to 1 9th March I285-6. 30 

Marie de Coucy, Widow of Alexander II., returned to her own 
country on the 2Qth of September 1251, and was married before 
the 6th of June 1257 to Jean de Brienne, 'dit d'Acre,' who was 
son of John, king of Jerusalem. 31 
King Alexander the Second had an illegitimate daughter : 

Marjorie, married to Alan Durward. Her grandson, Nicolas 
de Soules, was a Competitor in i29i. 32 



30. See Alexander III., pp. 94-102. 

31. Fcedera, i. pt. I, 278, 357, 358; 
Matt. Paris, Hist., iii. 116, also note 
3 ; Gal. Doc. Scot., i. 406, No. 2084; 
also Index, 657, ' Scotland, Marie de 
Coucy. ' See above, p. 90, No. 23. 



32. Fordun, Annals, 50, married 
Alan the Door ward ; Cal. Doc. Scot., 
i. Index, 596 ; ii. Index, 693 ; Annals 
of Scotland, i. 196, 197, 255. See alsc 
below, Pedigree of the Competitors, 
p. 282 (grandmother of No. vi.). 



A TABLE OF REGNAL YEARS 



1st began 4 Dec. 1214, 
ended 3 Dec. 1215. 


llth began 4 Dec. 1224, 
ended 3 Dec. 1225. 


2nd began 4 Dec. 1215, 
ended 3 Dec. 1216. 


12th began 4 Dec. 1225, 
ended 3 Dec. 1226. 


3rd began 4 Dec. 1216, 
ended 3 Dec. 1217. 


13th began 4 Dec. 1226, 
ended 3 Dec. 1227, 


4th began 4 Dec. 1217, 
ended 3 Dec. 1218. 


14th began 4 Dec. 1227, 
ended 3 Dec. 1228. 


5th began 4 Dec. 1218, 
ended 3 Dec. 1219. 


15th began 4 Dec. 1228, 
ended 3 Dec. 1229. 


6th began 4 Dec. 1219, 
ended 3 Dec. 1220. 


16th began 4 Dec. 1229, 
ended 3 Dec. 1230. 


7th began 4 Dec. 1220, 
ended 3 Dec. 1221. 


17th began 4 Dec. 1230, 
ended 3 Dec. 1231. 


8th began 4 Dec. 1221, 
ended 3 Dec. 1222. 


18th began 4 Dec. 1231, 
ended 3 Dec. 1232. 


9th began 4 Dec. 1222, 
ended 3 Dec. 1223. 


19th began 4 Dec. 1232, 
ended 3 Dec. 1233. 


10th began 4 Dec. 1223, 
ended 3 Dec. 1224. 


20th began 4 Dec. 1233, 
ended 3 Dec. 1234. 



.249] ALEXANDER THE SECOND 93 

A TABLE OF REGNAL YEARS continued. 



21st began 4 Dec. 1 234, 
ended 3 Dec. 1235. 

22nd began 4 Dec. 1235, 
ended 3 Dec. 1236. 

23rd began 4 Dec. 1236, 
ended 3 Dec. 1237. 

24th began 4 Dec. 1237, 
ended 3 Dec. 1238. 

25th began 4 Dec. 1238, 
ended 3 Dec. 1239. 

26th began 4 Dec. 1239, 
ended 3 Dec. 1240. 



27th began 4 Dec. 1240, 
ended 3 Dec. 1241. 

35th began 4 Dec. 1248, 
ended 8 July 1249. 



28th began 4 Dec. 1241, 
ended 3 Dec. 1242. 

29th began 4 Dec. 1242, 
ended 3 Dec. 1243. 

30th began 4 Dec. 1243, 
ended 3 Dec. 1244. 

31st began 4 Dec. 1244, 
ended 3 Dec. 1245. 

32nd began 4 Dec. 1245, 
ended 3 Dec. 1246. 

33rd began 4 Dec. 1246, 
ended 3 Dec. 1247. 

34th began 4 Dec. 1247, 
ended 3 Dec. 1248. 



Only 7 months and 5 days of the 35th year. 



CONTEMPORARY SOVEREIGNS 



KINGS OF ENGLAND 


KINGS OF FRANCE 


POPES 


JOHN 


PHILIPPE II. 


INNOCENT III. 


'Lackland' 


* Auguste ' 


1198-1216. 


1199-1216. 


1180-1223. 








HONORIUS III. 


HENRY III. 


Louis VIII. 


1216-1227. 


1216-1272. 


'leLion' 






1223-1226. 


GREGORY IX. 






1227-1241. 




Regency 






1226-1229. 


CELESTINE IV. 






1241. 




Louis IX. 






' Saint ' 


Papal See vacant 




1229-1270. 


i year and 7 months 






1241-1243. 






INNOCENT IV. 






1243-1254- 



94 [1249 



ALEXANDEB THE THIED 

KING OF SCOTS 
1249 1285-6 

Reign began 8th July 1 249, 
ended i9th March 1285-6, 
lasted 36 years 8 months and 1 2 days. 

Alexander the Third. ' King of Scots/ ' King of Alban, 

' King of Scotland,' ' Roy descoce.' l 
Only Son of Alexander II., king of Scots, by his second wife 

Marie, daughter of Enguerand III., baron de Coucy. 2 
Born at Roxburgh, 4th September 



REIGN BEGAN 8TH JULY 1249. 

King of Scots. Alexander III. became king of Scots on the 
death of his father, King Alexander II., 8th July 1249.* 

Aged 7 years 10 months and 5 days when he succeeded his 
father. 5 

Consecrated King by David de Bernham, bishop of St. 

1. Nat. MSB., i. 32, 33, Nos. Alexander II., p. 90, No. 23, and 
LX.-LXIV. [He seems to have been pp. 91, 92, No. 30. 

the first king of Scots who styled 3. Chron. Mailros, 154, 4 Sep. 

himself 'King of Scotland.'] Chron. 1241; Fordun, Annals, 44, 4 Sep.; 

Man., a 1266; Fordun, Annals, 48; Wyntoun, ii. 254, bk. vii. c. 9, 1. 

Diplomata Scotise, Plates xxxvi. 2947, a 1242, 'and called was he 

xxxvu., charter ; CLVII., silver Alysandyre.' 

coins ; Ancient Scottish Seals, 4, 5, 4. Chron. Mailros, 178, 8 July 

Nos. 13-18, and Plate I., fig. i. 1249 ; Fordun, Annals, 46, 47. 

2. Fordun, Annals, 44. See above, 5. See above, No. 3. 



1285-6] ALEXANDER THE THIRD 



95 



Andrews, and 'set on the throne, that is the stone,' at 
Scone, 1 3th July 1249.6 

The Body of St. Margaret (wife of Malcolm III. 
Ceannrnor, king of Scots), who died i6th November 1093, 
was translated and enshrined in presence of King Alex- 
ander III., seven bishops, and seven Scottish earls, in the 
church of the Holy Trinity at Dunfermline, on the I9th 
of June I25O. 7 

Eleven Scottish Sees, viz., St. Andrews, Glasgow, 
Candidacasa (Whithorn), Dunkeld, Dunblane, Brechin, 
Aberdeen, Moray, Ross, Caithness, and Argyll, are named 
by Matthew Paris about I25O. 8 

Knighted by Henry III., king of England, at York, 25th 
December I25i. 9 

Married First. King Alexander III. married as his first 
wife, Margaret, eldest daughter of Henry III., king of 
England, at York, 26th December i25i. 10 



6. Nat. MSS., ii. 68, No. LXXXIV., 
photozincograph of a page of 
Fordun's Scotichronicon, from the 
MS. in the Library of Corpus Christi 
College, Cambridge, with a drawing 
of the coronation of King Alexander 
III. ; The Coronation Stone, 47, the 
ceremony reproduced in colours, and 
the descriptions by Fordun and 
Bower compared ; Chron. Mailros, 
178, 13 July 1249; Chron. Picts and 
Scots (B), 176, No. 26, a<> 1251; 
Fordun, Annals, 47, 48; Wyntoun, 
ii. 250, bk. vii. c. 10, 11. 3097-3100; 
Book of Pluscarden, bk. vii. cc. 12, 
14; Annals of Scotland, i. 194; 
Celtic Scotland, i. 490. [Only 3 of 
the seven earls are mentioned as 
present at the Coronation. The five 
days which elapsed bet ween the death 
of King Alexander II. and the coro- 
nation of his son did not allow enough 
time for all the Magnates to assemble 
at Scone.] See above, Alexander I., 
p. 52, No. 15, and Alexander II., 



p. 88, No. 8, the seven earls ; Pro- 
ceedings Society of Antiquaries, viii. 
68-105, 8 Mar. 1869. 

7. Reg. Dunfermelyn, 235, No. 
348, ' seven bishops and seven earls' ; 
Fordun, Annals, 49, 19 June 1250 ; 
Wyntoun, ii. 250, bk. vii. c. 10, 11. 
3101-3144; Book of Pluscarden, bk. 
vii. c. 15, 19 June 1250. See above, 
Alexander I., p. 52, No. 15, and Alex- 
ander II. , p. 88, No. 8, ' seven earls. ' 

8. Matt. Paris, Chron. Maj., vi. 
458. See also below, Map No. in. 

9. Chron. Mailros, 179, 25 Dec. 
1251, knighted; F. Worcester, ii. 
183, 25 Dec. 1251 ; Matt. Paris, 
Chron. Maj., v. 267, Christmas Day 
1252 [wrong year: the arms of the 
King of Scots are drawn in the MS.] ; 
Fordun, Annals, 50, Christmas Day 
1250 [wrong year] ; Wyntoun, ii. 
253, bk. vii. c. io,l. 3180, Christmas 
Day 1251. 

10. Foedera, i. pt. I, 179, 278, 279 ; 
Cal. Doc. Scot., i. 346, No. 1848, 



96 



ALEXANDER THE THIRD 



[1249. 



The Battle of Largs. The Scots defeated Haco, king 
of Norway, at Largs, 2nd October I26$. u 

The Western Isles, or Sudreys, and the Isle of Man 
were ceded by Haco, king of Norway, to Alexander III., king 
of Scots, by a treaty concluded at Perth, 2nd July I266. 12 
King Alexander III. was present with his queen at the 
coronation of Edward I., king of England, at Westminster, 
1 9th August I274. 13 

Death of the Queen. Margaret, wife of King Alex- 
ander III., and sister of Edward I., king of England, was 
buried at Dunfermline. She died at Cupar, in Fife, on 
the 26th of February I2/4-5. 14 

Battle in the Isle of Man. The Scots defeated the 
inhabitants in the Isle of Man, 8th October I2/5. 15 



marriage 26 Dec. 1251 ; Chron. 
Mailros, 179, 26 Dec. 1251 ; F. Wor- 
cester, ii. 183, 26 Dec. 1251 ; Trivet, 
241 ; Hemingburgh, i. 302, a 1251 ; 
Walsingham, ii. 7 ; Fordun, Annals, 
50, 26 Dec. 1251 ; Wyntoun, ii. 253, 
bk. vii. c. 10, 11. 3180-3188, 26 Dec. 
1251 ; Book of Pluscarden, bk. vii. 
c. 1 6 ; Matt. Paris, Chron. Maj., iv. 
192, 381, v. 267, 268, 26 Dec. 1252 
[wrong year]; Matt. Paris, Hist., 
iii 117, 118, a 1252 [wrong year] ; 
W. Newburgh, contin., 535, a 1249 
[wrong year]. [King Alexander III. , 
born 4 Sep. 1241, was 10 years 3 
months and 22 days old at the time 
of his marriage, and his bride, the 
Princess Margaret, was one year and 
one day older than her husband.] 

11. Chron. Mailros, 190, 2 Oct. 
1263; Chron. Mannise (Munch), 27, 
a 1263 ; Fordun, Annals, 55, a 
1263 ; Wyntoun, ii. 255, 256, bk. vii. 
c. 10, 11. 3267-3306, a 1263 ; Book of 
Pluscarden, bk. vii. c. 23 ; Proceed- 
ings Society of Antiquaries, xi. 363, 
367, 368, 385- 

12. Acts of Parliaments, i. 78-82, 
101 ; Robertson's Index, 101, 6 July 



1266 ; Chron. Mailros, 196, 197, a 
1265-6; Chron. Mannise (Munch), 27, 
a 1266; also 110-135, n te 'Venit 
Haco ' ; W. Newburgh, contin.,. 
549, a 1265 ; Fordun, Annals, 56, 
57 ; Book of Pluscarden, bk. vii. 
c. 26. 

13. Fordun, Annals, 61, 15 Aug. 
1274; Cal. Doc. Scot., ii. Nos. 19, 
33, 37; Walsingham, i. 13 ; W. 
Newburgh, contin., 566, a 1274. 

14. Chron. Lanercost, 97, 26 Feb. 
a 1274 [the editor mistranslates 
the date, 27]; Extracta, 113, 26 Feb. 
1274-5, died at Cupar, buried at 
Duufermline ; W. Newburgh, con- 
tin., 568, a 1274; Fordun, Annals, 
61, 26 Feb. 1274-5, buried at Dun- 
fermline ; Book of Pluscarden, bk. 
vii. c. 29 ; Cal. Doc. Scot. , ii. p. 658 ;. 
iv. 375, No. 9, Chapel of St. Laurence 
in the county of Forres, built by 
King Alexander III. for the soul of 
his wife Margaret, late Queen of 
Scotland. 

15. Chron. Mannise (Munch), 27, 
a 1275; Chron. Lanercost, 98, a ' 
1275 ; W. Newburgh, contin., 570,. 
af> 1275. 



1285-6] ALEXANDER THE THIRD 



97 



The Queen of Norway. Margaret, only daughter of 
Alexander III., king of Scots, was married to Eric II., king 
of Norway, and was crowned, at Bergen, in August I28i. 16 

Alexander, Prince of Scotland, elder and only surviv- 
ing son of King Alexander III., married Marguerite, eldest 
daughter of Guy, comte de Flandre, at Roxburgh, I5th 
November 1282, and died without issue, at Lundors [now 
Lindores] Abbey in Fife, 28th January I283-4. 17 

England ; Chron. Mailros, 190, born 
at Jedburgh, 21 Jan. i263[-4]; For- 
dun, Annals, 56, * born 2ist Dec., the 
day of St. Agnes the Virgin' [this 
is an error, because 21 Dec. is St. 
Thomas's Day : 21 Jan. is St. Agnes's 
Day] > 63, married ' on Sunday next 
after the Feast of St. Martin in 
Winter' [15 Nov. 1282], died 1283-4; 
Extracta, 106, born xij. kal. Jan. 
[this is 21 Dec. ; the Extracta follows 
the error of Fordun, but the author 
wisely declines to call it St. Agnes ' 
Day]; 114, married in Nov. [no- 
year], died 28 Jan. 1283-4, buried at 
Dunfermline ; Cal. Doc. Scot.,ii. 68, 
Nos. 220, 221, ii Aug. 1282; Matt. 
Westminster, 414; Scalachron., 100;. 
Walsingham, i. 31 ; Wyntoun, ii. 
257, bk. vii. c. 10, 1. 3327, birth ; 
261, 11. 3469-3474, marriage 12 Nov. 
1281 [wrong day and wrong year, 
besides which the Sunday next after 
the Feast of St. Martin in the winter 
of 1281 was 16 Nov., not 12]; 262, 
1. 3495, death and burial ; Book of 
Pluscarden, bk. vii. c. 30, marriage 
a 1279 [two years wrong]; Mas 
Latrie, p. 1601, his wife, his widow's 
marriage : Marguerite de Flandre, 
widow of Alexander, prince of Scot- 
land, was married 2ndly to Renaud 
I. , comte de Gueldres ; Cal. Doc. 
Scot., ii. 73, No. 247 ; Extracta, 114, 
returned to Flanders ; Hist. Doc. 
Scot., i. 5, 9, 12, 17, her dower in 
Scotland ; Fcedera, i. pt. 2, p. 613 : 
Laing Charters, p. 4, Nos. 12 and 13. 



1 6. Cal. Doc. Scot., i. 437, No. 
2225, her mother coming to Windsor, 
13 Nov. 1260; p. 438, No. 2229, to 
remain there until after her confine - 
nent; Chron. Mailros, 185, born in 
England a 1260; Fordun, Annals, 
54, born 28 Feb. i26o[-i], died 9 
Apr. 1283; Scalachron., 108 ; Ex- 
tracta, 104, born 1260; 114, married 
b, 1281 ; Acts of Parliaments, i. 79, 
(Treaty of marriage, Roxburgh, 25 
July 1281; 82, Obligation; Fcedera, i. 
pt. 2, 595, marriage contract, 25 July 
1281 ; Wyntoun, ii. 255, bk. vii. c. 
10, 11. 3263-3266, born in England a 
1260 ; 259, 1. 3399, left Scotland 12 
Aug., reached Norway 15 Aug. 1281; 
J262, 1. 3475, died a 1283 ; Book of 
Pluscarden, bk. vii. cc. 30, 31; Erki- 
iyskups Saga, c. 51, marriage a 
281 ; Walsingham, i. 31 ; Chron. 
Lanercost, 81, 97, 104, 105 ; Annales 
icalholtenses, died at Tonsberg a 
283; Hist. Doc. Scot., i. 312-317, 
Cing Eric petitions for the dowry of 
is late wife ; Bishop Audfinn's letter, 
atedBergeu, i Feb. 1320, in the Pro- 
ceedings of Society of Antiquaries, x. 
^17, 418, 12 Jan. 1874. Eric, king of 
Norway, was 'only 13 winters old' 
it the time of his marriage. [Eric 
I. (Magnusson), king of Norway, 
narried as his second wife, Isabella 
3rus, sister of Robert I., king of 
Scots.] See below, p. 108, No. 26. 

17. Nat. MSS., i. 33, No. LXV., 
'rince Alexander's letter to his 
learest uncle, Edward L, king of 



98 



ALEXANDER THE THIRD 



1249 



1 The Maid of Norway.' Margaret, princess of Norway, 
granddaughter of Alexander III., king of Scots, was 
acknowledged as heir to the Kingdom of Scots (failing 
issue of her grandfather), by the Magnates in parliament, 
at Scone, 5th February I283-4. 18 

Married Secondly. King Alexander III. married, as his 
second wife, Yolande, comtesse de Montfort, daughter of 
Robert IV., cointe de Dreux, at Jedburgh, on the I4th of 
October I285. 19 

Killed. King Alexander the Third was killed by a fall from 
his horse, near Kinghorn in Fife, iQth March 1 285-6. 20 

Aged 44 years 6 months and 16 days. 21 



1 8. Acts of Parliaments, i. 82, 
black (424, red), 5 Feb. 1283-4; 
Foedera, i. pt. 2, 638 ; Cal. Doc. Scot., 
ii. 73, No. 248, Letters Patent, 
' heiress of Scotland.' See also 
below, p. 99, No. 25, and next reign, 
Margaret, ' The Maid of Norway.' 

19. Mas Latrie, p. 1593 ; F. Wor- 
cester, ii. 236, marriage ; Extracta, 
115, married at Jedburgh on St. 
Calixtus' Day [14 Oct.] 1285 ; For- 
dun, Annals, 67 ; Wyntoun, ii. 264, 
bk. vii. c. 10, 11. 3547-3562 ; Book of 
Pluscarden, bk. vii. c. 32 ; Cassell, 
Miniature Cyclopaedia, 446, ' Maid of 
Norway, Margaret, d. of Eric II., 
m. Alex. III. of Scot.' [marries her 
to her grandfather !] ; Mas Latrie, 
PP- J 573> !593> Yolande de Dreux, 
widow of King Alexander III., 
was married secondly [as his second 
wife] to Arthur II., due de Bretagne, 
in May 1294; [Yolande (or Joletta) 
seems to have survived until 1323.] 

20. F. Worcester, ii. 236, 19 Mar. 
1285-6; Matt. Westminster, 414; 
Trivet, 316, killed by a fall from his 
horse ; Hemingburgh, ii. 30, neck 
broken by a fall from his horse ; 
Scalachron., no, 'presde Kinkorne 
et roumpy soun cole ' ; Chronicon de 
Lanercost, 115, 19 Mar. 1 285^6] ; W. 



Rishanger, 146; Extracta, 115, 19 
Mar. i285[-6]; Walsingham, i. 31 ; 
Fordun, Annals, 67, died at King- 
horn, 19 Mar. ; Scotichron., ii. 128, 
bk. x. c. 40, 19 Mar. 1 285[-6] ; Wyo- 
toun, ii. 264, bk. vii. c. 10, 1. 2563, 
died at Kinghorn, buried at Dunfernv 
line ; Book of Pluscarden, bk. vii. c. 
32, 19 Mar. is8s[-6]; Hist. Doc. 
Scot., i. 4; Cal. Doc. Scot., ii. 82, 
No. 292, buried at Dunfermline ; 
Annals of Scotland, i. 194-224, an 
account of his reign ; 222 gives the 
1 6 Mar. 1285-6 as the date of his 
death [error for 19]; Celtic Scot- 
land, i. 490-497, an account of his 
reign ; 497 gives the date of his 
death as 16 Mar. 1285-6 [which is an 
error for 19 Mar., admitted to be so 
by the late learned author of Celtic 
Scotland] ; Proceedings of Society of 
Antiquaries, 1885-6, xx. 177, death 
of Alexander III. [The death of 
King Alexander the Third is said to 
have been prophesied in Dunbar 
Castle, by Thomas the Rhymer, to 
Patric, 7th earl of Dunbar, the day 
before the king's death. See Scoti- 
chronicon, ii. 131, bk. x. c. 43; 
Miller's History of Dunbar, 22, 23.] 

21. See above, p. 94, No. 3, and i 
(note) No. 20, on this page. 



1285-6] ALEXANDER THE THIRD 99 

Buried at Dunferinline, 2Qth March I286. 22 

His Reign lasted 36 years 8 months and 12 days. 23 

REIGN ENDED IQTH MARCH 1285-6. 



ISSUE 

King Alexander the Third had by his first wife, Margaret of 
England, two sons, Alexander and David, and a daughter, 
Margaret, all of whom predeceased their father : 24 
(i.) Margaret (Queen of Norway), born at Windsor, 28th Feb- 
ruary 1260-1 ; married to Erie II. (Magnusson), king of Norway, 
at Bergen, about the 3ist of August 1281 ; she died at Tonsberg, 
9th April 1283, and was buried in 'Christ's Kirk,' at Bergen. 
Margaret, Queen of Norway, left an only child : 25 

Margaret, ' The Maid of Norway,' born in Norway, on, or less 
than a year before, the Qth April 1283 ; became heir to the 
Scottish Kingdom on the death of her uncle, Alexander, prince 
of Scotland, 28th January 1283-4 ; succeeded her grandfather, 
Alexander III., king of Scots, igth March 1285-6; and was 
nominally Queen of Scots from that date until her death on or 
about the 26th of September i29o. 26 

(n.) Alexander, Prince of Scotland, heir-apparent to the 
Crown, born at Jedburgh, 2ist January 1263-4; married at 
Roxburgh, i5th November 1282, Marguerite, daughter of Guy, 
comte de Flandre. He predeceased his father, without issue, 
at Lundors Abbey in Fife, 28th January 1283-4, having just 
completed his 2oth year, and was buried at Dunfermline. 27 



22. Nat. MSS., ii. 69, No. LXXXV., of Scotland, i. 194-224, an account of 
representation of the funeral of King his reign ; Celtic Scotland, i. 490- 
Alexander III. ; Hist. Doc. Scot., i. 497, an account of his reign. 

4, buried at Dunfermline, 29 Mar. 24. Fordun, Annals, 63, 64; 

1286; Fordun, Annals, 67, buried in Scalachron., 100, 108 [calls his 

state at Dunfermline ; Wyntoun, ii. eldest son ' Edward ' by mistake]. 

264, bk. vii. c. 10, 1. 3568 ; Book of 25. See above, p. 97, No. 16. 

Pluscarden, bk. vii. c. 32, before the 26. See above, p. 98, No. 18, and 

high-altar at Dunfermline. below, next reign, pp. 103-109. 

23. See above, Nos. 4, 20 ; Annals 27. See above, p. 97, No. 17. 



100 



ALEXANDER THE THIRD 



[1249 



Marguerite, daughter of Guy, comte de Flandre, widow of 
Alexander, prince of Scotland, was married secondly to 
Renaud I., comte de Gueldres. 28 

(in.) David, born on the 2oth of March 1272-3 ; died unmarried, 

in Stirling Castle, about the end of June 1281, and was buried 

at Dunfermline. 29 
King Alexander the Third had no issue by his second wife, 

Yolande de Dreux. 30 



28. Mas Latrie, p. 1601. 

29. Chron. Mailros, 222, born 
about the ist hour of the night, 20 
Mar. 1272; Foedera, i. 266; Chron. 
Lanercost, 97 ; Book of Pluscarden, 
bk. vii. c. 30, died a 1278 ; Extracta, 
114, died a 1279 ; Wyntoun, ii. 259, 
bk. vii. c. 10, 1. 3393 ; died a 1280; 



Fordun, Annals, 63, died in Stirling 
Castle about the end of June 1281, 
buried at Dunfermline. [The last 
four give different years for his 
death.] 

30. Scalachronica, p. 109 ; Fordun, 
Annals, 68 ; Hemingburgh, ii. 30. 
See also above, p. 98, No. 19. 



A TABLE OF EEGNAL YEARS 



1st began 8 July 1249, 
ended 7 July 1250. 


10th began 8 July 1258, 
ended 7 July 1259. 


2nd began 8 July 1250, 
ended 7 July 1251. 


llth began 8 July 1259, 
ended 7 July 1260. 


3rd began 8 July 1251, 
ended 7 July 1252. 


12th began 8 July 1260, 
ended 7 July 1261. 


4th began 8 July 1252, 
ended 7 July 1253. 


13th began 8 July 1261, 
ended 7 July 1262. 


5th began 8 July 1253, 
ended 7 July 1254. 


14th began 8 July 1262, 
ended 7 July 1263. 


6th began 8 July 1254, 
ended 7 July 1255. 


15th began 8 July 1263, 
ended 7 July 1264. 


7th began 8 July 1255, 
ended 7 July 1256. 


16th began 8 July 1264, 
ended 7 July 1265. 


8th began 8 July 1256, 
ended 7 July 1257. 


17th began 8 July 1265, 
ended 7 July 1266. 


9th began 8 July 1257, 
ended 7 July 1258. 


18th began 8 July 1266, 
ended 7 July 1267. 



1285-6] ALEXANDER THE THIRD 
A TABLE OF EEGNAL YEAES continued. 



101 



19th began 8 July 1267, 
ended 7 July 1268. 


28th began 8 July 1276, 
ended 7 July 1277. 


20th began 8 July 1268, 
ended 7 July 1269. 


29th began 8 July 1277, 
ended 7 July 1278. 


21st began 8 July 1269, 
ended 7 July 1270. 


30th began 8 July 1278, 
ended 7 July 1279. 


22nd began 8 July 1270, 
ended 7 July 1271. 


31st began 8 July 1279, 
ended 7 July 1280. 


23rd began 8 July 1271, 
ended 7 July 1272. 


32nd began 8 July 1280, 
ended 7 July 1281. 


24th began 8 July 1272, 
ended 7 July 1273. 


33rd began 8 July 1281, 
ended 7 July 1282. 


25th began 8 July 1273, 
ended 7 July 1274. 


34th began 8 July 1282, 
ended 7 July 1283. 


26th began 8 July 1274, 
ended 7 July 1275. 


35th began 8 July 1283, 
ended 7 July 1284. 


27th began 8 July 1275, 
ended 7 July 1276. 


36th began 8 July 1284, 
ended 7 July 1285. 


37th began 8 July 1285, 
ended 19 Mar. 1285-6. 


Only 8 months and 12 days of the 37th year. 



102 



ALEXANDER THE THIRD [1249 



CONTEMPORARY SOVEREIGNS 



KINGS OF ENGLAND 



KINGS OF FRANCE 



POPES 



HENRY III. 


Louis IX. 


INNOCENT IV. 


1216-1272. 


'Saint' 


1243-1254. 




1229-1270. 




EDWARD I. 




ALEXANDER IV. 


'Longshanks* 


PHILIPPE III. 


1254-1261. 


1272-1307. 


'leHardi' 
1270-1285. 


Papal See vacant 
3 months and 10 days 




PHILIPPE IV. 


1261. 




'leBel' 






1285-1314. 


URBAN IV. 
1261-1264. 






CLEMENT IV. 






1265-1268. 



Papal See vacant 

3 years and 4 months 

1268-1272. 

GREGORY X. 
1272-1276. 

INNOCENT V. 
1276. 

ADRIAN V. 
1276. 

JOHN XXI. 
1276-1277. 

NICOLAS III. 
1277-1280. 

Papal See vacant 
7 months 
1280-1281. 

MARTIN IV. 
1281-1285. 

HONORIUS IV. 
1285-1287. 



1285-6] 



103 



MAEGAEET 

'THE MAID OF NORWAY' 

QUEEN OF SCOTS 

1285-6 1290 

Reign began igth March 1285-6, 
ended about the 26th of September 1 290, 
lasted 4 years 6 months and about 7 days. 

Margaret, Queen of Scots. ' The Maid of Norway/ ' The 
princess of Norway,' 'The heiress of Scotland,' 'Heiress 
of Albany,' ' The damsel of Scotland/ ' Lady and Queen 
of Scotland/ ' Dame Margarete reyne de Escosse/ l 

Only Child and heir of Eric II. (Magnusson), king of Nor- 
way, by his first wife Margaret, only daughter of Alexander 
III., king of Scots. 2 

Born on, or less than a year before, 9th April I283. 3 

The Queen of Norway. Margaret, daughter of Alex- 
ander III., king of Scots, wife of Eric II., king of Norway, 
and mother of Margaret, ' The Maid of Norway/ died at 
Tonsberg, 9th April 1283.* 



1. Acts of Parliaments, i. 85, black 
(441, red) ; Foedera, i. pt. I, 638, etc. ; 
Hist. Doc. Scot.,i. 1-199, Documents 
relating to her reign ; Cal. Doc. 
Scot., ii. 659, Index, 'Margaret, 
Princess of Norway ' ; Annals of 
Scotland (Hailes), i. 224-238 ; Celtic 
Scotland, i. 497. 

2. Letter of Audfinn, bishop of 
Bergen, dated at Bergen, i February 
I32o[-i], 'he had no more bairns 
than one daughter by Queen Mar- 
garet ' (printed in the Proceedings of 
the Society of Antiquaries, x. 417, 
418, 12 Jan. 1874); Fordun, Annals, 
64, 68; Scotichron., ii. 135, bk. xi. 



c. I ; Chron. Lanercost, 104, 105 ; 
Book of Pluscarden, bk. viii. c. 51. 

3. [Her mother was married in 
Norway to King Eric II. about 15 
Aug. 1281. ' The Maid of Norway,' 
afterwards ' Margaret, Queen of 
Scots,' might have been born as early 
as April 1282, but she could not have 
been born later than 9 Apr. 1283, the 
date of her mother's death.] 

4. Fordun, Annals, 64, died 9 
Apr. 1283; Annales Scalholtenses, 
a 1283, died at Tonsberg; Chron - 
icon de Lanercost, in, died 27 Feb. 
1283. See also above, Alexander 
III. p. 97, No. 16. 



104 MARGARET [1285-6 

Became Heir-Presumptive. Margaret, 'The Maid of Nor- 
way,' became heir-presumptive to the Kingdom of the 
Scots, on the death of her mother's elder brother Alex- 
ander, prince of Scotland, 28th January I283-4- 5 

Acknowledged as Heir. Margaret, ' The Maid of Norway,' 
was acknowledged as heir to the Kingdom of the Scots, 
failing issue of her grandfather King Alexander III., 
by the Magnates in parliament, at Scone, on the 5th of 
February I283-4. 6 

REIGN BEGAN I9TH MARCH 1285-6. 

Queen of Scots. Margaret, ' The Maid of Norway,' became 
Queen of Scots on the death of her grandfather Alexander 
III., king of Scots, iQth March I285-6. 7 
Aged about 3 years when she succeeded her grandfather. 8 

Six Guardians of the Kingdom were appointed by 
the common advice in parliament, at Scone, on the 2nd 
of April 1286, viz. : 

William Eraser, bishop of St. Andrews, 1 For the country 
Duncan, earl of Fife, V north of the 

Alexander, earl of Buchan, J Firth of F rth. 

Robert Wishart, bishop of Glasgow, "j For the country 
John Comyn, lord of Badenoch, J- south of the 

James, high steward of Scotland, 9 J Firth of Forth. 
A Treaty of Marriage between Margaret, Queen of 
Scots, and Edward, the eldest son of Edward I., king of 

5. Cal. Doc. Scot., ii. 73, Nos. 706; Cal. Doc. Scot., ii. 96, No. 
248, 250; Extracta, 114, her uncle, 388. 

Alexander, prince of Scotland, died 8. See above, p. 103, No. 3. 

28 Jan. 1283-4. See also above, 9. Fordun, Annals, 68, 81, 2nd 

p. 97, No. 17, and p. 98, No. 18. Apr. 1286; Scotichron., ii. 136, bk. 

6. Acts of Parliaments, i. 82, xi. c. I ; Book of Pluscarden, bk. 
black (424, red), 5 Feb. 1283-4; viii. c. I; Wyntoun, ii. 275, bk. 
Fcedera, i. pt. 2, 638; Cal. Doc. viii. c. i, 11. 1-24, the i6th day after 
Scot., ii. 73, Nos. 248, 250. Easter [30 Apr.] 1286; Cal. Doc. 

7. Acts of Parliaments, i. 85, Scot., ii. 127, No. 524, seal; 629, 
black (441, red), 17 Mar. 1289-90 Index ; Ancient Scottish Seals, i. 5, 
(Old French); Fcedera, i. pt. 2, No. 17. 



J290] MARGARET 105 

England, was concluded between Scotland, England, and 
Norway, at Salisbury, 6th November i28g. 10 

A Papal Dispensation for the marriage of Margaret, 
Queen of Scots, with Edward, eldest son of Edward I., king 
of England, was granted by Pope Nicolas IV., dated at 
Santa Maria Maggiore in Rome, i6th November I289. 11 

Assent to the Marriage of Margaret, Queen of Scots, 
with Prince Edward of England,was given by the Guardians, 
bishops, earls, abbots, priors, and barons of the Kingdom of 
Scotland in parliament, at Brigham, i^th March i2S^-go. lz 

The Four Surviving Guardians, viz., The bishop of St. 
Andrews, the bishop of Glasgow, John Comyn, and James, 
the high steward, were present in parliament, at Brigham, 
1 7th March I289-9O. 13 

Twelve Scottish Bishops, viz., The bishops of St. 
Andrews, Glasgow, Dunkeld, Moray, Aberdeen, Dunblane, 
Man, Galloway, Brechin, Caithness, Ross, and Argyll, were 
present in parliament, at Brigham, i7th March I289-9O. 14 

Twelve Scottish Earls, viz., The earls of Stratherne, 
Dunbar, Buchan, Mar, Angus, Athol, Menteth, Carrick, 
Ross, Lennox, Sutherland, and Caithness, were present in 
parliament, at Brigham, i7th March I289-9O. 15 

Eric II., King of Norway, was urged by the Guardians 
of Scotland to send his daughter to England ; their letter 
was dated at Brigham, I7th March I289-9O. 16 



10. Fcedera, i. pt. 2, p. 709 ; Hist. 12. Acts of Parliaments, i. 85, 86, 
Doc. Scot., i. 105-111, LXXV. 6 Nov. black (441, 442, red), 17 Mar. 1289- 
1289 (Old French and Latin) ; Cal. 90 (Old French). See also Nat. MSS. 
Doc. Scot., ii. 96, No. 390. of Scotland, iii., No. I. 

11. Fcedera, i. pt. 2, p. 721, 16 Nov. 13. Acts of Parliaments, i. 85, 86, 
1289; Fordun, Annals, 68; Hist. black (441,442, red), 17 Mar. 1289- 
Doc. Scot., i. 111-113, 16 Nov. 1289; 90; Ancient Scottish Seals, i. 5, 
Cal.. Doc. Scot., ii. 97, No. 392. [See No. 18. 

also Hist. Doc. Scot., i. 35, 36, No. 14. Acts of Parliaments, i. 85, 86, 

xx., 27 May 1287 ; Bull of Honorius black (441, 442, red), 17 Mar. 1289- 

IV. permitting Edward I., king of 90- See also below, Map No. in. 

England, to contract marriages for 15. Ibid. 

his children within the forbidden 16. Acts of Parliaments, i. 86, 

degrees.] black (442, red), 17 Mar. 1289-90. 



106 MARGARET [1285-6 

' A Great Ship,' fully equipped and provisioned, with a 
master and a crew of forty men, was sent to Norway by 
King Edward I. in May 1290, to bring Margaret, Queen of 
Scots, from Norway to England. But King Eric refused to 
allow his daughter to embark in the English ship, which 
returned without her, and reached Raveneshore, at the 
mouth of the Humber, i6th June I29O. 17 

The Treaty of Marriage between the Lady Margaret, 
Queen of Scots, and Lord Edward, surnamed Caernarvon, 
eldest son of Edward I, king of England, was confirmed at 
Northampton, 28th August I29O. 18 

Left Norway for Scotland. Margaret, Queen of Scots, 
'The Maid of Norway,' attended by Bishop Narve of 
Bergen, and the Baron Thorir Haakonson (or Bishopson), 
with his wife Fru Ingibjorg Erlingsdatter, left Norway for 
Scotland in the autumn of 1 29O. 19 

Died Unmarried. Margaret, Queen of Scots, ' The Maid of 
Norway,' never reached Scotland, as she died in Orkney 
(then part of the Norwegian dominions) 'between the 
hands of Bishop Narve, and in the presence of the best 
men who followed her from Norway,' about the 26th of 
September I29O. 20 

17. Hist. Doc. Scot., i. 139-141, Cal. Doc. Scot., ii. 105, Nos. 448- 
victualling of the 'great ship ' sent to 450. 

Norway by Edward L, king of Eng- 19. [The exact date is unknown, 

land, for the Queen of Scots; 152, but this statement is warranted by 

the ship returned to Raveneshore (at the references in note 20 below.] 

the mouth of the Humber), 16 June 20. Islenzkir Annalar, 164, a 1290; 

1290; Cal. Doc. Scot., ii. 108, 109, Bishop Audfinn's letter printed in 

No. 464, Paragraph 5, ' its second the Proceedings of the Society of 

voyage to Norway.' [Margaret, Antiquaries, x. 417, 418, I2th Jan. 

Queen of Scots, did not embark in 1874 ; Fcedera, i. pt. 2, p. 741 ; ii. 

the great ship in June 1290, but 1090; F. Worcester, ii. 244, died in 

she may have done so on its the island of Orkney ; Matt. West- 

' second voyage' from Norway in minster, 414, died in the Orkneys, 

Sep. 1290.] ai29o; W. Rishanger, 119, seized 

1 8. Nat. MSS., iii., No. i., ist Sep. with illness at sea, and died at (or 
1290, see also Introduction, p. v. ; near) the Orkney Islands; Heming- 
Fcedera, i. pt. 2, pp. 731, 732,734, burgh, ii. 31, died in Orkney; 
marriage contract, 735-739; Scala- Trivet, 316, seized with illness at sea 
chron., no ; Hist. Doc. Scot., i. 162 ; when going by ship to Scotland, and 



I2 9 0] 



MAR6ARET 



107 



Aged about 8 years. 21 

Her Corpse was taken to Bergen, where King Eric, ' her 
father, had the coffin opened, and narrowly examined the 
body, and himself acknowledged that it was his daughter's 
corpse.' 22 

Buried beside her mother, Queen Margaret of Norway, ' in 



died at (or near) the Orkney 
Islands ; Langtoft, ii. 191 ; Scala- 
chron., no, 282, note t, perished in 
shipwreck on the coasts of Buchan ; 
Eulogium, Hist., iii. 149, c. 150, a 
1290; Extracta, 119, died a 1291 
[wrong year]; Walsingham, i. 31; 
IDiplomatarium Norvagicum, Narve, 
vi. 104, etc., No. 100, letter of 
Bishop ' Audfinn'; Islenzkir Annalar, 
ia 1290 ; Scriptores Rerum Dani- 
parum, 386 ; Orkney inga Saga, Pre- 
jface I, and note i ; Fordun, Annals, 
69, a 1291 [wrong year] ; Wyntoun, 
ii. 278, bk. viii. c. i, 1. 98, 'put 
to death by martyrdom' [Wyn- 
toun confuses her with the pretended 
jqueen, a German woman, 'The 
False Margaret,' who was burned at 
Nordness in 1301 ; see below, No. 
(27] ; Book of Pluscarden, bk. vii. c. 
o ; bk. viii. c. i ; Hist. Doc. Scot., i. 
Ii. ; Gal. Doc. Scot. , ii. p. xviii. ; 
'roceedings of the Society of Anti- 
uaries, x. 403-419, I2th Jan. 1874, 
ives a very full account of all that 
3 known about the death of 
largaret, 'The Maid of Norway,' 
ueen of Scots. [Some persons 
xave supposed that the vessel in 
which the little Queen Margaret 
ailed from Norway was wrecked in 
Margaret's Hope in East Ronaldshay, 
ne of the Orkney Islands, not an 
mprobable occurrence on a danger- 
us coast at the autumnal equinox, 
nd some have even supposed that 
tie figure in the Bodleian Library 



Map is meant for Queen Margaret. 
See the following : Scalachron., no ; 
Nat. MSS., iii. No. ii., reduced fac- 
simile of Map with Key ; also Intro- 
duction, p. vi, ' on one of the wool- 
packs a wrecked voyager is trying to 
save his life'; R. Gough, British 
Topography, a 1780, i. pp. 76-85, 
and Plate vi. ; 32nd Report of 
the Deputy Keeper of the Public 
Records, a 1871, i. pp. v.-viii.; 34th 
Report, a 1873, p. 285 ; Wyntoun 
(Macpherson's ed.), ii. p. 236, note 
2 ; Wyntoun (Laing's ed. ), iii. 338, 
quotes Macpherson.] Nat. MSS., i. 
36, No. LXX. , Letter from William 
Fraser, bishop of St. Andrews, to 
Edward I., king of England, 7th 
Oct. 1290, ' a sorrowful rumour ' ; 
Cassell, Miniature Cyclopaedia, 446, 
marries the 'Maid of Norway' to 
her grandfather, King Alexander 
III. ! [A question in the Northern Scot, 
in Sep. 1890, asking on what day 
of Sep. 1290 ' The Maid of Norway ' 
died, is still (1906) unanswered, and 
the Records in Edinburgh, London, 
Paris, Brussels, Copenhagen, and 
Christiania, do not appear to give an 
answer to the question ; possibly the 
answer may yet be found in Rome.] 

21. See above, p. 103, No. 3. 

22. Letter from Audfinn, bishop 
of Bergen, dated Bergen, i Feb. 
1320, printed in the Proceedings of 
the Society of Antiquaries, x. 417, 
418, 12 Jan. 1874. 



108 MARGARET [1285-6 

the stone wall, on the north side of the choir/ in Christ's 
Kirk at Bergen. 23 
Her Reign lasted 4 years 6 months and about 7 days. 24 

REIGN ENDED ABOUT THE 26TH OF SEPTEMBER 1290. 



ISSUE 
Margaret, Queen of Scots, * The Maid of Norway,' had no issue. 25 



NOTES 

King Eric's Marriages. Eric II. (Magnusson), king of 
Norway, when thirteen winters old, married as his first wife 
Margaret, only daughter of Alexander III., king of Scots, 
at Bergen, in August 1281. His wife Margaret, queen oi 
Norway, died at Tonsberg, 9th April 1283, and left an only 
child, Margaret, ' The Maid of Norway,' Queen of Scots 
from 1 28 5 -6 to 1 290. King Eric married as his second wife. 
in 1293 (before the 25th of September), Isabella, daughter 
of Robert Bras, earl of Carrick ; she was granddaughter 
of Robert Brus the Competitor, and sister to Robert Brus 
who afterwards became Robert I., king of Scots. 26 

A Pretended Queen of Scots. In the year 1 300, about 
ten years after the death of Margaret, Queen of Scots, and 
about one year after the death of her father, Eric II., 



23. Letter from Audfinn, bishop of 25. [Aged about eight years at hei 
Bergen, dated Bergen, i Feb. 1320, death.] See above, Nos. 3 and 20. 
printed in the Proceedings of the 26. For his first wife, see above, p 
Society of Antiquaries, x. 417, 418, 97, No. 16 ; for his second wife, se< 
12 Jan. 1874. Cal. Doc. Scot., ii. 158, No. 675, he: 

24. See above, Nos. 7 and 20 ; wardrobe, plate, etc. , and ' two snial 
Annals of Scotland, i. 224-238, an crowns, one greater and the othe 
account of her reign. less ' ; see also Islenzkir Auiialar, 168 



290] 



MARGARET 



109 



of Norway, there came from Ltibeck, a German woman, 
who said she was the daughter of the late King Eric, by 
his wife Margaret, daughter of Alexander III., king of 
Scots. This 'False Margaret' was tried, convicted, and 
burned as an impostor, at Nordness, Bergen, and her 
husband was beheaded in I3OI. 27 



1293, 'Eric, king of Norway, mar - 
ied Isibell, daughter of Sir Robert, 
on of Robert, jarl of Brunsvik.' 
rhere never was such a person as 
lobert, ' jarl of Brunsvik. '] See also 
bove, David I. p. 68, No. 69. 
27. [Eric II., king of Norway, 
ied 1 3th July 1299;] Letter from 



Audfinn, bishop of Bergen, in the 
Proceedings of the Society of Anti- 
quaries, x. 410-419, 12 Jan. 1874 ; 
Wyntoun, ii. 278, bk. viii. c. 1, 1. 98, 
confuses this German woman with 
Queen Margaret. See above, p. 106, 
No. 20 ; Islenzkir Annalar, p. 178, 
a 1300 and 1301. 



A TABLE OF REGNAL YEARS 



1st began 19 Mar. 1285-6, 
ended 18 Mar. 1286-7. 

2nd began 19 Mar. 1286-7, 
ended 18 Mar. 1287-8. 



3rd began 19 Mar. 1287-8, 
ended 18 Mar. 1288-9. 

4th began 19 Mar. 1288-9, 
ended 18 Mar. 1289-90. 



5th began 19 Mar. 1289-90, 
ended in Sep. 1290. 

Only 6 months and about 7 days of the 5th year. 



CONTEMPORARY SOVEREIGNS 



KINO OF ENGLAND 

EDWARD I. 

1 Longshanks ' 
1272-1307. 



KINO OF FRANCE 

PHILIPPE IV. 

'leBel' 
1285-1314. 



POPES 

HONORIUS IV. 

1285-1287 

NICOLAS IV. 
1288-1292. 



110 [1290 



THE FIEST INTERREGNUM 

12901292 

The First Interregnum began about the 26th September 1 290, 
ended i/th November 1292, 

lasted 2 years i month and about 23 

days. 

The First Interregnum. A dispute arose as to who was 
heir to the Crown, immediately after the death of Mar- 
garet, ' The Maid of Norway,' Queen of Scots, about the 
26th of September I29O. 1 

THE FIRST INTERREGNUM BEGAN ABOUT THE 
26TH OF SEPTEMBER 1290. 

The Four Surviving Guardians, viz. : 
William Fraser, bishop of St. Andrews ; Robert Wishart, 
bishop of Glasgow ; John Comyn, lord of Badenoch ; and 
James, the high steward of Scotland, carried on the govern- 
ment of the Kingdom in 1 29O. 2 

Heir to the Kingdom. A convention, to settle who 
was heir to the Kingdom of the Scots, was held by Edward 
I., king of England, with the bishops, prelates, earls, barons, 

i. Nat. MSS., i. 36, No. LXX., Let- 2. [These four were the survivors 

ter from the bishop of St. Andrews of the six guardians appointed by 

to Edward I., king of England, the common advice in parliament, at 

'there is fear of a great war and a Scone, 2 Apr. i286;]Fo?dera, i. pt. 2, 

general slaughter of men ' ; Chron. pp. 720, 736, 737, 755, 768 ; Fordun, 

de Dunstaple, ii. 594, 595 ; Walsing- Annals, 68, 82 ; Hist. Doc. Scot., i. 

ham, i. 32; Fordun, Annals, 69; 119, No. 82, p. 129, No. 92, p. 201, No. 

Book of Pluscarden, bk. viii. c. I ; 123 ; Annals of Scotland, i. 225, a 

Hist. Doc. Scot., i. 200; Annals of 1288, earl of Fife murdered, earl of 

Scotland, i. 238. Buchan died. 



1292] THE FIRST INTERREGNUM 111 

knights, and peoples of the Kingdoms of Scotland and 
England, assembled at Norham, loth May I29I. 3 

Arbitration. The claimants agreed to submit their 
claims to the arbitration of Edward I., king of England, at 
Upsetlington, on the north bank of the Tweed, 2nd June 
1291, and again at Norham, on the 3rd, 5th, and 6th of 
June 1 29 1. 4 

The Claimants, better known as 'The Competitors/ 
presented their claims or ' petitions ' either personally or 
by proxy, at Berwick-on-Tweed, 3rd August i29i. 5 

The Thirteen ' Competitors.' The names of the thir- 
teen Competitors, as recorded in the Great Roll of Scotland, 
3rd August I29I, 6 are: 

(I.) Florent V., comte de Hollande, great-grandson of 
Ada, eldest daughter of Earl Henry, prince of Scotland. 7 

(II.) Patric de Dunbar, 8th earl of Dunbar (ist earl of 
March), great-grandson of Ada, daughter of William ' The 
Lion,' king of Scots. 8 



3. Fcedera, i. pt. 2, p. 762 ; Ris- 
hanger, Chron., 123, Annals, 240; 
Walsingham, i. 34-37 ; Annals of 
Scotland, i. 240, etc. ; Palgrave, i. 
pp. 1-xciv, Synopsis of Proceedings, 
from ' Magnus Rotulus Scotise. ' 

4. Foedera, i. pt. 2, pp. 755, 762, 
763; Fordun, Annals, 70, 'Edward 
came on being asked ' ; 84, ' Edward 
I. , king of England, on being asked 
came to Berwick ' ; Matt. Westmin- 
ster, 415, 416, a 1291 ; Annales 
Waverleienses, 243, a 1291 ; B. Cot- 
ton, 181 ; Chronicon., Thomas Wikes, 
123, a 1291 ; Rishanger, Annals, 
234 ; Trivet, 324 ; W. Newburgh, 
57 6 > 578; Walsingham, i. 35-37; 
Annals of Scotland, i. 245-249; Cal. 
Doc. Scot., ii. 118-120, Nos. 482-493. 

[There is a document in Norman 
French described in Cal. Doc. Scot., 
ii. 119, No. 488, dated Tuesday, 
after the Ascension, 1291 [5 June]. 
Their arms are described at the top 



of page 120.] Nat. MSS., i. 37, No. 
LXXI., Wednesday, after the Ascen- 
sion, 1291 [6 June]. This document is 
described in Cal. Doc. Scot., ii. 120, 
No. 492. St.e also below, p. 290. 

5. Foadera, i. pt. 2, pp. 774-7 ; Cal. 
Doc. Scot., ii. 123, No. 507. 

6. Fcedera, i. pt. 2, pp. 774-777 [the 
petitions are recorded in the order in 
which they stand in the text] ; F. 
Worcester, ii. 246, 247 ; Heming- 
burgh, ii. 37-39; Rishanger, Chron., 
131-136, Annals, 233-368; Annals of 
Scotland, i. 238-269, full details. 

7. Fcedera, i. pt. 2, p. 775 ; Mas 
Latrie, p. 1749, Florent V., comte de 
Hollande from 1256 to 1296; Aunals 
of Scotland, i. 253, i. See also above, 
David I., p. 68, No. 69, and below, 
Pedigree of the Competitors, p. 283, 
No. i. 

8. [The 4th Patric, born 1242, suc- 
ceeded his father as 8th earl of Dun- 
bar, 24 Aug. 1289, the first of the 



112 THE FIRST INTERREGNUM [1290 

(III.) William de Vesci, grandson of Margaret, daughter 
of William ' The Lion/ king of Scots. 9 

(IV.) William de Ros, great-grandson of Isabella, 
daughter of William ' The Lion/ king of Scots. 10 

(V.) Robert de Pinkeny, great-grandson of Marjorie r 
daughter of Earl Henry, prince of Scotland. 11 

(VI.) Nicolas de Soules, grandson of Marjorie, daughter 
of Alexander II., king of Scots. 12 

(VII.) Patric Galithly, son of Henry Galithly, and 
grandson of William ' The Lion,' king of Scots. 13 

(VIII.) Roger de Mandeville, great-great-grandson of 
Aufrica, daughter of William ' The Lion/ king of Scots. 14 

(IX.) John Comyn, lord of Badenoch, great-great-grand- 
son of Hextilda or Histilla, granddaughter of Donald 
Bane, king of Scots. 15 

(X.) John de Hastynges, grandson of Ada, third daughter 
of David, earl of Huntingdon. 16 

(XI.) John de Balliol, afterwards king of Scotland, 

12. Fcedera, i. pt. 2, p. 775 ; Annals 
of Scotland, i. 255, vii. ; 257. See 
also above, Alexander II., p. 92, No. 
32, and below, Pedigree of the Com- 
petitors, p. 282, No. vi. 

13. Fcedera, i. pt. 2, p. 775 ; Annals 
of Scotland, i. 255, VT. See also 
above, William, king of Scots, p. 83, 
No. 49, and below, p. 282, No. vn. 

14. Fcedera, i. pt. 2, p. 776; Annals 
of Scotland, i. 255, and pedigree, 
note*, 257, his claim. See also above, 
William, king of Scots, p. 84, No. 
53, and below, p. 282, No. vm. 

15. [One of the Four Surviving 
Guardians of Scotland.] See above, 
No. 2 ; Fcedera, i. pt. 2, 776 ; Annals 
of Scotland, i. 256, ix. 257 ; Gal. Doc. 
Scot. , ii. pp. lv,lvi, note*pedigree. See 
also above, David I. , p. 66, No. 59, and 
below, Pedigree, p. 283, No. ix. 

16. Fcedera, i. pt. 2, p. 776 ; Annals 
of Scotland, i. 258, 268. See also- 
above, David I., p. 68, No. 70, and 
below, Pedigree, p. 283, No. x. 



family styled ' earl of March,' died 
10 Oct. 1308, aged 66.] Fcedera, i. 
pt. 2, p. 775 ; Annals of Scotland, i. 
254, IV. ; Scottish Arms, ii. 8, x. ; 
Roll of Caerlaverock, No. 20, arms ; 
Ancient Scottish Seals, i. 55, No. 291. 
Seealso above, William, kingof Scots, 
p. 84, No. 51, and below, Pedigree 
of the Competitors, p. 282, No. n. ; 
and Pedigree, p. 289. 

9. Fcedera, i. pt. 2, p. 775 ; Annals 
of Scotland, i. 254, v. See also above, 
William, p. 84, No. 52, and below, 
Pedigree of the Competitors, p. 282, 
No. in. 

10. Fcedera, i. pt. 2, p. 775 ; Annals 
of Scotland, i. 254, in. See also 
above, William, king of Scots, p. 83, 
No. 50, and below, Pedigree of the 
Competitors, p. 282, No. iv. 

11. Fcedera, i. pt. 2, p. 775 ; Annals 
of Scotland, i. 253 ; ii. 254, note *, 
with pedigree. See also above, David 
L, p. 69, No. 77, and below, Pedigree 
of the Competitors, p. 283, No. v. 



1292] THE FIRST INTERREGNUM 113 

grandson of Margaret, eldest daughter of David, earl of 
Huntingdon. 17 

(XII.) Robert de Brus, lord of Annandale, son of 
Isabella second daughter of David, earl of Hunting- 
don and grandfather of Robert I., king of Scots. 18 

(XIII.) Eric II., King of Norway, representative of his 
late daughter Margaret, 'The Maid of Norway/ Queen 
of Scots. 19 

The Kingdom Awarded. Edward I., king of England, 
as arbitrator, awarded the Kingdom of Scotland to John 
Balliol, in the hall of the castle at Berwick, on the i/th 
of November 1 292.2 

The Accession of John Balliol to the throne, as king 
of Scotland, put an end to the First Interregnum on the 
1 7th of November I292. 21 

The First Interregnum lasted 2 years i month and about 
23 days. 22 



THE FIRST INTERREGNUM ENDED ON THE 
I7TH OF NOVEMBER 1292. 



17. [Afterwards John, king of 
Scotland ;] Fcedera, i. pt. 2, p. 776 ; 
Annals of Scotland, i. 258-269. See 
above, David I., p. 66, Nos. 56-58, also 
below, John, pp. 115-118, and Pedi- 
gree, p. 281 ; also Pedigree of the 
Competitors, p. 283, No. xi. 

18. Fcedera, i. pt. 2, 776, 777; 
Annals of Scotland, i. 258-269. See 
also above, David I., p. 67, No. 62, 
and below, Pedigree of the Com- 
petitors, p. 283, No. xn. 

19. Fcedera, i. pt. 2, p. 777 ; Ris- 
hanger, Chron., 132; Walsingham, 
i. 40, 41 ; Annals of Scotland,!. 256, 
x. , also note*. See above, Alexander 
III. [his father-in-law], p. 97, No. 
16, p. 98, No. 1 8, and p. 99, Nos. 25, 
26 ; also Margaret, ' The Maid of Nor- 



way,' Queen of Scots [his daughter], 
pp. 103-109, and below, Pedigree of 
the Competitors, p. 282, No. xin. 

20. Rotuli Scotiae, i. ii ; Foedera, 
i. pt. 2, p. 780 ; F. Worcester, ii. 265 - r 
Rishanger, Chron., 135, Annals, 361 * t 
Walsingham, i. 38 ; Fordun, Annals, 
72,84,85. 

21. Ibid. 

22. See above, No. 20, and Mar- 
garet, ' The Maid of Norway,' p. 106, 
No. 20 ; Fcedera, i. pt. 2, pp. 741-784, 
transactions during the First Inter- 
regnum ; F. Worcester, ii. 265 ; 
Fordun, Annals, 72, 84, 85 ; Hist. 
Doc. Scot., i. 200-376; Cal. Doc. 
Scot., ii. 106-152, Nos. 459-650; 
Annals of Scotland, i. 238-269, an 
account of the First Interregnum. 



114 THE FIRST INTERREGNUM [1292 



A TABLE OF INTERREGNAL YEARS 



1st began about 26 Sep. 1290, 
ended about 25 Sep. 1291. 

2nd began about 26 Sep. 1291, 
ended about 25 Sep. 1292. 

3rd began about 26 Sep. 1292, 
ended on the 17 Nov. 1292. 

Only i month and about 23 days of the 3rd year. 



CONTEMPORARY SOVEREIGNS 

KING OF ENGLAND KING OF FRANCE POPE 



EDWARD I. 

' Longshanks ' 

1272-1307. 



PHILIPPE IV. 

Me Bel' 
1285-1314. 



NICOLAS IV. 
1288-1292. 

Papal See vacant 

2 years 3 months 

and one day 

1292-1294. 



1292] 115 



JOHN 

(BALLIOL) 

KING OF SCOTLAND 

1292 1296 

Reign began i?th November 1292, 
ended loth July 1296, 
lasted 3 years 7 months and 24 days. 

John (de Balliol). ' King of Scotland.' l 

Eldest Surviving Son of John de Balliol, 5th baron, by his 
wife Dervorgulla, third daughter of Alan, lord of Galloway, 
and granddaughter of David, earl of Huntingdon. 2 

Born about i25o. 3 

Married Isabella, daughter of John de Warrenne, earl of 
Surrey, before 7th February 1280-1.* 

Was a 'Competitor* for the Kingdom in right of his 
maternal grandmother, Margaret, eldest daughter of 
David, earl of Huntingdon, and submitted his ' petition ' 

1. Nat. MSS., i. 38, No. LXXIII. ander, had predeceased him without 
'John, king of Scotland,' 'at Stir- issue, before 3rd Aug. 1291 ; Scala- 
ling, 2 ist Nov., in the 4th year of chron., 120; Fordun, Annals, 75; 
our reign' [1295], Introduction, xlv > Book of Pluscarden, bk. viii. c. 14; 
a charter in the name of * John, Annals of Scotland, vol. i. 258 ; Cal. 
king of Scotland'; Acts of Parlia- Doc. Scot., ii. 55, No. 169, a 1279, 
ments, i. 89, black (445, red), 92, 'Derverguilla,' See also below, Pedi- 
black (448, red), ' John, king of gree of the Competitors, p. 283, No. 
Scotland'; Diplomata Scotiae, XLI.- xi. 

XLIV. charters, CLVIII. silver coins; 3. Cal. Doc. Scot., ii. 32, No. 139, 

Ancient Scottish Seals, i. 6, Nos. 1 9, 20, 'more than 30 years old,' 15 Dec. 

'REX SCOTTORUM'; Rishanger, 512, 1278. [There is no trustworthy 

513 ; Annals of Scotland, i. 269-294. authority for the exact date.] 

2. Foedera, i. pt. 2, p. 776, his elder 4. Cal. Doc. Scot., ii. 60, No. 
brothers, Sir Hugh, Alan, and Alex- 189. 'Isabella, the king's cousin.' 



116 



JOHN 



[1292 



to the arbitrator, Edward I., king of England, at Berwick, 
3rd August I29I. 5 



KEIGN BEGAN I7TH NOVEMBER I2Q2. 

King of Scotland. John (de Balliol) became king of Scot- 
land by the award of the arbitrator, Edward I., king of 
England, pronounced in the hall of the castle at Berwick, 
i/th November I292. 6 

Aged about 42 years when he became king. 7 

Crowned at Scone, soth November 1292? 

The Battle of Dunbar. The English defeated the Scots 
at Dunbar in East Lothian, and took Dunbar Castle, on the 
27th of April I296. 9 

Abdicated. John de Balliol resigned his realm, people, and 
royal seal to Edward I., king of England, by a deed signed 
in the castle of Brechin, loth July 1296 



5. Fcedera, i. pt. 2, p. 776; Ris- 
hanger, 512, 513 ; Annals of Scotland, 
i. 258-269. See above, David I., p. 66, 
Nos. 56-58, also the First Interreg- 
num, pp. 112, 113, No. 17, and below, 
Pedigree of the Competitors, p. 283, 
No. xi. 

6. Fcedera, i. pt. 2, p. 780; Ris- 
hanger, pp. 512, 513 ; Trivet, p. 324 ; 
Hemingburgh, ii. 38 ; Chron. Laner- 
cost, 143; Scalachron., 120; Wals- 
ingham, i. 38 ; Fordun, Annals, 72 ; 
Book of Pluscarden, bk. viii. c. 12 ; 
Wyntoun, ii. 305, bk. viii. c. 5, 11. 949- 
953; Cal. Doc. Scot., ii. 152, No. 649. 

7. See above, p. 115, No. 3. 

8. Hemingburgh, ii. 38 ; Trivet, 
324; Scalachronica, 120; Chron. 
Lanercost, 144 ; Walsingham, i. 42 ; 
Fordun, Annals, 85; Scotichron., ii. 
167, bk. xi. c. 26; Book of Plus- 
carden, bk. viii. c. 17 ; Wyntoun, ii. 
324, bk. viii. c. 10, 11. 1557-1560. 

9. Hemingburgh, vol. ii. pp. 102- 
105 ; Trivet, 346, 347, Dunbar Castle 



surrendered, 1 4th Apr. 1296; Chron. 
Lanercost, 175, 176; W. Newburgh, 
contin., 581, a 1296; Cotton, 310- 
312, a 1296; Scalachron., 122, 123; 
Langtoft, ii. pp. 246-252 ; Capgrave, 
171; Walsingham, i. 58; Fordun, 
Annals, 92, battle of Dunbar, 27th 
Apr. 1296; Scotichronicon, ii. 165, 
bk. xi. c. 24; Book of Plus- 
carden, bk. viii. c. 22 ; Wyntoun, 
ii. 334, bk. viii. c. 9, 1. 1877; 
336, 1. 1917 ; Cal. Doc. Scot., 
ii. 176-178, Nos. 742-744, names 
of prisoners taken in Dunbar 
Castle ; Bannatyne Club, Miscellany, 
i. 266, diary of the expedition of I 
Edward I., a 1296 ; MSS. British 
Museum, Cott. Nero, d. vi. 18; ' 
Dom., a. xviii. ; Vesp., c. xvi. 16 ; 
Harl., 1309 ; additional MSS., 5758 ; 
Tytler, i. 465, G. 

10. Fcedera, i. pt. 2, p. 842 ; Hem- 
ingburgh, ii. 107, 108, deed of abdi- 
cation in Norman French, 'at 
Brechin, loth July, in the fourth 



1296] JOHN 117 

His Reign lasted 3 years 7 months and 24 days. 11 

BEIGN ENDED IOTH JULY 1296. 

Prisoner in England for three years, from July 1 296 until he 

was released and allowed to go to France in July 1 299. 12 
Went to France in 1 299, and lived on his paternal estates at 

Bailleul, from 1302 to 13 13- 13 
Died. John de Balliol, ex-king of Scotland, seems to have 

died at Bailleul on a Saturday in April 1 3 1 3. 14 
Aged about 63 years. 15 
Buried, it is supposed, in the church of St. Waast at Bailleul- 

sur-Eaune, in France. 16 

ISSUE 

John de Balliol, ex-king of Scotland, had by his wife, Isabella de 
Warrenne, two sons, Edward and Henry : 



year of our reign ' [ 1 296] ; Rishanger , 
512, 513; Trivet, 344-346; Chron. 
Lanercost, 179 ; Walsingham, i. 59> 
60; Fordun, Annals, 95; Scotichron., 
ii. 167, bk. xi. c. 26, abdication, 10 
July 1296 ; Book of Pluscarden, bk. 
viii. c. 24 ; Wyntoun, ii. bk. viii. c. 
12,11. 1937-1968 ; Hist. Doc. Scot., ii. 
61, abdication, castle of Brechin, 10 
July 1296 ; Gal. Doc. Scot., ii. p. 188, 
No. 821; p. 194, No. 823, 10 July 1296, 
at Brechin Castle; p. 253, No. 990 (3) ; 
Annals of Scotland, i. 293, note '*. 
n. ^ee above, p. 116, Nos. 6, 10. 

12. Fcedera, i. pt. 2, p. 909 ; Trivet, 
351, sent to the Tower of London; 
Hemingburgh, vol. ii. p. 112; Fordun, 
Annals, 95, sent to London by sea ; 
Cal. Doc. Scot., ii. 264, 265, No. 1027. 

13. [BallioFs baggage was examined 
at Dover, when on his way to France 
in July 1299 ; the royal golden crown 
and seal of the kingdom of Scotland, 
with many vessels of gold and silver, 
and a considerable sum of money, 



were found in his chests. King 
Edward I. ordered that the golden 
crown should be offered to St. 
Thomas the Martyr, and that the 
money should be returned to Balliol 
for the expenses of his journey, but 
he kept the seal for himself ;] 
Fcedera, i. pt. 2, p. 909 ; ii. 260 ; Hem- 
ingburgh, ii. 185 ; Walsingham, i. 78; 
Rishanger, 391, 422; Trivet, 376; 
Scalachron., 125 ; Hist. Doc. Scot., 
ii. 449, DCXXIV., 17 Nov. 1302; Cal. 
Doc. Scot., ii. 274, Nos. 1079, 1080. 

14. Foadera, ii. pt. I, p. 260 ; For- 
dun, Annals, 95, died at Bailleul in 
France ; Cal. Doc. Scot., iii. 67, No. 
348, Edward II., king of England, 
writes to Louis X., king of the 
French, that he hears Sir John de 
Balliol is dead, 4 Jan. 1313-14. L'Art 
de verifier les Dates (edition 1818), 
vii. pp. 257, 258. 

15. See above, Nos. 3 and 14. 

1 6. [Bailleul-en-Gouffern, ar. d'Ar- 
gentan, dep. de 1'Orne in Normandy.] 



118 JOHN [1296 

(i.) Edward, with the help of the English, invaded Scotland in 
August 1332, and was crowned by them at Scone on the 24th 
September, but he fled from Scotland, ' one leg booted, and the 
other naked,' about eleven weeks afterwards, i6th December 
1332, and died without issue in 1363. 17 
(n.) Henry, was slain at Annan, i6th December 1332, and left 



no issue. 



18 



17. Hemingburgh, ii. 303-312; R. Scotichron., ii. 308, bk. xiii. c. 25; 

Avesbury, 21-23, 229-235 ; Capgrave, Book of Pluscarden, bk. 9, c. 27,0. 

423 ; De Illust. Henricis, 167, 168 ; 28, fled, ' one leg booted, and the 

Chronicon de Lanercost, 267, invaded other naked'; Cal. Doc. Scot., iii. 

Scotland ; 269, crowned at Scone ; 495, 496, many references. See also 

Walsingham,i. 193-197,281 ; Fordun, below, David II., p. 148, Nos. 14-18. 
Annals, 146, Dupplin; 147, crowned; 18. Fordun, Annals, 148; Scoti- 

148, fled; 150, 152, 155, 159, 175; chron., ii. 308, bk. xiii. c. 25. 



A TABLE OF REGNAL YEARS 



1st began 17 Nov. 1292, 
ended 16 Nov. 1293. 

2nd began 17 Nov. 1293, 
ended 16 Nov. 1294. 



3rd began 17 Nov. 1294, 
ended 16 Nov. 1295. 

4th began 17 Nov. 1295, 
ended 10 July 1296. 



Only 7 months and 24 days of the 4th year. 



CONTEMPORARY SOVEREIGNS 

KINO OF ENGLAND KING OF FRANCE POPES 

EDWARD I. PHILIPPE IV. Papal See vacant 

' Longshanks ' ' le Bel ' 2 years 3 months 

1272-1307. 1285-1314. and one day 

1292-1294. 

CELESTINE V. 
1294. 

BONIFACE VIII. 
1295-1303. 



1296] 



THE SECOND INTERREGNUM 

1296-1306 

The Second Interregnum began loth July 1296, 
ended 2/th March 1306, 

lasted 9 years 8 months and 1 8 days. 

The Second Interregnum. On the abdication of John 
Balliol, king of Scotland, Edward I., king of England, who 
was then at Montrose, seized the government, and treated 
Scotland as a conquered country, loth July 1296.* 

THE SECOND INTERREGNUM BEGAN IOTH JULY 1296. 

Scotland Subjugated for a Time. Owing to the dis- 
sensions among the nobles, the Scots were unable to make 
any organised resistance to King Edward L, who went 
northwards with an army from Montrose, on the loth 
of July 1 296.2 

Edward I., king of England, inarched with his army 
through Aberdeen, Banff, and Cullen. He reached Elgin on 
the 26th July, and halted there three days. He marched 
southwards as far as Rothes, on the 29th of July 



1. Extracta, 125 ; Fordun, Annals, 3. Diary of the expedition of King 
96; Scotichron., ii. 168, bk. xi. c. Edward I. in his march through 
27; Book of Pluscarden, bk. viii. Scotland in 1296, MSS. Cott. Nero, d. 
c. 25; Annals of Scotland, i. 294. vi. 18 ; Dom., a. xviii. ; Vesp., c. xvi. 
See also below, No. 3, on this 16; Harleian MSS., 1309; Additional 
page. MSS. , 5758, printed in the Miscellany 

2. Hemingburgh, ii. 108 ; Trivet, of the Bannatyne Club ; Cal. Doc. 
349; Knyghton, 2481 ; Walsingham, Scot., ii. 194, 195, No. 838 ; Tytler, 
i. 67, 68; Extracta, 125 ; Fordun, i. 465, G ; Annals of Scotland, i. 294, 
Annals, 96 ; Scotichron., ii. 168, bk. 295 ; Edward I. of England in the 
xi. c. 27 ; Book of Pluscarden, bk. north of Scotland ; Hemingburgh, ii. 
viii. c. 25; Annals of Scotland, i. 108 ; Trivet, 349; Knyghton, 2481 ; 
294. See also below, No. 3. Walsingham, i. 67, 68. 



120 THE SECOND INTERREGNUM [1296 

' The Coronation Stone,' upon which the Scottish kings 
were set to be crowned at their accession, was sent to West- 
minster Abbey by Edward I., king of England, who was at 
Scone, on the 8th of August 1 296.* 

Twelve Guardians, to guard and defend the realm, were 
appointed by the Magnates of Scotland in a parliament at 
Scone, in autumn 1 296. 5 

William Wallace came into notice in the autumn of 
1 296, and was knighted in the spring of 1 297.6 

The Battle of Stirling. The Scots, under Sir William 
Wallace, totally defeated the English, under John de 
Warrenne, earl of Surrey, and Cressingham the treasurer, 
at Stirling Bridge, 1 1 th September 1 29/. 7 

England Invaded. Andrew de Moravia and Sir William 
Wallace were leaders of a Scottish army which plundered 
and burned Hexham, and ravaged the northern counties 
of England, in November and December 1297.8 



4. Rishanger, Chron., 163; Hem- 
ingburgh, ii. 108 ; Scalachron., 123 ; 
Langtoft, ii. 265 ; Walsingham, i. 
42, the stone which Jacob is sup- 
posed to have used as his pillow ; 
Fordun, Annals, 48 ; Scotichron., ii. 
1 66, bk. xi. c. 25 ; Wyntoun, iii. 
212-215, notes ; Book of Pluscarden, 
bk. vii. c. 14 ; Proceedings of the 
Society of Antiquaries, viii. 68-105 
[8 Mar. 1869]; Skene, the Corona- 
tion Stone. See also below, Robert I. , 
p. 139, No. 56. 

5. Fordun, Annals, 97 ; Wyntoun, 
ii. 338, bk. viii. c. 13, 1. 1993; Book 
of Pluscarden, bk. viii. c. 25. 

6. Hemingburgh, ii. 128, in May 
1297 ; Rishanger, Annales, 383-387 ; 
384, knighted a 1297 ; Trivet, 355, 
356, in May 1297 ; Chron. Laner- 
cost, 190 ; Scalachron., 123, in May ; 
Chron. Thomse Wikes (Gale), 127 ; 
Walsingham, i. 64, May 1297 ; 
Extracta, 125 ; Fordun, Annals, 97, 
98; Scotichron., ii. 169, bk. xi. c. 



28 ; Wyntoun, ii. 339, bk. viii. c. 13 ; 
also 343, 1. 2121 ; Book of Pluscarden, 
bk. viii. cc. 25, 26 ; Annals of Scot- 
land, i. 298. 

7. Hemingburgh, vol. ii. pp. 135- 
140, Wednesday, nth Sep. 1297; 
Trivet, 366, total overthrow of the 
English ; Knighton, i. 377-382 ; B. 
Cotton, 336, 337 ; Langtoft, ii. 299- 
305; Chron. Lanercost, 190; Scala- 
chron., 124; Walsingham, i. 70, 71 ; 
Extracta, 126; Fordun, Annals, 99; 
Scotichron., ii. 171, bk. xi. c. 29; 
Wyntoun, ii. 343, bk. viii. c. 13, 1. 
2139 ; Book of Pluscarden, bk. viii. 
c. 27 ; Annals of Scotland, i. 306. 

8. Knighton (Rolls), i. 386, 387; 
Knyghton, 2513-2522, bk. iii. c. x. ; 
2521, a letter of protection, viz. : 
Andrew de Moravia and William 
Waleys, knight, leaders of the army 
of the kingdom of Scotland, in the 
name of John, king of Scotland, by 
consent of the community of the said 
kingdom, grant letters of protection 



i 3 o6] THE SECOND INTERREGNUM 121 

The Battle of Falkirk. The English, under Edward I., 
king of England, totally defeated the Scots, under Sir 
William Wallace, at Falkirk in Stirlingshire, on the 22nd 
of July I298. 9 

Sir William Wallace Resigned his office of Guardian 
of the Kingdom, at the river Forth, soon after his defeat at 
Falkirk, and went to France in 1 298. 10 

Brus and Comyn. In a council of the Magnates of 
Scotland Sir John Comyn ' leaped on ' Robert Brus, ' Earl 
of Carrik, and took him by the throat ' ; and John Comyn, 
earl of Buchan, leaped on William Lamberton, bishop of 
St. Andrews, 'and they held them fast/ * * * * 'until 
the Steward and others went between and stopped this 
scuffle,' at Peebles, on Wednesday, i9th August I299. 11 



to the monks of Hexham, 7th Nov. 
1297 [notwithstanding the above, 
the Scots plundered and burned 
Hexham]; Hemingburgh, ii. 141-147; 
Hexham, ii. Ixxxiii, lxxxiv,and notes ; 
Ohron. Lanercost, 192 ; Scalachron., 
122 ; Extracta, 126 ; Fordun, Annals, 
100 ; Scotichron., ii. 171-174, bk. xi. 
c. 29-31 ; Book of Pluscarden, bk. 
viii. c. 27 ; Annals of Scotland, i. 
37) 38, and notes ; Diplomata 
Scotiee, XLIII. XLIV., facsimile and 
transcript of a charter of Sir 
William Wallace ; Nat. MSS. i. xiv. 
(after the Introduction) is a photo- 
y.incograph of the above charter, Sir 
William Walays, knight, guardian of 
the kingdom of Scotland, and leader 
of its army, grants a charter in the 
name of John, king of Scotland, given 
at Torpheichyn, 29 Mar. 1298. 

9. Hemingburgh, ii. pp. 178-181 ; 
Trivet, p. 373 ; Rishanger, Chron., 
187; Langtoft, ii. 313-317; Chron. 
Lanercost, 191 ; Scalachron., 125, a 
cclxxx. et xv. [1295, a clerical error 
for xviii., the next year is given as 
; cclxxx. xix.']; Walsingham, i. 75, 
76 ; Fordun, Annals, 101 ; Scoti- 



chron., ii. 174, bk. xi. c. 34; Wyn- 
toun, ii. 346, bk. viii. c. 15, 1. 2221, 
etc. ; Book of Pluscarden, bk. viii. c. 
28 ; Annals of Scotland, i. 313-318, a 
detailed account of the battle ' from 
the testimony of the English his- 
torians. ' 

10. Fordun, Annals, 102 ; Lang- 
toft, ii. 353 ; Wyntoun, ii. 348, bk. 
viii. c. 15, 11. 2291, 2292, 'forsuk 
Wardane evyr to be ' ; Book of Plus- 
carden, bk. viii. c. 28; Scotichron., ii. 
1 76, bk. xi. c. 34, resigned the office 
of Guardian; 176, note *, went to 
France ; Rishanger, Annales, 387, 
Wallace with five knights crossed to 
France, a 1298; Nat. MSS., i. 42, 
No. LXXV., Philippe IV., 'king of the 
French,' commanded his 'agents' at 
Rome to request the Supreme Pontiff 
[Pope Boniface VIII.] 'to hold our 
beloved William the Waleis of Scot- 
land, knight, recommended to his 
favour.' Letter 'dated at Pierre- 
font on Monday after the feast of 
All Saints' [no year, probably a 
1298 ; if so, the date was 7th Nov.]. 

11. [Sir John Comyn, 'the son,' 
the Red Comyn No. 2] ; Nat. MSS., 



122 THE SECOND INTERREGNUM [1296 



Three Guardians. William Lamberton, bishop of St. 
Andrews; Robert Brus, earl of Carrick; and Sir John 
Comyn, ' the Son/ were elected Guardians of the Kingdom 
in a Council of Magnates, at Peebles, on Wednesday the 
1 9th of August I299. 12 

Stirling Castle (ist siege). The Scots besieged and 
took Stirling Castle from the English. John Sampson, the 
commandant, and the English garrison of ninety men 
surrendered to the Scots in November I299. 13 

Carlaverock Castle in Dumfriesshire was besieged and 
taken by Edward I., king of England, nth July I3OO. 14 

The Battle of Rosslyn. The Scots, under John Comyn 
and Simon Eraser, totally defeated the English, under Sir 
John Segrave and Ralph de Manton, ' the Cofferer,' at 
Rosslyn near Edinburgh, 24th February I3O2-3. 15 

Edward I., king of England, went northwards a second 
time in September 1303, and marched with an army 
through Aberdeen, Banff, and Cullen, to Moray, where he 
stayed about a month, either in Elgin, in the abbey at 



ii. 8, No. viii., a letter in Norman 
French from Robert Hastangis to 
Edward I. , king of England ; no year 
is given, but as 'the Sunday, the 
morrow of the Assumption of our 
Lady,' is mentioned in the letter, 
the year is proved to be 1299. See 
also below, p. 124, No. 20 ; p. 127, 
No. 6 ; p. 128, No. 10 ; and The Scots 
Peerage, vol. ii. p. 218, note 10. 

12. Ibid. 

13. Trivet, 376; Matt. West- 
minster, 445; Cal. Doc. Scot., ii. 
285, No. 1119; Annals of Scotland, 

I [error], 177. 

of Carlaverock, 
Caligula, A. XVITI. ; 'The Siege of 
Carlaverock' (Nicolas, 1828) gives 
the arms of the besiegers, a history 
of the castle, and an account of the 
siege, with a translation of the MS. ; 
' The Roll of Caerlaverock ' (Wright, 
1864), with the coat-armours em- 
blazoned in gold and colours ; Scala- 



i. 324 ; Baker 

14. The 



chronica, 126 ; Langtoft, vol. ii. p. 
327 ; Chron. Lanercost, 194, a 1300. 
15. Hist. Doc. Scot., ii. p. 448, No. 
DCXXIII. Edward I. orders John de 
Segrave and Raufe de Mantone to 
make a foray in Scotland ; Trivet, 
400; Scalachronica, 126; Fordun, 
Annals, 107, 108 ; Scotichron., ii. 
221, bk. xii. c. 2, St. Matthias (24 
Feb.), 1302-3; Extracta, 127, 128 ;. 
Wyntoun, ii. 352, bk. viii. c. 16, 1. 
2407 ; Book of Pluscarden, bk. ix. c. 
I, 'fought on the Day of Saint 
Matthew the Apostle' [that is 21 
Sep., which is evidently a mistake 
for 'St. Matthias' (24 Feb.). The 
Book of Common Prayer Oxford, 
printed at the University Press, for 
the Society for Promoting Christian 
Knowledge, MDCCCLXXI. x, Long- 
primer 24 makes the same mistake 
in the Calendar, viz. , on the 24th of 
February, 'St. Matthew, Ap.' instead 
of 'St. Matthias, Ap.']. 



i 3 o6] THE SECOND INTERREGNUM 123 

Kinloss, or in the castle at Lochindorb. He left Moray 
in October 1 303, marched to Dunfermline, and wintered in 
Scotland in 1 303-4. 16 

Stirling" Castle (2nd siege). The English, under the 
personal superintendence of King Edward I., besieged and 
took Stirling Castle from the Scots. Sir William Oliphant 
and his garrison surrendered after a siege of three months, 
on the 2oth of July I3O4. 17 

Wallace, taken Prisoner, was given over to Sir John of 
Menteith, custodian of the castle, town, and sheriffdom of 
Dumbarton, who sent him as a prisoner to King Edward I. 
in London, about the end of May I3O5. 18 

Wallace Executed. Sir William Wallace, tried as a 
traitor in the Great Hall at Westminster by order of King 



1 6. Hemingburgh, ii. 231, ravaged 
the north of Scotland, and wintered 
at Dunfermline ; Trivet, 401, pro- 
gress through Scotland ; 402, winters 
at Dunfermline ; Fordun, Annals, 
109 ; Scotichron., ii. 222, bk. xii. c. 
3 ; Wyntoun, ii. 361, bk. viii. c. 17, 
1. 2682 ; Book of Pluscarden, bk. 9, 
c. 2 ; Hist. Doc. Scot., ii. 450, No. 
DCXXV. ; Annals of Scotland, i. 335, 
336; Edward I. of England in the 
north of Scotland, 205, etc., at page 
211, is a quotation from the Rolls of 
Parliament, i. 469, ' copy of a peti- 
tion presented to Edward by one of 
his soldiers, distinguished by the 
name of " Mahaigne de Mil," the 
slayer of a thousand.' [In the 
original petition, now (1906) in H.M. 
Record Office, the last two words are 
'del oyl,' and the petitioner Geffrei cle 
Aumpelford was * maimed of an eye ' 
(not ' the slayer of a thousand,' the 
Rolls of Parliament notwithstand- 
ing) ! See Bain, Cal. Doc. Scot., ii. 
501, No. 1880, a 1305-6.] 

17. Fcedera, i. pt. 2, pp. 963-966, 
969, Sir William Oliphant and twenty - 
tiveof his garrison ; Hemingburgh, ii. 



231, 232 ; Trivet, 402, 403 ; Langtoft, 
" 355-359 5 Walsingham, i. 105, 106 ; 
Fordun, Annals, in, just after 
Easter, a 1304 [this is nearly four 
months wrong, as 29 Mar. was 
Easter Day a 1304]; Scotichron., 
ii. 224, bk. xii. c. 4; Wyntoun, ii. 362, 
bk. viii. c. 18; Book of Pluscarden, 
bk. ix. c. 3, just after Easter ; Scala- 
chron., 127; Annals of Scotland, i. 
340, 341 ; Hist. Doc. Scot., ii. 527, 
men, war- engines, and stores for the 
siege; Cal. Doc. Scot., ii. 405, No. 
1560, 'absolutely surrendered this 
morning, St. Margaret's Day,' the 
' Warwolf,' etc. ; 695, many parti- 
culars ; Nat. MSS. of Scotland, pt. 
ii. 8, No. ix., certain engines of 
war, 3rd Jan. 32nd year of King 
Edward I. [1303-4]. 

1 8. Trivet, 405, a 1305 ; Cap- 
grave, 173 ; Langtoft, ii. 329, 346 ; 
Walsingham, i. 107 ; Chron. Laner- 
cost, 203 ; Scalachron., 126 ; Fordun, 
Annals, 1 1 6, a 1305 ; Scotichron., 
ii. 229, bk. xii. c. 8; Wyntoun, ii. 370, 
bk. viii. c. 20, 1. 2965, etc. ; Book 
of Pluscarden, bk. ix. c. 6 ; Annals 
of Scotland, i. 343. 



124 THE SECOND INTERREGNUM [1296 

Edward I., pleaded that he never had sworn fealty to the 
king of England, but he was condemned, and was hanged 
and quartered at Smithfield, and his head was set up on 
London Bridge, 23rd August I3O5. 19 

Brus stabbed Comyn. Robert Brus, earl of Carrick, 
and Sir John Comyn, who had leaped on Brus, and had 
taken him by the throat in the Council, six years before, 
met in the church of the convent of the Minorite Friars, 
at Dumfries. An altercation took place, when Brus 
possibly in self-defence, probably without premeditation 
stabbed Comyn, who was despatched by Brus's companions, 
on the loth of February I3O5-6. 20 



19. Cal. Doc. Scot., ii. 454, No. 
1685, King Edward I. ordered his 
justices 'to deliver his gaol of the 
Tower of London, of William de 
Waleys, according to the law and 
custom of his realm,' 18 Aug. 1305 ; 
Trivet, 406 ; Langtoft, ii. 263-265, 
379; Capgrave, 173; Matt. West- 
minster, 451 ; Chron. Lanercost, 
203, his head was set up on London 
Bridge, his right arm on the bridge 
of Newcastle on Tyne, his left arm 
at Berwick, his right foot at Perth, 
and his left foot at Aberdeen ; Wals- 
ingham, i. 107; Scalachron., 126; 
Fordun, Annals, 116, limb from 
limb; Scotichron., ii. 229, bk. xii. 
c. 8 ; Wyntoun, ii. 370, bk. viii. c. 20, 
1. 2970 ; Book of Pluscarden, bk. ix. 
c. 6 ; Stow, 209, 11. 13-36 ; Annals 
of Scotland, i. 343-345 ; Hist. Doc. 
Scot., ii. 485, DCXLIV., 15 shillings 
paid for carriage of the body of 
Wallace to Scotland; Cal. Doc. 
Scot., ii. p. xlv, note 3 ; iv. 373, No. 
1812, 15 shillings for carriage of the 
body of Wallace to Scotland. 

20. [Brus possibly acted in self- 
defence, Comyn had leaped upon 
him, and had caught him by the 
throat in the Council, about six 



years before, and may have done so 
again. In any case it seems prob- 
able that Brus did not act by pre- 
meditation, because he would not 
have chosen a church for the deed, 
and also because he was a fugitive 
without followers, except a few per- 
sonal friends;] Nat. MSS., ii. 8, No. 
viii. ; Foedera, i. pt. 2, 810; Hem- 
ingburgh, ii. 245, 246, a circum- 
stantial account of Comyn's death ; 
Trivet, 407, iv. Kal. Feb. [29 Jan.] 
[evidently a mistake for iv. Id. Feb. 
(icFeb.)]; Walsingham, i. io8[makes 
the same mistake as Trivet] ; Matt. 
Westminster, p. 453 ; Langtoft, vol. 
ii. 364-367 ; Rishanger, 229 [error in 
date], 422; Scalachronica, 129, 130 
[written by an Englishman when 
a prisoner in Edinburgh Castle] ; 
Chronicon de Lanercost, 203 ; Fordun, 
Annals, 117, 10 Feb. 1305-6; Scoti- 
chron., ii. 227, 228, bk. xii. c. 7, 
10 Feb. 1305-6; Wyntoun, ii. 368, 
bk. viii. c. 18, 1. 2913; Book of 
Pluscarden, bk. ix. c. 6 ; Annals of 
Scotland, i. 355-36o, 448-452, Ap- 
pendix, No. ix., on the death of 
John Comyn. See also above, p. 
121, No. n, and below, Robert L, 
p. 127, No. 6 ; p. 128, No. 10. 



I 3 o6] THE SECOND INTERREGNUM 125 

The Accession of Robert Brus, earl of Carrick, to the 
throne, as king of Scots, put an end to the Second Inter- 
regnum, on the 27th of March I3o6. 21 
The Second Interregnum lasted 9 years 8 months and 18 
days. 22 

THE SECOND INTERREGNUM ENDED ON THE 
27TH OF MARCH 1306. 

21. Fordun, Annals, 1 1 8, crowned Mar. 1306. See also below, Robert I. , 
at Scone, 27 Mar. 1306 ; Scotichron., p. 129, No. 13. 
ii. 230, bk. xii. c. 9, crowned 27 22. See above, Nos. i and 21. 

A TABLE OF INTERREGNAL YEARS 



1st began 10 July 1296, 
ended 9 July 1297. 

2nd began 10 July 1297, 
ended 9 July 1298. 

3rd began 10 July 1298, 
ended 9 July 1299. 

4th began 10 July 1299, 
ended 9 July 1300. 



6th began 10 July 1301, 
ended 9 July 1302. 

7th began 10 July 1302, 
ended 9 July 1303. 

8th began 10 July 1303, 
ended 9 July 1304. 

9th began 10 July 1304, 
ended 9 July 1305. 



5th began 10 July 1300, 10th began 10 July 1305, 

ended 9 July 1301. ended 27 Mar. 1306. 

Only 8 months and 18 days of the loth year. 



CONTEMPORARY SOVEREIGNS 



NQ OF ENGLAND 


KING OF FRANCE 


POPES 


EDWARD I. 


PHILIPPE IV. 


BONIFACE VIII. 


' Longshanks ' 
1272-1307. 


Me Bel' 
1285-1314. 


1295-1303. 
BENEDICT XI. 






1303-1304. 






Papal See vacant 
about 1 6 months. 






CLEMENT V. 






1305-1314. 



126 



[i 306 



ROBERT THE FIRST 

(BRUS) 

KING OF SCOTS 
13061329 

Keign began 2/th March 1306, 

ended 7th June 1329, 
lasted 23 years 2 months and 12 days. 

Robert the First (Brus). ' King of Scots,' ' King of Alban,' 
' Robertus de Brus,' ' Robertus le Brus,' ' Earl of Carrick,' 
' Lord of Annandale,' ' Robert the Bruce.' 1 

Eldest Son of Robert Brus, earl of Carrick, lord of Annan- 
dale, by his first wife Marjorie, in her own right countess 
of Carrick, and widow of Adam de Kilconquhar. 2 



i. Acts of Parliaments, i. 99-127, 
black (457-487, red); Nat. MSS., 
ii. 10-25, Nos. xni. -xxx. ; Reg. Mag. 
Sig., i. 1-18, Nos. 1-94; Robertson's 
Index, 1-29, Robert I. ; Diploma ta 
Scotiae, XLV.-LII. charters; CLVIII. 
silver coins ; Durham Charters, 
Raine, North Durham, Appendix, 
17, 1 8, Nos. LXXIX. -LXXXII. [the first 
two with seals] ; Ancient Scottish 
Seals, i. 6, 7, Nos. 21-26 ; Exchequer 
Rolls, i. 701, 702; Fordun, Annals, 
118; Scotichron., ii. 230, bk. xii. 
c. 9, ' comes tune de Carrick,' a 1306 ; 
Extracta, 131; Scalachron., 130; 
Baker, 3, 6, 7-9, with notes and illus- 
trations; ChronicondeLanercost, 203, 
' Robertus Bruse comes de Carrike ' ; 
Annals of Loch Ce, i. 561, 'king of 
Alba' ; p. 563, a 1314 ; Wyntoun, ii. 
363-369, bk. viii. c. 18; Book of Plus- 



carden, bk. ix. cc. 3-36, c. 3, 'another 
Maccabaeus'; Barbour, Bruce, Spald- 
ing Club ; Barbour, Bruce, Scottish 
Text Society; Annals of Scotland, 
ii. 1-165 ; Peerage of Scotland, i. 318, 
319; Cal. Doc. Scot., ii. 525, Addenda, 
No. 1978, 591, 592 ; Proceedings 
Society of Antiquaries, General In- 
dex, 52. See also below, Pedigree, 
p. 283 (grandson of No. xn. ). 

2. [King Robert I. was son of 
Robert Brus, earl of Carrick, and 
grandson of Robert Brus the Com- 
petitor.] Nat. MSS., pt. i. p. 34, No. 
LXVII. , ' Margiria ' ; Acts of Parlia- 
ments, i. 92, 93, black (448, 449, 
red) ; Fordun, Annals, 60, 76 ; Scoti- 
chron., ii. 114, bk. x. c. 29; Annals 
of Scotland, i. 219 ; Peerage of Scot- 
land, i. 3 1 8. See also below, Pedigree, 
p. 283 (grandson of No. xn. ). 



329] 



ROBERT THE FIRST 



127 



Born it has been supposed at Writtle, near Chelrnsford 
in Essex on the nth of July 1274* 

Earl of Carrick, after his mother's death, on his father's 
resignation, 2/th October 1292.* 

Married First Isabella, daughter of Donald, loth earl of 
Mar, about the year I295. 5 

Assaulted by Comyn. Sir John Comyn [of Badenoch] 'leaped 
on the Earl of Carrik [Robert Brus], and took him by the 
throat,' and held him fast ' until the Steward and others 
went between and stopped this scuffle,' in a Council of 
Magnates, at Peebles, on the iQth of August 1299. 

Chosen one of the Guardians of the Kingdom, in a 



3. Fordun, Annals, 60, born in 
1274. In the English version : ' And 
at the feast when Benedict deceased.' 
[This is wrong; St. Benedict deceased 
21 Mar. A.D. 543. On turning to the 
Latin it appears that the translator 
has taken a poetic licence, for the 
line stands thus : 

' Festo, quo sancti translatio fit Benedicti' 

(ii July).] Scotichron., ii. 115, bk. 
x. c. 29, ii July 1274; Extracta, 
in, ii July 1274; Book of Pluscar- 
den, bk. vii. c. 28, in the English ver- 
sion, ' born in the sign of the Bull, 
on the most glorious Feast of the 
Translation of Saint Benedict' [ii 
July is in Cancer, not in Taurus]. 
In the Latin it stands, ' natus tst in 
signo Tauri, nobilissimo in festo 
Translations Sancti Andree' [which 
is the gth of May] ; c. 29, born ' in 
the year 1274' ; Annals of Scotland, 
i. 219; Baker, 178, notes and illus- 
trations to page 2, 1. 28, refer to page 
38, note 6, where Brus is said to 
have been born at Writtle in Essex. 

4. Nat. MSS., ii. 8, No. vm. ; For- 
dun, Annals, 77; Scotichron., ii. 
150, bk. xi. c. 13, 230; bk. xii. c. 9, 
' comes tune de Carrick,' a 1306; 



Sealachron., 120; Foedera, i. pt. 2, 
982, King Edward I., 5 Apr. 1306, 
calls him ' quondam comes de Car- 
ry k,' who has slain a noble man, 
John Comyn of Badenoch [Edward 
I. assumes the right to deprive Brus 
of the earldom of Carrick] ; Ex- 
tracta, 145, ' cum esset comes de 
Carrik'; Cal. Doc. Scot., ii. 197, No. 
823 [proves that he was earl of 
Carrick during his father's lifetime], 
28 Aug. 1296 ; Peerage of Scotland, 
i. 318, 27 Oct. 1292. 

5. Fordun, Annals, 77, Brus, when 
' Earl of Carry c,' married Isabella, 
sister of Gratney, earl of Mar, by 
whom he had an only child, Marjorie 
[mother of King Robert II.] ; Scoti- 
chron., ii. 150, bk. xi. c. 13; Ex- 
tracta, 145 ; Book of Pluscarden, 
bk. ix. c. 13, ' when he was earl of 
Carrick '; Peerage of Scotland, i. 319. 

6. [This was Sir John Comyn of 
Badenoch, also called ' The Son ' and 
'The Red Comyn No. 2';] Nat. 
MSS., ii. 8, No. vm., Letter, in Nor- 
man French, from Robert Hastangis 
to Edward I., king of England, 
written at Roxburgh, on Thursday 
next after the Assumption of our 
Lady [20 Aug. 1299]; Cal. Doc. 



128 



ROBERT THE FIRST 



[1306 



Council of Magnates, assembled at Peebles, on Wednesday 
the 1 9th of August I2^g. 7 

Married Secondly. Robert Brus married, as his second 
wife, Elisabeth, daughter of Haymer de Burk, earl of 
Ulster, in the year I3O2. 8 

Succeeded to the lordship of Annandale, on his father's 
death, in the year 1 3O4. 9 

Stabbed Comyn. Robert Brus, earl of Carrick, met Sir 
John Comyn of Badenoch in the church of the convent of 
the Minorite Friars at Dumfries ; an altercation took place, 
and Brus possibly in self-defence, probably without pre- 
meditation stabbed Comyn, who was immediately after- 
wards despatched by Brus's companions, on the loth of 
February I3O5-6. 10 

Scot., ii. 197, No. 823, Robert de 
Brus, ' le veil,' and Robert de Brus, 
' le jeovene, earl of Carrick,' 28 Aug. 
1296. [This shows that, although his 
father was still alive, Robert I. was 
called ' earl of Carrick ' three years 
before Comyn caught him by the 
throat in the Council ; that is, it was 
the future king who was assaulted. 
The elder Brus never was Guardian.] 
Cal. Doc. Scot., ii. 525, Addenda, 
No. 1978, 20 Aug. 1299, the letter of 
Robert Hastangis. [John Comyn 
was committed to prison for assault- 
ing the doorkeeper of the Exchequer 
and breaking his wand of office, 
6 Oct. 1294. This may have been the 
same John Comyn, as he seems to 
have had a violent temper ! See 
Hist. Doc. Scot., i. 431 ; and Cal. 
Doc. Scot., ii. 164, No. 702.] See 



also above, p. 121, No. II, and note. 

7. Nat. MSS., ii. 8, No. vni., a let- 
ter dated 20 Aug. 1299 ; Cal. Doc. 
Scot., ii. 525, Addenda, No. 1978, 
20 Aug. 1299. 

8. Fordun, Annals, 78, he married, 
2ndly, Elisabeth, daughter of Hay- 
mer de Burc, earl of Ulster ; Scoti- 
chron., ii. 150, bk. xi. c. 13, married, 



2ndly, Elisabeth, daughter of Hay- 
mer de Burk ; Book of Pluscarden, 
bk. ix. c. 13 ; Cal. Doc. Scot., ii. 49, 
No. 163 ; Peerage of Scotland, i. 319. 
See below, David II., p. 145, No. 2. 

9. Peerage of Scotland, i. 319. 

10. [This Sir John Comyn, ' The 
Son," The Red Comyn No. 2,' was 
son of John Comyn of Badenoch and 
Tyndale, the Competitor, by his wife, 
Alianora de Balliol, and nephew of 
King John (de Balliol). Balliol and 
both of his sons, Edward and Henry, 
were alive in 1306. It was this John 
Comyn of Badenoch who leaped on 
Robert Brus, earl of Carrick, and 
took him by the throat in the 
Council of Magnates, at Peebles, 19 
Aug. 1299.] Nat. MSS., ii. 8, No. 
viu., a letter from Robert Hastangis 
to Edward I., king of England, 
dated 20 Aug. 1299 ; Fordun, Annals, 
117, 10 Feb. i305[-6], at Dumfries - r 
Scotichron., ii. 227, 228, bk. xii. c. 7, 
10 Feb. i305[-6]; 231, 232, Absolu- 
tion, 23 July 1308 ; Wyntoun, ii. 
368, bk. viii. c. 18, 1. 2913 ; Book of 
Pluscarden, bk. ix. c. 6, 10 Feb. 1305 
[-6] ; Extracta, 130 ; Annals of Scot- 
land, ii. 354-356, 448-452, Appendix, 
No. ix., on the death of John Comyn ^ 



1329] 



EGBERT THE FIRST 



129 



REIGN BEGAN 2?TH MARCH 1306. 

King of Scots. Robert I., then earl of Carrick, and lord of 

Annandale, assumed the Crown, 27th March 1 3o6. n 
Aged 31 years 8 months and 17 days when he became king. 12 
Crowned with a golden coronella, which was placed on his 
head by the Countess of Buchan, in the presence, and 
with the consent of four bishops, five earls, and the people 
of the land, at Scone, on the 27th of March I3o6. 13 



Fcedera, i. pt. 2, p. 982, King Edward 
I. on the death of Comyn ; 987, Bull 
of Clement V. excommunicating 
Robert de Brus ; Murimuth, 7, a 
1305; Scalachron., 129, 130; Baker, 
2 ; Chron. Lanercost, 203, 10 Feb. 
I 35[-6] ; Hemingburgh, ii. 245, 246, 
a circumstantial account of Comyn 's 
death; Trivet, 407, iv. Kal. Feb. 
[29 Jan.], evidently a mistake for iv. 
Id. Feb. [10 Feb.]; Walsingham, i. 
108 [makes the same mistake as 
Trivet] ; Rishanger, 229 [error in 
date], 422 ; Matt. Westminster, 453 ; 
Langtoft, ii. 364-367; Hist. Doc. 
Scot.,i. 431, John Comyn committed 
to prison for assaulting the door- 
keeper of the Exchequer, (6 Oct. ?) 
1294; Cal. Doc. Scot., ii., 164, No. 
702, 6 Oct. 1294, John Comyn as- 
saulting the doorkeeper of the Ex- 
chequer ; 471, No. 1747, 24 Feb. 
1305-6, his murder; 473, No. 1754, 
5 Apr. 1306, John Comyn of Badenagh 
murdered. See above, p. 128, No. 7; 
also The Second Interregnum, p. 121, 
No. ii, and p. 124, No. 20. 

11. References same as No. 13, 
below. 

12. See above, No. 3, and below, 
No. 13. 

13. Fordun, Annals, 118, 27 Mar. 
1306; Scotichron., ii. 230, bk. xii. 
c. 9, 27 Mar. 1306, 528, Abbreviatio, 
27 Mar. ; Extracta, 131, 27 Mar. 



1306; Book of Pluscarden, bk. ix. 
c. 7, vi. Id. Apr. [10 Apr., evidently 
a mistake for vi. Kal. Apr., 27 Mar.] ; 
Annals of Scotland, ii. i, 27 Mar. 
1306; Chron. Scots, 389, 26 Mar. 
1306; Hemingburgh, ii. 247, crowned 
by the Countess of Buchan in the 
presence, and with the consent of 
four bishops, fare earls, and the 
people of the land, at Scone, on the 
Annunciation of the Blessed Mary 
[25 Mar.] 1306; Trivet, 407, in the 
abbey at Scone, in the feast of the 
Annunciation of the Blessed Virgin ; 
Rishanger, 229, in the feast of the 
Annunciation of the Blessed Virgin, 
422 ; Scalachron., 130, in the feast 
of the Annunciation of our Lady ; 
Chron. Lanercost, 203, in the Annun- 
ciation of the Blessed Virgin, 1306 ; 
Walsingham, i. 108, in the feast of 
the Annunciation of the Blessed Vir- 
gin, *a 1307, in the 34th year of 
King Edward I.' [1307 is wrong, the 
34th year (1306) is right] ; Matt. 
Westminster, 453 ; Langtoft, ii. 331, 
366, 367 [no date]; Capgrave, 173, 
174, a 1305 [wrong year]; The Brus, 
Spalding Club, 32, c. 13 [no date]; 
The Bruce, Scottish Text Society, 
i. 34, bk. ii. 11. 175-181 [no date] ; 
Fcedera, i. pt. 2, p. 1012, the golden 
coronella mentioned, 20 Mar. 1306-7 ; 
Cal. Doc. Scot., ii. 509, No. 1914, 
20 Mar. 1306-7. 



130 



ROBERT THE FIRST 



[1306 



The Battle of Methven. The English, under the earl 
of Pembroke, defeated the Scots, under King Robert I., at 
Methven, near Perth, ipth June I3O6. 14 

The Battle of Dairy. Alexander of Argyll, lord of 
Lorn, defeated King Robert I. at Dairy, on the borders 
of Perth and Argyll, nth August I3O6. 15 

Kildrummie Castle Taken. The English, under the 
earls of Lancaster and Hereford, besieged and took Kil- 
drummie Castle in Aberdeenshire from the Scots under 
Nigel Brus, brother of King Robert I., on or just before 
the 1 3th of September I3O6. 16 

Two Ladies in Cages. Elisabeth, second wife of King 
Robert I., Marjorie, his then only child daughter of his 
first wife with Marie and Christiana, his sisters, took 
refuge in the sanctuary of St. Duthac, but were given up 
by the earl of Ross to Edward I., king of England, who 
ordered them to be imprisoned; two of the ladies probably 
the sisters to be kept in cages, 7th November 1 3o6. 17 



14. Fordun, Annals, 119, 19 June 
1306 ; Scotichron. , ii. 233, bk. xii. 
c. II, 19 June 1306; Book of Plus- 
carden, bk. ix. c. 8, 19 June 1306; 
Extracta, 132, 9 June 1 306 [probably 
a clerical error for 19] ; Chron. Scots 
(F), 389, a 1306 ; Hemingburgh, ii. 
249, Sunday after the Feast of St. 
John the Baptist [26 June] ; Trivet, 
410; Cal. Doc. Scot., ii. 486, No. 
1811, 26 June [not No. 1823, as note 
in Preface, xlviii] ; The Bruce, i. 41, 
bk. ii. 1. 346 ; Annals of Scotland, 
ii. 7, 19 June 1306; [in the year 
1306, St. John the Baptist's Day, 
24 June, was on Friday. The Scot- 
tish historians state that the battle 
was fought on 19 June ; the English 
historians state that it was fought on 
26 June the igth was the Sunday 
before St. John the Baptist's Day, 
the 26th was the Sunday after.] 

15. Fordun, Annals, 120, n Aug. 
1306; Scotichron., ii. 233, bk. xii. 



c. n, ii Aug. 1306; Extracta, 132, 
1 1 Aug. ; Book of Pluscarden, bk. ix. 
c. 8, ii Aug. 1306; Chron., Scots (F), 
389, ' Dalrye in the partis of Argyle,' 
a 1306; TheBruce,i. 50, bk. ii. 1. 589, 
p. 51, bk. iii. 1. I ; Annals of Scotland, 
ii. 8 ; Proceedings Society of Anti- 
quaries, xii. 145. 

1 6. Fordun, Annals, 120, the 
Queen to St. Duthac in Ross ; 
Scotichron., ii. 233, bk. xii. c. n, 
Kildromy taken ; Book of Pluscar- 
den, bk. ix. c. 8; Scalachron., 131; 
Matt. Westminster, 455, 456, Nigel 
Bruce beheaded ; The Bruce, pt. i. 
64, bk. iii. 11. 337-367, Kildrummie ; 
82-83, bk. iv. the Queen goes to 
Tayne, 83, siege of Kildrummie ; 
Cal. Doc. Scot., ii. 490, No. 1829, 
'lately taken,' in a letter written 
13 Sep. 1306; Annals of Scotland, 
ii. 16. 

1 7. [These two ladies were probably 
Marie and Christiana, sisters of King 



29] 



ROBERT THE FIRST 



131 



A Countess in a Cage. Isabella, countess of Buchan, 
who had placed the crown on the head of King Robert I., 
was taken prisoner, and was kept in a cage strongly latticed 
with wood, cross-barred, and secured with iron, in a turret 
of the castle of Berwick, by order of Edward I., king of 
England, 7th November 1 306. 18 

The King's Brothers Executed. Nigel Brus, taken 
at Kildrummie in September 1306, was executed at Ber- 
wick. Sir Thomas Brus and his brother Alexander, dean 
of Glasgow, were defeated and taken prisoners by Dungal 
Mak Dowil, at Loch Ryan in Galloway, 9th February, 
and were executed at Carlisle, I7th February I3O6-7. 19 

The Battle of Loudon Hill. The Scots, under King 
Robert I., defeated the English, under the earl of Pem- 
broke, at Loudon Hill in Ayrshire, loth May I3O7. 20 

' The Hammer of the Scots ' as Edward I, king of 
England, styled himself died at Burgh-on-the-Sands, 
near Carlisle, 7th July I3O7. 21 



Robert] ; Nat. MSS., ii. n, No. xvi., 
a letter from King Robert's second 
wife, Elisabeth, to King Edward I. ; 
Fordun, Annals, 120, 139; Scoti- 
chron., ii. 233, bk. xii. c. u; Matt. 
Westminster, 454; Cal. Doc. Scot., 
ii. 495, No. 1851, 7 Nov. 1306; 
Annals of Scotland, ii. n, and note 
t; Peerage of Scotland, i. 319. 

18. Isabella, daughter of Duncan, 
earl of Fife, and wife of John 
Comyn, 3rd earl of Buchan ; Cal. 
Doc. Scot., ii. 495, No. 1851, 7 Nov. 
1306; Matt. Westminster, 455; 
Annals of Scotland, ii. 12, and note 
* ; Peerage of Scotland, i. 263. 

19. Fordun, Annals, 120; Scoti- 
chron., ii. 233, bk. xii. c. u; Book 
of Pluacarden, bk. ix. c. 8 ; Scala- 
chron., 132; Chron. Lanercost, 205, 
taken prisoners 10 Feb. Alexander 
and Thomas executed at Carlisle 17 
Feb. 1306-7 ; Hemingburgh, ii. 249, 
Nigel executed ; p. 252, Thomas and 






Alexander executed; Trivet, 412, Sir 
Thomas and Alexander taken and 
executed ; Matt. Westminster, 455- 
458 ; Langtoft, ii. 337 ; The Bruce, i. 
81, bk. iv. ; Cal. Doc. Scot., iv. 
489 ; Annals of Scotland, ii. 16, 17, 
23, 24. See also above, David I., 
p. 67, Nos. 66-68. 

20. Scalachron., 132; Matt. West- 
minster, 458 ; Hemingburgh, vol. ii. 
p. 265 ; Trivet, 412, 413 ; The Bruce, 
i. 192, bk. viii. 1. 150: 

' By Lowdoun hill mete hym sail I.' 
Annals of Scotland, ii. 24, 25, and 
notes. 

21. Fcedera, i. pt. 2, p. 1018, 7 July 
1307 ; Hemingburgh, ii. 266-268, 7 
July 1307 ; Trivet, 413, dies at 
' Bwrgum super Sande,' 7 July 1307 ; 
Matt. Westminster, 458, at Burgh on 
Sands, 7 July 1307 ; Murimuth, 8, 
and note 2 ; Capgrave, 174, dies in 
the translation of St. Thomas [7 
July], in the 35th year of his reign ; 



132 



EGBERT THE FIRST 



[1306 



The Rout at Slioch. King Robert I. routed John 
Cornyn, 3rd earl of Buchan, at Slioch in Aberdeenshire, 
25th December i3O/. 22 

The Battle of Inverurie. King Robert I. defeated 
John Comyn, 3rd earl of Buchan, and the English, at 
Inverurie in Aberdeenshire, 22nd May I3o8. 23 

Argyll Subdued. King Robert I. defeated Alexander 
of Argyll, lord of Lorn, and the men of Argyll, on the 
22nd of August I3O8. 24 

The Clergy of the Kingdom of Scotland, assembled in 
General Council, drew up a declaration, stating that they 
had willingly made due fealty to Lord Robert, the illus- 
trious King of Scotland, who was their lawful king, and 
appended their seals to the document, at Dundee, 24th 
February I3O9-IO. 25 

England Invaded. The Scots, under King Robert I, 



Baker, 3; Walsingham, i. 116, 7 
July 1307; Langtoft, ii. 381, 'at 
Burg upon Sands,' 7 July 1307 ; 
Sealachron. , 133, 'a Burch sure le 
SablounJ in July 1307 ; Fordun, 
Annals, 123, 5 Apr. 1307, at Burgh- 
upon-Sands [wrong day and month] ; 
Scotichron., ii. 236, bk. xii. c. 13, 
the day before the translation of St. 
Thomas the Martyr [6 July] 1307 
[wrong day] ; Book of Pluscarden, 
bk. ix. c. 9, 5 Apr. 1307 [wrong day 
and month] ; Annals of Scotland, ii. 
26, 7 July 1307 ; Chronology of His- 
tory, 347, Table of Regnal years, 7 
July 1307 ; Inscription on his tomb 
in Westminster Abbey, * EDWARDUS 

PRIMUS SCOTORUM MALLEUS HIC EST. ' 

22. Old Statistical Account, iv. 
55 ; The Brus, Spalding Club, 1856, 
pp. 497, 517; Book of Bon Ac- 
cord, 1839, p. 355, note ; Fordun, 
Annals, 122, Christmas Day, 1307 ; 
Scotichronicon, ii. 235, bk. xii. c. 
13, Christmas Day, 1307 ; Book of 
Pluscarden, bk. ix. c. 9, Christmas 
Day, 1307 ; Annals of Scotland, ii. 



28, 29 ; Peerage of Scotland, i. 
263. 

23. Fordun, Annals, 124, a 1308 ; 
Scotichron., ii. 240, bk. xii. c. 17, a 
1308 ; Book of Pluscarden, bk. ix. c. 
10 ; Annals of Scotland, ii. 29, 30, 
and notes ; Peerage of Scotland, 
vol. i. p. 263. 

24. Fordun, Annals, 126, within a 
week after the Assumption of the 
Blessed Virgin Mary, a 1308 ; Scoti- 
chron., ii. 242, bk. xii. c. 17, the 
octave of the Assumption of the 
Blessed Virgin Mary [22 Aug. is the 
octave] ; Book of Pluscarden, bk. ix. 
c. 10 ; Annals of Scotland, ii. 34, 
35 ; Cal. Doc. Scot., iii., Preface, 
pp. xiij, xiv. 

25. The original declaration is in 
H.M. General Register House, Edin- 
burgh ; Acts of Parliaments, i. 100, 
black (460, red), 24 Feb. i3O9[-io]; 
Nat. MSS., ii. 12, No. xvn. 24 Feb. 
i3O9[-io], facsimile, transcript, and 
translation ; Scottish Provincial 
Councils, 20 ; Annals of Scotland, 
vol. ii. p. 40. 



1329] 



ROBERT THE FIRST 



133 



ravaged the north of England in autumn 1311, and 
Durham in the year 1 3 1 2. 26 

Perth Taken. The Scots, under King Robert L, took 
the town of Perth from the English and razed the walls, 
8th January I3I2-I3. 27 

Roxburgh Castle Taken. The Scots, under Sir James 
Douglas, took Roxburgh Castle from the English, 27th 
February 1 3 12-1 3. 28 

Edinburgh Castle Taken. The Scots, under Sir 
Thomas Ranulph, earl of Moray, took Edinburgh Castle 
from the English, I4th March I3I2-I3. 29 

The Isle of Man Taken. The Scots, under King 
Robert L, landed in the Isle of Man, and subdued the 
inhabitants, nth June I3I3- 30 

The Battle of Bannockburn. The Scots, under their 
king, Robert L, totally defeated the English, under their 
king, Edward II., at Bannockburn, near Stirling, on the 
24th of June (St. John the Baptist's Day) I3H. 31 



26. Fordun, Annals, 128, 129, a 
1311-1312; Scotichron., ii. 243, bk. 
xii. c. 1 8 ; Book of Pluscarden, bk. 
ix. c. ii ; Chron. Lanercost, 220; 
Hemingburgh, ii. 294, a 1312. 

27. Fordun, Annals, 129, 8 Jan. 
1312-13; Scotichron., ii. 243, 244, 
bk. xii. c. 1 8, 8 Jan. 1312-13; Book 
of Pluscarden, bk. ix. c. u. 

28. Fordun, Annals, 130, on 
Fasterns-een 1313 [27 Feb. 1312- 
13]; Scotichron., ii. 245, bk. xii. c. 
19 ; Book of Pluscarden, bk. ix. c. 9, 
on Fasterns-een [Shrove Tuesday, 
27 Feb. 1312-13]; The Bruce, i. 252, 
bk. x. 11. 352-505 ; Froissart, i. c. 17, 
Douglas bore * azure a chief silver ' ; 
Annals of Scotland, ii. 48, ' 6 and 7 
Mar. 1312-13'; [Sir David Dal- 
rymple is wrong, Fasterns-een in 
1312-13 was 27 Feb.] 

29. Fordun, Annals, 130; Scoti- 
chron., ii. 245, bk. xii. c. 19 ; Book 
of Pluscarden, bk. ix. c. 9, 14 Mar. ; 



Baker, 6, almost all the castles taken 
by Robertus de Bruys ; The Bruce, 
i. 258, bk. x. 11. 507-787 ; Froissart, 
i. c. 17 [Sir Thomas Ranulph], 'the 
earl of Murray [Moray] bore argent 
3 pillows gules ' ; Annals of Scotland, 
ii. 49. 

30. Fordun, Annals, 130; Scoti- 
chron., ii. 245, bk. xii. c. 19; Book 
of Pluscarden, bk. ix. c. 9 ; Annals 
of Scotland, ii. 50, 51. 

31. Fordun, Annals, 131, St. John 
the Baptist's Day [24 June] 1314; 
Scotichron., ii. 246-256, bk. xii. cc. 
20-23 [King Edward II. brought 
Baston, a Carmelite friar, to record 
his intended victory over the Scots, 
but King Robert I. made Baston 
celebrate the Scottish victory over 
the English. Baston's Latin rhym- 
ing verses are given in chapter 22] ; 
Barbour, The Bruce, i. 285, bk. xi. 
1. 348, to the end of vol. i. ; Book of 
Pluscarden, bk. ix. c. 12, St. John 



134 



ROBERT THE FIRST 



[1306 



The Heirs to the Crown. Parliament enacted that, 
failing King Robert and the heirs-male of his body, his 
brother Edward Brus or one of his sons should succeed to 
the Crown ; and failing them, Marjorie, the king's daughter, 
should succeed. The parliament met in the parish church 
at Ayr, on Sunday, the 27th of April I3I5- 32 

Ireland Invaded. Edward Brus, brother of King 
Robert I., with six thousand Scots, landed at Carrickfergus, 
on the coast of Ulster in Ireland, 25th May I3i5. 33 

England Invaded. The Scots ravaged the bishopric of 
Durham about the end of June 1315; and King Robert I. 
besieged Carlisle unsuccessfully from the i4th of July to 
the 3rd of August 1315. M 



the Baptist's Day [no year] ; Scala- 
chron., 140-143; Chron. Lanercost, 
225-228 ; Baker, 7-9, the campaign 
in Scotland, with an account of the 
battle of Bannockburn, 185-189, 
notes and illustrations; Capgrave, 
1 80, ' ther wer ded and taken on 
the English part, of lordes, barnes, 
and kny tes CLIIII. ' ; Walsingham, i. 
139-142, 'the earls, barons, bannerets, 
and knights killed or taken prisoners 
numbered 154'; Kny gh ton, 2533, 
St. John the Baptist's Day ; Troke- 
lowe, 24-29 ; Annals of Loch C6, i. 
563, a battle at Srubh-leith in Alba, 
a 1314. [This word Srubh-leith 
(Stirling?) may account for the place 
where the death of King Alexander 
I. occurred being called ' Crasleth,' 
' Strafleth,' and ' Cruflet ' in some of 
the old chronicles. See also above, 
Alexander I., p. 55;] Cal. Doc. 
Scot., iii., Preface, pp. xx, xxi ; 
Annals of Scotland, ii. 52-67. 

32. Acts of Parliaments, i. 104, 
black (464, red), 26 Apr. 1315 [the 
Act is dated 1315 on Sunday next 
before the Feast of the Apostles 
SS. Philip and James, 27 Apr., the 
heading is wrong] ; Scotichron. , ii. 



256-258, bk. xii. c. 24, copy of the 
Act ; Wyntoun, ii. 373, bk. riii. c. 
22, 11. 3063-3074 ; Book of Pluscar- 
den, bk. ix. c. 13, summary of the 
Act ; Annals of Scotland, ii. 70-74, 
summary of the Act [Sir David 
Dairy mple, ii. 70, note, finds fault 
with Mr. Ruddiman's date, but is 
wrong in his own date ; the Sunday 
next before the feast of St. Philip 
and St. James in the year 1315 was 
27th Apr. , not 26th] ; Mas Latrie, 
139,140 [in the ' Table Chronologique,' 
the year 1315 is erroneously printed 
' 1515,' and the date of Easter, 
' Mar. 28,' instead of Mar. 23, as it 
ought to be]. 

33. Fordun, Annals, 132, a 1315, 
Ed ward Brus ; a 1316, King Robert 
I. ; Scotichron., 258, bk. xii. c. 25; 
Book of Pluscarden, bk. ix. c. 14 ; 
Chron. Lanercost, 230 ; The Bruce, 
ii. bks. xiv., xv., xvi. ; Baker, 9, 
189; Annals of Loch Ce, i. 563-567, 
on the coast of Uladh with 300 
ships; Capgrave, 181 ; Walsingham, 
i. 144 ; Annals of Scotland, ii. 76-90. 

34. Cal. Doc. Scot., iii., No. 621 ; 
Chron. Lanercost, 230-232 ; Annals 
of Scotland, ii. 70. 



1329] 



ROBERT THE FIRST 



135 



King of Ireland. Edward Brus, brother of King 
Robert I., was crowned king of Ireland, 2nd May I3i6. 35 
King Robert I. in Ireland. Robert Brus, ' King of Alba/ 
went to Ireland to support his brother Edward ; he landed 
at Carrickfergus in autumn 1316, and stayed in Ireland 
until May isi/. 36 

Berwick Taken. The Scots took Berwick from the 
English, who had held it for twenty years, on the 28th 
of March I3i8. 37 

England Invaded. The Scots, under Sir Thomas 
Ranulph, earl of Moray, invaded and burned the northern 
parts of England, in May I3i8. 38 

Edward Brus, king of Ireland, was defeated and slain 
by the English at Tagher, near Dundalk in Ireland, on 
the 1 4th of October I3i8. 39 

The Heir to the Crown. Robert (afterwards King 
Robert II.), only son of Walter, the high steward, by his 



35. Nat. MSS., ii. 1 6, No. xxin., 
confirmation of a charter of Edward, 
king of Irelan\d ; Fordun, Annals, 
132; Scotichron., ii. 258, bk. xii. c. 
25 ; Book of Pluscarden, bk. ix. c. 
14 ; Extracta, 145 ; Annals of Loch 
Ce, i. 565; Capgrave, 181 ; The 
Bruce, ii. bk. xvi. 1. 313 ; Annals of 
Scotland, ii. 83, 2 May 1316. 

36. Fordun, Annals, 132, went to 
Ireland in 1316 ; Scotichron., ii. 258 ; 
bk. xii. c. 25 ; Chron. Lanercost, 
2 33 went to Ireland ; 234, returned 
about Whitsunday [22 May] 1317; 
The Bruce, ii. bk. xvi. ; Annals of 
Loch C, i. 591 ; Annals of Scotland, 
ii. 84-92. 

37. Fordun, Annals, 133 ; Scoti- 
chron., ii. 271, bk. xii. c. 37 ; Book 
of Pluscarden, bk. ix. c. 19 ; Chron. 
Lanercost, 234 ; The Bruce, ii. 76, 
bk. xvii. ; Annals of Scotland, ii. 
97-99- 

38. Fordun, Annals, 133 ; Scoti- 
chron., ii. 272, bk. xii. c. 37 ; Book of 



Pluscarden, bk. ix. c. 19; Chron. Lan- 
ercost, 235, 236 ; The Bruce (Scottish 
Text Soc. ), ii. [Sir Thomas Ranulph, 
earl of Moray, appears erroneously 
in the margins as ' Sir Thomas Mur- 
ray '] ; Annals of Scotland, ii. 99. 

39. Fordun, Annals, 133, at the 
battle of Dundalk, 14 Oct. 1318; 
Scotichron., ii. 271, bk. xii. c. 37, at 
the battle of Dundalk, 14 Oct. 1318 ; 
Extracta, 145, 1316 [error]; 147, 
23 Oct. 1318; Book of Pluscarden, 
bk. ix. c. 14, at Dundalk, 14 Oct. 
1318; The Bruce, ii. bk. xviii. ; 
Baker, 9, 189 ; Walsingham, i. 154 ; 
Knyghton, 2533, killed on the day of 
St. Kalixtus[i40ct. 1317]; Knighton 
(Rolls), i. 411, 412; Capgrave, 184, 
a 1316; Annals of Loch Ce, i. 595, 
at Dun-Dalgan, three years and a half 
in Erin; Cal. Doc. Scot., iii. 121, 
No. 640, six months after the battle ; 
Annals of Scotland, ii. 101, 102; 
Exchequer Rolls, i., Preface, cxxxi. 
See also above, David I. , p. 67, No. 65. 



136 ROBERT THE FIRST [1306 

wife Marjorie Brus, was declared heir to the Crown, in 
default of male issue of his grandfather King Robert I., by 
Parliament, at Scone, 3rd December I3i8. 40 

The Battle or ' Chapter ' of Mitton. The Scots, under 
Sir Thomas Ranulph, earl of Moray, and Sir James Douglas, 
defeated the English, who lost three thousand men, includ- 
ing about three hundred clergy, at Mitton-on-Swale in 
Yorkshire, 2oth September i3iQ. 41 

The Letter of the Scottish Barons to the Pope. 
The earls, barons, and the whole community of the king- 
dom of Scotland sent a letter to Pope John XXII., acknow- 
ledging Robert Brus as their king. The letter is dated at 
the monastery at Arbroath, 6th April I32O. 42 

Resistance to the English. The Scottish Barons 
declared in their letter to the Pope John XXII. ' For 
so long as a hundred remain alive, we never will in any 
degree be subject to the dominion of the English. Since 
not for glory, riches or honours we fight, but for liberty 
alone which no good man loses but with his life.' (6th 
April I320.) 43 

'The Black Parliament' tried about twelve persons 
accused of conspiring against King Robert I. Some were 

40. Acts of Parliaments, i. 105, General Register House, Edinburgh ; 
black (465, red), at Scone, 3 Dec. Acts of Parliaments, i. 114, 115, 
1318; Scotichron., ii. 290, 291, bk. black (474, 475, red), also a facsimile 
xiii. c. 13, copy of the Act; Book of with coloured seals; Nat. MSS., ii. 
Pluscarden, bk. ix. c. 24, copy of the 17, No. xxiv., copies of modern and 
Act ; Annals of Scotland, ii. 102-105, former state of document, with tran- 
substance of the Act. script and translation ; Diplomata 

41. [Called ' The Chapter ' of Mit- Scotia?, Plate LI., facsimile without 
ton from the 300 clergy slain there] ; the seals ; PI. LII. , transcript ; Scoti- 
Rotuli Scotia3, i. 202, 4 Sep. 13, chron., ii. 275-277, bk. xiii. cc. 2, 3; 
Edward II. [a 1319]; Fordun, Book of Pluscarden, bk. viii. c. 54 
Annals, 134; Scotichron., ii. 259, (Latin and English) ; Skene, Chron. 
bk. xii. c. 26; Walsingham, i. 156, Picts and Scots, 291-294, letter to 
on the vigil of St. Matthew, Apostle the Pope [John XXII.] ; Annals of 
and Evangelist [20 Sep.] ; Capgrave, Scotland, ii. pp. 115-121, substance 
185, a 1317 [wrong year]; The of the letter. See also below, p. 144, 
Bruce, ii. 109, bk. xvii. 1. 831 ; note 82, and p. 396. 

Annals of Scotland, ii. 112, 113. 43. The same references as in the 

42. Duplicate of original in H.M. preceding note (No. 42). 



.1329] ROBERT THE FIRST 137 

acquitted, but William de Soules and the Countess of 
Stratherne were sentenced to perpetual imprisonment, and 
David de Brechin and three others were executed. The 
' Black Parliament ' was held at Scone about the beginning 
of August I32O. 44 

England Invaded. King Robert I. entered England, 
and laid waste the county of Lancaster, and the country 
as far as Stanmore, ist July I322. 45 

Scotland Invaded. Edward II., king of England, 
entered Scotland on the i2th of August 1322, and 
marched with an army as far as Edinburgh. He found 
the country deserted, and was obliged to withdraw for 
want of food. On his way southwards his army plundered 
the abbeys at Holyrood and Melrose, and burned the 
abbey at Dryburgh, in August I322. 46 

The Battle of Biland. The Scots, under King Robert 
I., defeated the English, under King Edward II., near 
Biland Abbey in Yorkshire, I4th October I322. 47 
His Son and Heir. King Robert's elder son, David, was 
born at Dunfermline, on the 5th of March I323-4. 48 

44. Fordun, Annals, 135, in the carden, bk. ix. c. 21, 12 Aug. 1322; 
beginning of August 1320; Scoti- Chron. Lanercost, 247 ; Walsingham, 
chron., ii. 274, bk, xiii. c. I ; Book i. 166, 167 ; Annals of Scotland, ii. 
of Pluscarden, bk. ix. c. 20, The 126-128. 

Black Parliament of Scotland; The 47. Fordun, Annals, 137, King 

Bruce, i. 138, bk. xix. ; Annals of Robert I. enters England, i Oct. 

Scotland, ii. 118-121. 1322; Scotichron., ii. 278, 279, bk. 

45. Fordun, Annals, 137, on I July xiii. c. 4 ; Book of Pluscarden, bk. ix. 
1322 entered England; Scotichron., c. 21; Chron. Lanercost, 247, 248; 
ii. 278, bk. xiii. c. 4, i July 1322; Trokelowe, 63, 64; Walsingham, i. 
Book of Pluscarden, bk. ix. c. 21; 166, 167; The Bruce, ii. 134, bk. 
Knyghton, 2542, about the transla- xviii. 11. 477-479 ; Annals of Scotland, 
tion of St. Thomas [7 July]; Chron. ii. 129-132. 

Lanercost, 246, on the octave of St. 48. Fordun, Annals, 138, in the 

John the Baptist [July i, not ' June Latin version, it is 'MCCCXXIII. quinto 

17.' The editor calls the vigil of St. die Martii dieLunce' ; in the English 

Margaret the Virgin, 'July 12'; it version, 'on Monday, 5 Mar. 1325' 

is July 19]; Annals of Scotland, ii. [wrong year and day ; in 1325, 5 Mar. 

126. was Tuesday]; Scotichron., ii. 279, 

46. Fordun, Annals, 137, 12 Aug. bk. xiii. c. 5, three sets of Latin verses, 
1322; Scotichron., ii. 278, bk. xiii. by different persons, state that he 
<J. 4, 12 Aug. 1322; Book of Plus- was born 5 Mar. 1 323^4] ; Wyntoun, 



138 'ROBERT THE FIRST [1306 

The Scots College in Paris was founded by David 
de Moravia, bishop of Moray, in I325-6. 49 
'The King's Income was so much diminished by war/ 
that the tenth penny of all rents was unanimously 
granted in life-rent to Robert, king of Scots, by the earls, 
barons, burgesses, and all the other free tenants of his 
kingdom, in full parliament at Cambuskenneth, on the 
1 5th of July I326. 50 

David Brus and Robert Stewart. The clergy, the 
nobility, and the people of Scotland, in presence of King 
Robert I., took the oaths of fealty to David, the king's son 
and heir; and in case David should die childless, to 
Robert, the king's grandson, at Cambuskenneth, in I326. 51 

England Invaded. The Scots, under Sir Thomas 
Ranulph, earl of Moray, and Sir James Douglas, invaded 
England on the i5th June, and after remaining and 
ravaging there for some weeks, finally eluded Edward III., 
king of England, and his army, at Stanhope, in Weardale, 
Durham, and returned to Scotland, gth August I32/. 52 

ii. 371, 372, bk. viii. c. 22, atDunferm- 17, there is a facsimile of the tran- 

line ; Book of Pluscarden, bk. ix. script of indenture and a confirma- 

c. 21, in the year 132304]; Annals tion, dated 28 Feb. 1327-8. 
of Scotland, ii. 142, 5 Mar. i323[-4]. 51. Fordun, Annals, 139, a 1326; 

ee also below, David II., p. 145, No. 3. Scotichron., ii. 287, bk. xiii. c. 12, 

49. Scottish Bishops, 140, David ai326; Book of Pluscarden, bk. ix. 
'Moray, 'consecrated bishop of Moray c. 22; Annals of Scotland, ii. 144. 
at Avignon, 28 June 1299, died 20 52. Fordun, Annals, 140, the Scots 
Jan. 1325-6. [The foundation of the entered England, 15 June 1327; Sir 
College was confirmed after the Thomas Ranulph, earl of Moray, and 
bishop's death by Charles IV. ' le Sir James Douglas went to Weardale 
Bel,' king of France, in August 1326.] in Aug. 1327 ; Scotichron., ii. 287, 

50. Original transcript of Inden- 288, bk. xiii. c. 12, returned to Scot- 
ture in H.M. General Register House, land, 9 Aug. 1327; Froissart, i. 
Edinburgh, 15 July 1326 ; Nat. MSS., cc. 17, 18, 'The king of England 
ii. 22, No. xxvii., facsimile, 15 July [Edward III.] makes his first journey 
1326, and Introduction,ix, No. xxvii., against the Scots' a long circum- 
' This seems to be the first statutory stantial account, also the customs 
recognition of our national constitu- of the Scots, and how they wage war ;. 
tion'; Acts of Parliaments, i. 115, Hemingburgh, ii. 298; Knyghton, 
116, black (475, 476, red), at Cam- 2552; Walsingham, i. 191, 192; The 
buskenneth, 15 July 1326; at page Bruce, ii. 147-170, bk. xix. [the edi- 
123, black (483, red), Appendix, No. tor erroneously calls Sir Thomas 



1329] 



ROBERT THE FIRST 



139 



Death of the Queen. Elisabeth, daughter of Haymer 
de Burk, earl of Ulster, second wife of King Robert I., 
was buried in the choir at Dunfermline. She died at 
Cullen, 26th October I32;. 53 

The Treaty of Northampton. An indenture for the 
marriage of David, eldest son and heir of Robert I., king of 
Scotland, with Johanna, daughter of Edward II., and sister 
of Edward III., kings of England, was concluded in Edin- 
burgh, I7th March 1327-8, and was ratified at North- 
ampton, 4th May I328. 54 

The Marriage of David, heir-apparent to the throne, 
with Johanna, sister of Edward III., king of England, was 
celebrated at Berwick, iyth July I328. 65 

' The Coronation Stone.' One of the stipulations in the 
marriage contract of Prince David (1328) was that the 
1 Coronation Stone ' should be returned to Scotland ; but 
the abbot of Westminster refused to allow it to be removed, 
and the stone still (1906) remains in Westminster Abbey. 56 



Ranulph, earl of Moray or Mureff, 
' Sir Thomas Murray '] ; Annals of 
Scotland, ii. 145-156. 

53. Nat. MSS., ii. n, No. xvi., 
her letter to King Edward I. ; Scoti- 
chron., ii. 288, bk. xiii. c. 12, 26 Oct. 
1327; Book of Pluscarden, bk. ix. 
c. 23, died a 1327, buried at Dun- 
fermline ; Matt. Westminster, 454 ; 
Exchequer Rolls, i. cxxiv, and cxxv, 
note 4 ; Annals of Scotland, ii. 156. 

54. Original treaty, dated 17 Mar. 
1327-8, in H.M. General Register 
House, Edinburgh ; Nat. MSS., ii. 21, 
No. xxvi., photozincograph, tran- 
script, and translation see also the 
Introduction, iv, for the description 
of the deed ; Acts of Parliaments, i. 
124-126, black (484-486, red), 17 Mar. 
1327-8, Appendix, 19, 20; Fcedera, 
ii. pt. 2, 730, 734, 740, 741 ; Baker, 40, 
'in quindena Pasce,' A.D. mcccxxvij., 
215, Notes and Illustrations; Wals- 
ingham, i. 190 ; Annals of Scotland, 
ii. 156-164, and notes. 



55. Fordun, Annals, 142, at Ber- 
wick, 17 July 1328; Scotichron., ii. 
291, bk. xiii. c. 14, at Berwick, 
17 July 1328 ; Wyntoun, ii. 374, 
bk. viii. c. 23, 11. 3075, etc. ; Book 
of Pluscarden, bk. ix. c. 22, at Ber- 
wick, 1328; Baker, 40 [no date], 215, 
Notes and Illustrations, 1. 15 ; Hem- 
ingburgh, ii. 300, at Berwick, 12 July 
1328 [wrong day]; Chron. Lanercost, 
261, 'Dominica die proximo, ante, 

festnm sanctce Marice Magdalene?,' 
[Jul. 19] [wrong day] ; Walsingham, 
i. 192 ; The Bruce, ii. 171, bk. xx. 
11. 36, etc. ; Annals of Scotland, ii. 
158-161, 163, at Berwick, 12 July 
1328. [Sir David Dalrymple quotes 
Hemingford (or Hemingburgh), but 
' 12 July ' is wrong.] See also below, 
David II. , p. 146, No. 5. 

56. Fordun, Annals, 48; Baker, 
40, 41, 216, note, 'Lapis ille grandis'; 
Annals of Scotland, ii. 158, and 
note* ; Skene, The Coronation Stone. 
See also above, p. 120, No. 4. 



140 



ROBERT THE FIRST 



[1306 



King Robert's Heart. The king, by a letter addressed to 
his son and to the rest of his successors, directed that his 
heart should be buried in the monastery at Melrose. The 
letter is dated at Cardross, nth May I32Q. 57 

On His Death-bed, King Robert I. made Sir James Douglas 
swear that he would carry his heart against the enemies 
of the name of Christ, June I329. 58 

Died. King Robert the First died at Cardross in Dumbar- 
tonshire, 7th June I329. 59 

Aged 54 years 1 1 months and 27 days. 60 

Buried in the middle of the choir before the high-altar of 
the abbey church at Dunfermline. 61 

A Marble Monument, made in Paris in King Robert's life- 
time, was erected over his grave. 62 

The Heart of King Robert I. was taken towards the Holy 
Land by Sir James Douglas, who was killed when fighting 
against the Moors, near Granada in Spain. King Robert's 



57. Nat. MSS., ii. 23, No. xxix., a 
letter to his son David and the rest 
of his successors. [The letter was 
written 27 days before his death, ' in 
the year of our reign, the twenty- 
fourth,' 1329.] *See also below, No. 63. 

58. Baker, 41, 42, 216, note, Jaco- 
bus Dowglas ; Froissart, Chronicles, 
i. 78, c. 20, 'King Robert of Scotland 
dies,' his directions to Douglas about 
his heart ; Scotichron., ii. 300, 301, 
bk. xiii. cc. 20, 21 ; Book of Pluscar- 
den, bk. ix. c. 26 ; The Bruce, ii. 177, 
bk. xx. 11. 149-238, etc. ; Annals of 
Scotland, ii. 163. See also below, 
David II., p. 147, No. 10. 

59. Fordun, Annals, 143, at Car- 
dross, 7 June 1329; Scotichron., ii. 
292, bk. xiii. c. 14, at Cardross, 7 June 
1329; Wyntoun, ii. 375, 376, bk. viii. 
c. 23, 1. 3113; Book of Pluscarden, 
bk. ix. c. 23, 7 June 1329 ; The Bruce, 
ii. 181, bk. xx. 11. 239, etc. ; Annals 
of Scotland, ii. 163, at Cardross, 
7 June 1329; Hemingburgh, ii. 301, 



7 June 1329 ; Chron. Anglise, 2, 7 June 
1329; Chron. Lanercost, 264; Wals- 
ingham, i. 190, 192; Exchequer Rolls, 
i., Preface, p. cxxi, died gth [error] 
June 1329 ; Baker, 38 (margin), death 
of Robert Bruce, gth [error] June 1 329. 
[The editors of these last two works 
are admittedly wrong; the date of 
the death of King Robert I. was 
7 June 1329.] 

60. See above, Nos. 3 and 59. 

61. Scotichron., ii. 292, bk. xiii. 
c. 14; 300, c. 20, his heart ; Wyntoun, 
ii. 375, bk. viii. c. 23, 1. 31 19 ; Book of 
Pluscarden, bk. ix. c. 23, at Dunferm- 
line ; Froissart, i. c. 20, buried in 
the abbey at Dunfermline, 7 Nov. 
1327 [probably a misprint for 1329] ; 
Exchequer Rolls, i. pp. cxxii-cxxiv, 
and notes; Annals of Scotland, ii. 
163-164. 

62. Exchequer Rolls, i., Preface, 
cxxii-cxxiv, and notes; Scotichron., 
ii. 293, bk. xiii. c. 15, epitaph; The 
Bruce, ii. 197, epitaph. 



1329] ROBERT THE FIRST 141 

heart was brought back from Spain by Sir William Keith, 
and was buried in the monastery at Melrose. 63 
His Reign lasted 23 years 2 months and 12 days. 84 

REIGN ENDED /TH JUNE 1329. 



ISSUE 

King Robert the First had by his first wife, Isabella of Mar, an 
only child : 65 

(i.) Marjorie, married to Walter, the high steward. She was 
killed by a fall from her horse, near Paisley in Renfrewshire, 
2nd March 1315-16. Issue, an only son : 66 

Robert (Stewart), the high steward, king of Scots as Robert 
II. from 22nd February 1370-71 to iQth April i39o. 67 
King Robert the First had by his second wife, Elisabeth de 
Burk, two sons, David and John, both of whom died without 
issue ; and two daughters, Matilda and Margaret : 68 
(n.) Matilda, married to ' a certain squire,' Thomas Isaac. She 
died at Aberdeen on the 2oth of July 1353, and was buried at 
Dunf ermline. Issue, two daughters : 69 

(i) Joanna, married to John of Lorn, lord of that Ilk. 70 

63. Fordun, Annals, 144; Scoti- 13; Exchequer Rolls, i. pp. cxxv, 
chron., ii. 300, 301, bk. xiii. cc. 20, cxxvi, note 5 ; Annals of Scotland, 
21 ; Book of Pluscarden, bk. ix. c. ii. 81. 

26; The Bruce, ii. 183, bk. xx. 11. 67. See below, Robert II., pp. 

288-601 ; Froissart, i. c. 20 ; Fcedera, 159-171- 

ii. pt. 2, 770, safe-conduct for Sir 68. Fordun, Annals, 78, ignores 

James Douglas ; p. 771, letter to the his younger son John; Exchequer 

king of Spain, I Sep. 1329; Annals Rolls, i., Preface, p. cxxvi. 

of Scotland, ii. 163, 164. See also 69. Fordun, Annals, 78, 169, died 

above, p. 140, Nos. 57, 58, and be- 20 July 1353, at Aberdeen; buried 

low, David II., p. 147, No. 10. in Dunfermline ; Scotichron., ii. 255, 

64. See above, Nos. 13, 59 ; Annals bk. xii. c. 23 ; Wyntoun, ii. 320, bk. 
of Scotland, ii. 1-165, gives an ac- viii. c. 7, 1. 1435 ; Book of Pluscarden, 
count of his reign. bk. ix. c. 13 [mixes up the ladies of 

65. Fordun, Annals, 77. the family] ; Exchequer Rolls, i. pp. 

66. Fordun, Annals, 77 ; Scoti- cxxvi-cxxviii, and notes, also 675. 
chron., ii. 255, bk. xii. c. 23 ; Wyn- 70. Fordun, Annals, 169, married 
toun, ii. 319, bk. viii. c. 7, 11. 1399- John of Lorn, lord of that Ilk; 
1412 ; Book of Pluscarden, bk. ix. c. Scotichron., ii. 255, bk. xii. c. 23. 



142 ROBERT THE FIRST [1306 

(2) Catherine, died unmarried at Stirling. 71 
(m.) Margaret, married to William, 5th earl of Sutherland. 
Papal dispensation dated ist December i^2. 72 

Issue, an only son : 

John, died in England when a hostage for his uncle, King 

David II. 73 

(iv.) David, king of Scots as David II. from the 7th June 1329 
to the 22nd February 13 70-1. u 

(v.) John, died in childhood, and was buried in the Priory at 
Restennet in Forfar shire. 75 

King Robert the First had several illegitimate sons and daughters ; 
the names of two sons and three daughters appear in the 
Records, 76 viz. : 

(vi.) Sir Robert, had five hundred merks yearly from the king. 
He was slain at the battle of Dupplin, i2th August I332. 77 
(vii.) Nigel of Carrick, had 20 yearly. He was slain at the 
battle of Durham, iyth October I346. 78 

(vm.) Margaret, married to Robert Glen, was alive 2gth 
February I363-4- 79 

(ix.) Elisabeth, married to Sir Walter Oliphant of Gask. 80 
(x.) Christian of Carrick, had a pension in 1328 and 1329. 81 

71. Fordun, Annals, 169, died at 76. [The editor of vol. i. of the Ex- 
Stirling ; Scotichron., ii. 255, bk. chequer Rolls, Preface, cxxix, note 
xii. c. 23. 8, erroneously states that Walter of 

72. Theiner, p. 278, No. DLII. ; 'Odistown' was a son of King Robert 
Papal Letters, in. 68; Fordun, I. Walter appears as 'filii Rogeri,' 
Annals, 78; Scotichron., ii. 255, not as ' filii Regis.'] See Reg. Mag. 
bk. xii. c. 23 ; Wyntoun, ii. 320, Sig., vol. i. p. 14, No. 73 ; Rotuli 
bk. viii. c. 7, 1. 1427 ; Exchequer Scotise, vol. i. 35 a , 29 Sep. 1296 ; 
Rolls, i., Preface, cxxviii, cxxix; Robertson's Index, p. 7, No. 2. 
Peerage of Scotland, ii. 571-2. [The [The case is stated in the Scottish 
Scots Peerage, vol. i. p. 8, states, Antiquary, vol. xiv. No. 55 (January 
that she was married in 1343, and 1900), pp. 147, 148, but B.' the 
died before November 1547; this mis- writer of the article does not give 
print prolongs her life by 200 years. ] the above reference to Reg. Mag. Sig. ] 

73. Fordun, Annals, 78; Scoti- 77. Exchequer Rolls, i., Preface, 
chron., ii. 255, bk. xii. c. 23; Peer- cxxix, also 640. 

age of Scotland, ii. 572. 78. Exchequer Rolls, i., Preface, 

74. See below, David II., pp. 145- cxxix, cxxx, and notes, also 640. 
158. 79. Exchequer Rolls, i., Preface, 

75. Acts of Parliaments, i. 156*, cxxix, cxxx, and note 4. 

black (514, red), Appendix, 12*, at 80. Exchequer Rolls, i., Preface, 

Scone, 10 June 1344; Exchequer cxxx, and note 5. 

Rolls, i., Preface, cxxvi, note 3. 81. Exchequer Rolls, i.,Pref., cxxx. 



1329] 



ROBERT THE FIRST 



143 



A TABLE OF REGNAL YEARS 



1st began 27 Mar. 1306, 
ended 26 Mar. 1307. 


13th began 27 Mar. 1318, 
ended 26 Mar. 1319. 


2nd began 27 Mar. 1307, 
ended 26 Mar. 1308. 


14th began 27 Mar. 1319, 
ended 26 Mar. 1320. 


3rd began 27 Mar. 1308, 
ended 26 Mar. 1309. 


15th began 27 Mar. 1320, 
ended 26 Mar. 1321. 


4th began 27 Mar. 1309, 
ended 26 Mar. 1310. 


16th began 27 Mar. 1321, 
ended 26 Mar. 1322. 


5th began 27 Mar. 1310, 
ended 26 Mar. 1311. 


17th began 27 Mar. 1322, 
ended 26 Mar. 1323. 


6th began 27 Mar. 1311, 
ended 26 Mar. 1312. 


18th began 27 Mar. 1323, 
ended 26 Mar. 1324. 


7th began 27 Mar. 1312, 
ended 26 Mar. 1313. 


19th began 27 Mar. 1324, 
ended 26 Mar. 1325. 


8th began 27 Mar. 1313, 
ended 26 Mar. 1314. 


20th began 27 Mar. 1325, 
ended 26 Mar. 1326. 


9th began 27 Mar. 1314, 
ended 26 Mar. 1315. 


21st began 27 Mar. 1326, 
ended 26 Mar. 1327. 


10th began 27 Mar. 1315, 
ended 26 Mar. 1316. 


22nd began 27 Mar. 1327, 
ended 26 Mar. 1328. 


llth began 27 Mar. 1316, 
ended 26 Mar. 1317. 


23rd began 27 Mar. 1328, 
ended 26 Mar. 1329. 


12th began 27 Mar. 1317, 
ended 26 Mar. 1318. 


24th began 27 Mar. 1329, 
ended 7 June 13 29. 


Only 2 months and 12 days of the 24th year. 






144 



ROBERT THE FIRST 



['329- 



CONTEMPORARY SOVEREIGNS 



KINGS OF ENGLAND KINGS OF FRANCE 



EDWARD I. 

' Longshanks ' 

1272-1307. 

EDWARD II. 

' Caernarvon ' 

1307-1327. 

EDWARD III. 
1327-1377. 



PHILIPPE IV. 

'leBel' 

1285-1314. 

Louis X. 

'leHutin' 

(Roi de Navarre) 

1314-1316. 

JEAN I. 

(An Infant) 
1316. 

PHILIPPE V. 
'leLong' 
1316-1322. 

CHARLES IV. 

'leBel' 

1322-1328. 

PHILIPPE VI. 
de Valois 
1328-1350. 



POPES 
CLEMENT V. 



ANTIPOPE. 



Fixed his residence 

at Avignon 

in March 1309, 

died 1314. 

Papal See vacant 

2 years 4 months 

and 1 6 days 

1314-1316. 



JOHN XXII. 82 Nicolas V. 

(at Avignon) (at Rome) 

1316-1334. 1328-1330. 



82. The Scottish Barons, in their 
letter to Pope John XXII., dated 
at Arbroath, 6th April 1320, wrote : 
' If your Holiness . . . does not 
abstain from favouring them [the 
English] to our confusion, the loss of 
life, the ruin of souls, and other evils 
that will follow, which they will in- 
flict on us and we on them, will, we 



believe, be laid to your charge by the 
most High.' See, above, p. 136, Nos. 
42 and 43 ; also below, p. 396. 

The letter does not appear in the 
Fordun printed in the Historians of 
Scotland (vols. i. and iv.). The Book 
of Pluscarden (bk. viii. c. 54, and 
Index) erroneously styles the Pope 
John ' XII.', instead of John XXII. 






1329] 145 



DAVID THE SECOND 
(BRUS) 

KING OF SCOTS 
13291370-! 

Reign began /th June 1329, 

ended 22nd February 1370-1, 

lasted 41 years 8 months and 16 days. 

David the Second (Brus). ' Earl of Carrick,' ' King of Scots,' 
' King of Scotland.' * 

Elder Son of Robert I., king of Scots, by his second wife, 
Elisabeth, daughter of Haymer de Burk, earl of Ulster. 2 

Born in the monastery at Dunfermline, 5th March I323-4. 3 

Heir to the Crown. The clergy, nobility, and people of 
Scotland swore fealty to David, son and heir of King 
Robert I., and to his issue ; whom failing, to his nephew, 
Robert, the high steward, at Cambuskenneth, in I326. 4 

1. Nat MSS. ii. 26-34, Nos. xxi.- 138, 'Anno 1323' in the Latin ver- 
XLIII. ; Diplomata Scotiae, Plates sion [' 1325' is an error in the trans- 
LIII. LIV. ; CLVIII. , silver coins ; lation]. Fordun adds * on Monday 
Ancient Scottish Seals, i. 7, 8, Nos. 5 Mar. in the first week of Lent' 
27-29, PI. i. fig. 4 ; Fordun, Annals, [which shows that the year must 
138-186; Scotichron., ii. 279, bk. have been 1323-4]; Scotichron., ii. 
xiii. c. 5 ; 382, bk. xiv. c. 35 ; Scala- 279, bk. xiii. c. 5, 5 Mar. i323[-4] ; 
chron., 153 ; Cal. Doc. Scot., iii. 485, Wyntoun, ii. 371, 372, bk. viii. c. 22, 
486; Exchequer Rolls, i. 653-655; ii. 11. 2995-3004, Mar. i323[-4]; Book of 
644-646; Annals of Scotland, 165-322. Pluscarden, bk. ix. c. 21. See also 

2. Fordun, Annals, 78, 138; above, Robert I., p. 137, No. 48, and 
Scotichron., ii. 255, bk. xii. c. 23; below, p. 293. 

Exchequer Rolls, i. cxxvi, and note 2. 4. Fordun, Annals, 139; Scoti- 

See above, Robert I., p. 128, No. 8. chron., ii. 287, bk. xiii. c. 12 ; Wyn- 

3. Fordun, Annals, 78, * in the toun, ii. 374, bk. viii. c. 23, 1. 3067 ; 
i;th year' [error for the iSth year]; Book of Pluscarden, bk. ix. c. 21. 

K 



146 



DAVID THE SECOND 



[1329 



Married First. Prince David, who was styled earl of 
Carrick, married, when in his fifth year, Johanna, daughter 
of Edward II., and sister of Edward III., kings of Eng- 
land, at Berwick, on Sunday the i/th of July I328. 5 



REIGN BEGAN 7TH JUNE 1329. 

King of Scots. David II. became king of Scots on the death 
of his father, King Robert I., /th June I329. 6 

Aged 5 years 3 months and 3 days when he succeeded his 
father. 7 

Guardian. Sir Thomas Ranulph, ist earl of Moray, 
by the Act of Settlement of 1318, became Guardian of the 
Kingdom, on the death of his uncle, King Robert L, upon 
the 7th of June 1329. 

Scottish Kings Anointed and Crowned. Pope John 
XXII. granted ' to Robert the illustrious king of Scotland/ 
and to his successors, the right to ' receive anointing and 



5. Fordun, Annals, 142, 17 July 
1328; Scotichron., ii. 291, bk. xiii. 
c. 14, 17 July 1328 ; Wyntonn, ii. 
374, bk. viii. c. 23, 1. 3075 ; Book of 
Pluscarden, bk. ix. c. 22 ; Extracta, 
155, 17 July 1328; Baker, 40, 41; 
Chron. Lanercost, 261, Sunday next 
before the Feast of St. Mary Magda- 
lene 1327 [wrong year]; Heming- 
burgh, ii. 300, 12 July 1328 [error, 
the 1 2th was Tuesday] ; Knighton, 
ii. 447, Sunday next before the Feast 
of St. Margaret the Virgin [17 July] 
1328; Scalachron., 153; Walsing- 
ham, i. 192, 12 July [error] ; Chroni- 
con Angliae, I ; The Bruce, ii. 172, 
bk. xx. 11. 36, etc. ; Foedera, ii. pt. 
2 73> treaty for marriage, I Mar. 
1327-8 ; Annals of Scotland, ii. 163, 
12 July, quotes Hemingburgh [who 
is wrong] ; Exchequer Rolls, i. ciii, 
to come to Berwick 15 July, p. cxiii, 
married i8th [no month or year]; 
p. 1 39, ' de tempore quo fuit Comes de 



Carrie' ; p. 142, his wife, Countess of 
Carrie, a 1329 ; p. 676, Joanna of 
England. [Princess Joan, or Johanna, 
was to come to Berwick on 15 July, 
and the marriage seems to have been 
celebrated on Sunday, 17 July 1328, 
the Sunday next before the Feasts 
of St. Margaret and of St. Mary 
Magdalene.] See above, Robert I., 
p. 139, No. 55. 

6. Fordun, Annals, 78, 138 ; Scoti- 
chron., ii. 302, bk. xiii. c. 21 ; Wyn- 
toun, ii. 376, bk. viii. c. 24. 

7. See above, No. 3, and Robert L, 
p. 140, No. 59. 

8. Scotichron., ii. 296, 297, bk. 
xiii. c. 1 8 ; Wyntoun, ii. 367, bk. 
viii. c. 24, 1. 3143 ; Book of Plus- 
carden, bk. ix. cc. 24, 25 ; The 
Bruce, ii. 183, bk. xx. 1. 299 ; 195, 
1. 596; Froissart, i. 64, c. 17, 'his 
arms argent 3 pillows gules ' ; Annals 
of Scotland, ii. 165. See also above, 
Robert L, pp. 135, 136, No. 40. 






1370-1] 



DAVID THE SECOND 



147 



coronation.' The Bull, written six days after the death of 
King Robert L, is dated at Avignon, I3th June I329. 9 

The Heart of King Robert I. was taken on pilgrimage 
against the enemies of the name of Christ, by Sir James 
Douglas, who was killed when fighting against the Moors, 
near Granada in Spain, 25th August 1330. King Robert's 
heart was brought back from Spain by Sir William Keith, 
and was buried in the abbey at Melrose in i33i, 10 
Anointed and Crowned. King David II. and his queen 
were anointed and crowned at Scone, on the 24th of 
November I33I. 11 

Death of the Guardian. Sir Thomas Ranulph, ist 
earl of Moray, ' a man to be remembered while integrity, 
prudence, and valour are held in esteem/ died at Mussel- 
burgh near Edinburgh, 2oth July I332. 12 

Guardian Chosen. Donald, earl of Mar, was chosen 
Guardian of the Kingdom by the Magnates of Scotland, at 
Perth, 2nd August I332. 13 



9. The original Bull of Pope John 
XXII. is in the Advocates' Library, 
Edinburgh; Nat. MSS., ii. 25, No. 
xxx., 13 June 1329, facsimile of 
Bull; Theiner, Vetera Monumenta, 
244, No. 480, copy of Bull. 

10. Fordun, Annals, 144 ; Scoti- 
chron., ii. 300, 301, bk. xiii. cc. 20, 
21 ; Book of Pluscarden, bk. ix. c. 
26; Baker, 41, 42, 216 ; Froissart, i. 
So, c. 20 ; The Bruce, ii. 178, etc., bk. 
xx. 183, 1. 304; p. 191, 1. 486; p. 195, 
11. 591-593; p. 196; Theiner, Vetera 
Monumenta, 250, No. 498, 6 Aug. 
1331, absolution for taking the heart 
of Robert, king of Scots, against the 
Saracens. See also above, Robert L, 
pp. 140, 141, Nos. 58 and 63. 

11. Fordun, Annals, 145, 24 Nov. 
1331 [no mention of the Queen]; 
Sootichron., ii. 302, 303, bk. xiii. c. 
21, 24th Nov. 1331, with his Queen ; 
Wyntoun, ii. 376, bk. viii. c. 24, 11. 
3127-3140; Chron. Lanercost, 264, 



a 1329 ; p. 266, about 30 Nov. 1331 ; 
Hemingburgh, ii. 302, note i, crowned 
23 Nov. 1329 [assertion of editor] ; 
Baker, 40 ; Walsingham, i. 193, 23 
Nov. [1329, error added by editor] ; 
Exchequer Rolls, i. cxxxvii. 

12. Fordun, Annals, 146; Scoti- 
chron., ii. 303, bk. xiii. c. 22; Book 
of Pluscarden, bk. ix. c. 25 ; Wyn- 
toun, ii. 384, bk. viii. c. 26, 1. 3361 ; 
Theiner, Vetera Monumenta, 249, 
No. 489, 1 3th Nov. 1329, Pope John 
XXII. gives permission to have his 
heart buried apart from his body ; 
Annals of Scotland, iii. 52-54. See 
also above, William 'The Lion,' p. 
82, No. 36, note (Musselburgh). 

13. Fordun, Annals, 146; Scoti- 
chron., ii. 303, bk. xiii. c. 22; Wyn- 
toun, ii. 384, bk. viii. c. 26, 1. 3374 ; 
Book of Pluscarden, bk. ix. cc. 26, 
27, Patric of Dunbar, earl of March, 
Guardian south of the Forth ; 
Annals of Scotland, ii. 181. 



148 



DAVID THE SECOND 



[1329 



Edward Balliol, elder son and heir of John Balliol, 
formerly king of Scotland, landed with an English army 
at Kinghorn in Fife, 6th August I332. 14 

The Battle of Dupplin. The English, with Edward 
Balliol and his adherents, totally defeated the Scots, 
under Donald, earl of Mar, who was among the slain, at 
Dupplin near Perth, early in the morning of the i2th 
of August I332. 15 

Guardian Chosen. Sir Andrew Moray of Bothwell, 
who had married, as her third husband, Christiana, sister 
of King Robert I., was chosen Guardian of the Kingdom, 
immediately after the battle of Dupplin, in the month 
of August I332. 16 

Edward Balliol was crowned king of Scotland by the 
English and his adherents, at Scone, on the 24th of 
September I332. 17 

Edward Balliol fled from Annan in Dumfriesshire, 
' one leg booted, and the other naked,' two months and 



14. Fordun, Annals, 146; Scoti- 
chron., ii. 303, 304, bk. xiii. c. 22 ; 
Wyntoun, ii. 384, bk. viii. c. 26, 1. 
3383 ; Book of Pluscarden, bk. ix. c. 
27 ; Baker, 49, 230 ; Hemingburgh, 
ii. 303 ; Knighton, i. 462 ; Capgrave, 
201 ; Walsingham, i. 193 ; R. Aves- 
bury, 229-235 ; Annals of Scotland, 
ii. 172-183. 

15. Fordun, Annals, 146, reached 
Duplin, ii Aug. 1332, 'the Vigil of St. 
Laurence ' [9th was the Vigil] ; Wyn- 
toun, ii. 387, bk. viii. c. 26, 1. 3478 ; 
Extracta, 160, 161 ; Book of Plus- 
oarden, bk. ix. c. 27 ; Kalendarium 
de Hyrdmanistoun, 44, 12 Aug. 1332 ; 
Hemingburgh, ii. 304 ; Knighton, i. 
462, at * Gaskmore ' ; Chronicon 
Anglise, 3, at Gledesmore ; Walsing- 
ham, i. 194 ; Capgrave, 201 ; Baker, 
49, 'Glastemore,' n Aug., 230; 
Annals of Scotland, ii. 183-188. 

16. Fordun, Annals, 139; Scoti- 



chron., ii. 287, bk. xiii. c. 12, a 
1326 ; 307, c. 25 ; Book of Pluscarden, 
bk. ix. cc. 22, 28 ; Annals of Scot- 
land, ii. 356-362 and 359, note * ; 
Peerage of Scotland, i. 219, 319; 
Genealogical History of the Stewarts, 
429, Papal dispensation for their 
marriage, 'dated Avignon, 20 Sep. 
1326.' [Andrew Stewart is wrong, 
the year was 1325.] 

17. Fordun, Annals, 147, 24 Sep. 
1332 ; Scotichron., ii. 306, bk. xiii. c. 
24, made king * more suo,' 24 Sep. 
1332; Wyntoun, ii. 392, bk. viii. c. 
26, 1. 3638 ; Book of Pluscarden, bk. 
ix. c. 27 ; Extracta, 161 ; Heming- 
burgh, ii. 306, 27 Sep. 1332; Wals- 
ingham, i. 195, 27 Sep. 1332; Chron. 
Lanercost, 269, 4 Oct. 1332 ; Chron. 
Anglise, 3, at Scone, 27 Sep. ; Cap- 
grave, 217 ; Annals of Scotland, ii. 
190. [L'Art de verifier les Dates, 
vii. 260, ignores No. 18, below.] 



1 370- 1] 



DAVID THE SECOND 



149 



twenty- two days after he had been crowned by the English. 
He took refuge in England, i6th December I332. 18 

The Guardian a Prisoner. Sir Andrew Moray of Both- 
well was taken prisoner by the English when trying to 
rescue one of his followers at Roxburgh, in April I333. 19 

The Battle of Halidon. The English, under King 
Edward III., totally defeated the Scots, under Sir Archi- 
bald Douglas, at Halidon Hill near Berwick, on the ipth 
of July I333- 20 

The Guardian Killed. Sir Archibald Douglas, ' Tyne- 
man,' who had been chosen Guardian of the Kingdom 
immediately after the capture of Sir Andrew Moray, was 
slain at the battle of Halidon, iQth July I333. 21 

Achievement of Arms. The earliest known instance 
connected with Scotland of family arms on a shield with 
supporters, helmet, and crest, is on an impression of a seal 



18. Fordun, Annals, 148 ; Scoti- 
chron., ii. 308, bk. xiii. c. 25 ; Wyn- 
toun, ii. 395, bk. viii. c. 26, 1. 3926 ; 
Book of Pluscarden, bk. ix. c. 28, 
'one leg booted, and the other 
naked'; Chron. Lanercost, 271; 
Hemingburgh, ii. 306. See also 
above, John, p. 118, No. 17. 

19. Scotichron., ii. 309, 310, bk. 
xiii. c. 27 ; Book of Pluscarden, bk. 
ix. c. 28, ' Dominns Andreas de 
Murray le Rkhe ' ; Walsingham, i. 

195- 

20. Foedera, ii. pt. 2, 866, 19 July 
J333 5 Fordun, Annals, 149, 19 July 
X 333 5 Scotichron., ii. 316, bk. xiii. c. 
27, 19 July 1333 ; Wyntoun, ii. 400, 
bk. viii. c. 27, 11. 3903-3962 ; Book 
of Pluscarden, bk. ix. c. 28, 14 Aug. 
[this is wrong, the author has 
' diem,' instead of ' Jcal,' which would 
have made it 19 July, as it ought to 
be] ; Chron. Lanercost, 273, 19 July 
1333 ; Hemingburgh, ii. 308, 309, 
19 July 1333, an account of the 
battle with the names of the Scot- 



tish commanders ; Knighton, i. 459, 
19 July; 467-470; Walsingham, i. 
196, 19 July 1333; Baker, 51, 52, 
252 ; Chron. Angliae, 4, 19 July, at 
Boothull near Halidone ; R. Aves- 
bury, 23, 24, 19 July 1333; Kalen- 
darium de Hyrdmanistoun, 43, Hali- 
don Monday, 19 July 1333; Cal. 
Doc. Scot., iii. 233, No. 1277, King 
Edward III. , etc. , ' St. Margaret, on 
whose eve [19 July] he gained the 
victory at Haydon near Berwick ' ; 
Exchequer Rolls, i., Preface, cxliv. 
[The Editor gives 20 July as the date 
of the battle, which is contrary to all 
the Scottish and to all the English 
historians, and contrary to the state- 
ment of King Edward III. in the 
preceding reference ;] Annals of Scot- 
land, ii. 202-205, 363-373, list of the 
Scottish army. 

- 21. Fordun, Annals, 149 ; Scoti- 
chron., ii. 311, bk. xiii. c. 28 ; Wyn- 
toun, ii. 402, bk. viii. c. 27, 1. 3939 ; 
Book of Pluscarden, bk. ix. c. 28 : 
Chron. Lanercost, 274. 




150 DAVID THE SECOND [1329 

of Patric, 9th earl of Dunbar (2nd earl of March), ap- 
pended to a deed in ELM. Kecord Office, dated I3th May 

I334- 22 
Went to France. King David II., with his wife, Queen 

Johanna, landed at Boulogne, I4th May I334. 23 

Two Guardians Chosen. Robert, the high steward, and 
John Ranulph, 3rd earl of Moray, were chosen Guardians 
of the Kingdom, and held a parliament at Dairsie in Fife, 
in the month of April I335- 24 

The Battle of Borough-Muir. John Ranulph, 3rd earl 
of Moray, and Patric, earl of Dunbar and March, defeated 
Guy, comte de Namur (who was in the English service), 
on the Borough-Muir near Edinburgh, in the beginning 
of August I33S- 25 

A Guardian taken Prisoner. John Ranulph, 3rd earl 
of Moray, one of the two Guardians, was taken prisoner 
by the English when returning from conducting the comte 
de Namur to the border, in August I335. 26 

The Battle of Kilblain. Sir Andrew Moray, who had 
been ransomed about August 1334, Patric of Dunbar, earl 
of March, and William Douglas of Liddesdale, surprised, 
and defeated David, earl of Athol, who was slain with most 
of his followers at Kilblain, 3oth November I335. 27 

22. Original document in H.M. c. 35 ; Wyntoun, ii. 419, bk. viii. c. 
Record Office, 13 May 1334; Cal. 30,1.4489; Book of Pluscarden, bk. 
Doc. Scot., iii. 203, No. 1126, seal ix. c. 33; Scalachron., 165; Chron. 
described; Scottish Arms, ii. 8, XI. Lanercost, 282; Annals of Scotland, 
seal described. [Patric of Dunbar, ii. 220, 221. 

gthearlof Dunbar,2nd earl of March.] 26. Fordun, Annals, 153; Scoti- 

23. Scotichron., ii. 307, bk. xiii. chron., ii. 319, bk. xiii. c. 35 ; Wyn- 
c. 25 ; Wyntoun, ii. 392, bk. viii. c. toun, ii. 421, bk. viii. c. 30, 1. 4531 : 
26, 1. 3645 ; Book of Pluscarden, bk. Book of Pluscarden, bk. ix. c. 33 ; 
ix. c. 28; Scalachron., 164; Chron. Baker, 56, comes de Morref,' 233; 
Lanercost, 278, a 1334 ; Exchequer Chron, Lanercost, 282, 283 ; Scala- 
Rolls, i. pp. clviij, 464. chron., 166. 

24. Pordun, Annals, 152 ; Scoti- 27. Fordun, Annals, 150, ransomed; 
chron., ii. 317, c. 34, ' custodes' ; 154, guardian about 21 Sep. 1334, 
Wyntoun, ii. 416, 417, bk. viii. c. Kilblen, 30 Nov. 1335; Scotichron., 
29, 11. 4399-4401, ' Wardanys twa.' ii. 320, bk. xiii. c. 36 ; Wyntoun, ii. 

25. Fordun, Annals, 153, 30 July 423, bk. viii. c. 31 ; Book of Pluscar- 
1335 5 Scotichron., ii. 319, bk. xiii. den, bk. ix. c. 34 ; Scalachron., 166. 



1 370-i] DAVID THE SECOND 151 

Guardian. Sir Andrew Moray of Bothwell was acknow- 
ledged Guardian of the Kingdom, by a Parliament 
assembled at Dunfermline, in December I335- 28 

Lochindorb Castle. Edward III., king of England, came 
to Perth, on the 8th of June 1336, and halting one night 
at Blair, he ' hastened straight to Lochindorb ' in Moray, 
and brought away the Countess of Athol, who was being 
besieged there, in June I336. 29 

Aberdeen Burned. Edward III., king of England, 
returned from Lochindorb through Elgin, and burned 
Aberdeen on his way southwards, in June I336. 30 

Dunbar Castle Besieged. ' Black Agnes/ wife of Patric, 
earl of Dunbar and March, successfully defended Dunbar 
Castle for upwards of five months, against the English 
under William Montague, earl of Salisbury, from the 
1 3th January 1337-8, until the English raised the siege 
on the 1 6th of June I338. 31 

Tilting at Berwick. Twenty Scottish knights went 
through 'three knightly tilts' with twenty English knights, 



28. Fordun, Annals, 150, ransomed earl of March), elder daughter of the 
before the end of August 1334 ; 154, then deceased Sir Thomas Ranulph, 
made guardian about 21 Sep. 1334, 1st earl of Moray, who was Guardian 
approved as guardianatDunfermline; of Scotland after the death of his 
Scotichron., ii. 321, bk. xiii. c. 36; uncle, King Robert L] Theiner, 
Wyutoun, ii. 421 ; bk. viii. c. 30, 1. Vetera Monumenta, 227, No. 452, 
45355 Book of Pluscarden, bk. ix. Papal dispensation for their marriage, 
c. 34. dated Avignon, 16 Jan. 1323-4 ; 

29. Fordun, Annals, 155; Scoti- Autotype, penes A. H. D., from a 
chron., ii. 321, 322, bk. xiii. c. 37 ; photograph of the dispensation in 
Wyntoun, ii. 430, bk. viii. c. 32, 1. the Papal Register in Rome ; Raine, 
4827, halted one night at Blair and North Durham, Ap. 33, No. 142 ; 
so to Lowchindorb ; Book of Plus- Fordun, Annals, 157 ; Scotichron., ii. 
carden, bk. ix. c. 34; Scalachron., 324, 325, bk. xiii. c. 40; Wyntoun, 
1 66. See also below, James II., p. ii. 431, bk. viii. c. 32, 1. 4845 ; c. 33, 
200, No. 32. 11. 4857-5000 ; Book of Pluscarden, 

30. Fordun, Annals, 155 ; Scoti- bk. ix. cc. 35, 36; Chron. Lanercost, 
chron., ii. 322, bk. xiii. c. 37; Wyn- 296; Baker, 52, 232; Walsingham, 
toun, ii. 430, bk. viii. c. 32, 1. 4830 ; i. 200 ; Knighton, ii. 2, 4 ; Cal. Doc. 
Book of Pluscarden, bk. ix. c. 34. Scot., iii. 490; Annals of Scotland, 

31. ['Black Agnes of Dunbar,' 2nd ii. 198, note. See also below, p. 155, 
wifeof Patric, 9th earl of Dunbar (2nd No. 52, and Pedigrees, pp. 288, 289. 



152 DAVID THE SECOND [1329 

when one Scottish knight and two English knights were 
killed at Berwick, in I338. 32 

Returned from France. King David II. and his queen 
returned to Scotland after an absence of seven years, 
having passed most of the time at the Chateau Gaillard 
on the banks of the Seine, in Normandy. They landed at 
Inverbervie in Kincardineshire, 2nd June I34i. 33 

The Battle of Durham (or Neville's Cross). The Eng- 
lish totally defeated the Scots under King David II. at 
Neville's Cross near Durham, 1 7th October 1 346. 34 
Taken Prisoner. King David II. was taken prisoner by 
John Coupeland at the battle of Durham (or Neville's 
Cross), i /th October I346. 35 

Guardian Re-elected. Robert, the high steward, 
nephew of the king, was re-elected Guardian of the 
Kingdom after the battle of Durham in October 1 346. 36 

Impaled Arms. The earliest known instance of impaled 
arms connected with Scotland is an impression of the seal 
of ' Isabelle de Dunbar,' which, together with an impres- 
sion of the seal of her husband, Sir Patric of Dunbar, is 
appended to a charter, granted at Wester Spot in East 
Lothian, dated 2nd January I35I-2. 37 

32. Wyntoun, ii. 440-446, bk. viii. 146; Knighton, ii. 41-45; Baker, 88, 
cc. 35, 43, thirty Englishmen and 89, 264, 265; Cal. Doc. Scot., iii. 
thirty Frenchmen ; Book of Pluscar- 274, No. 1501, also p. 485 ; Annals of 
den, bk. ix. c. 37 [two other Eng- Scotland, ii. 384-391. 

lish knights were killed]. 35. Ibid. 

33. Fordun, Annals, 160 ; Scoti- 36. Fordun, Annals, 166 ; Scoti- 
chron., ii. 307, bk. xiii. c. 25; 334, chron., ii. 346, bk. xiv. c. 6; Wyn- 
c. 49 ; Wyntoun, ii. 440, bk. viii. c. toun, ii. 478 ; bk. viii. c. 40, 
35, 1. 5119; 446, c. 38, 1. 5940 ; Book 1. 6327. 

of Pluscarden, bk. ix. c. 39 [wrong 37. Original charter with two seals 

year] ; Chron. Lanercost, 335. attached, penes A. H. D. ; Scottish 

34. Fordun, Annals, 165 ; Scoti- Arms, ii. 10, No. xi. , seal described; 
chron., ii. 342, bk. xiv. c. 3; Wyn- ' SIGILLVM ISABELLE DE DVNBAR,' 
toun, ii. 470, bk. viii. c. 40 ; Book of two coats impaled dexter a lion, 
Pluscarden, bk. ix. c. 40, 'Durham sinister 3 cushions each within a 
in Scotland' [!], a 1346; Chron. tressure uncut by the impalement; 
Lanercost, 348-352 ; Chronicon Ang- Fordun, Latin version, p. 377, note 3; 
liae, 23, 24; Walsingham, i. 269, 270; Proceedings Society of Antiquaries, 
Capgrave, 212 ; R. Avesbury, 145, Scotland, 1887-1888, xxii. 186-192 ; 



1 370-1] DAVID THE SECOND 153 

Allowed to go to Scotland. King David II., after host- 
ages had been given, seems to have been in Scotland, 
trying to raise money for his ransom, between the 27th 
of March and Pentecost [27th May] I352. 38 

Regnal Years of King David II. From some unexplained 
cause, the charters granted by King David II. from the 
24th to the 42nd year of his reign inclusive, are dated one 
regnal year short of the true date. This remark applies 
to all his charters granted after the 6th of June I3S2. 39 

The First Battle of Nesbit. The Scots defeated the 
English, and took Sir Thomas Gray prisoner, at Nesbit in 
Berwickshire, in August I355- 40 

The Battle of Poitiers. A number of Scottish knights 
were serving in the French army when the English, under 
the Black Prince, totally defeated the French, and took 
their king, Jean II., prisoner, at Poitiers in France, igth 
September i356. 41 

Released. King David II. was released after a captivity of 
eleven years. The treaty for his release, negotiated at 
Berwick on the 3rd of October 1357, was ratified by him 
in parliament, at Scone, 6th November I357- 42 

189, seal described. [Sir Patric was 41, the whole case stated by the 
son of Sir Alexander of Dunbar, who late Marquess of Bute. See also 
was third son of Patric, 7th earl of below, p. 157, No. 58. 
Dunbar. Isabella de Dunbar, nee 40. Fordun, Annals, 172 ; Scoti- 
Ranulph, was younger sister to chron., ii. 350, bk. xiv. c. 9 ; 
Black Agnes of Dunbar. See also Wytoun, ii. 485, 486, bk. viii. c. 
above, p. 151, No. 31, and below, 42, 11. 6547, 6577; Book of Plus- 
Pedigrees, pp. 288, 289.] carden, bk. ix. c. 41 ; Annals of 

38. Fcedera, iii. 231, 242 ; Scoti- Scotland, ii. 455. 

chron., ii. 359, bk. xiv. c. 18, 'sent 41. Ms. Cott. Vit., E. XL chap, 

to the castle of Berwick'; Wyn- 138, fol. 165; Fordun, Annals, 177; 

toun, ii. 488, bk. viii. c. 42, 1. 6617, a 1356 ; Latin version, 377, note 3; 

' on hostage' ; 496, 1. 6892 ; Book of Scotichron., ii. 356, bk. xiv. c. 16, a 

Pluscarden, bk. ix. c. 44; Cal. Doc. 1356; Wyntoun, ii. 494, bk. viii. c. 

Scot., iii. 285, No. 1557, 6 Sep. 1351, 46 ; Book of Pluscarden, bk. ix. c. 

going to Scotland regarding his 43 ; R. Avesbury, 252-255 ; Froissart, 

ransom 5287, No. 1569, to be allowed i. c. 162 ; Baker, 142-155, 300-314, 

to remain at large on good security, and map, 310, a detailed account. 
28 Mar. 'ci'rca 1353 '[? 1352], 42. Acts of Parliaments, i. 158, 

39. Proceedings Society of Anti- black (518, red), 6 Nov. 1357 ; For- 
quaries, 1881-1882, New Series, iv. dun, Annals, 178; Scotichron., ii. 



154 DAVID THE SECOND [1329 

Death of the Queen. Johanna, queen of King David 
II. (daughter of Edward II., and sister of Edward III., 
kings of England), died near London, I4th August I362. 43 

Married Secondly. King David II. married, as his second 
wife, Margaret, daughter of Sir Malcolm Drummond, and 
widow of Sir John Logie of that Ilk, at Inchmurdach in 
Fife, before the 6th of December 1 36s. 44 

Gold Coins. King David II. seems to have been the first 
king of Scots who instituted a gold coinage. 45 

Divorce. King David II. obtained a divorce from his 
second wife, ' Margareta de Logy,' about the 2oth of March 
1 369-70. 46 

Died. King David the Second died in Edinburgh Castle, 
22nd February I37O-I. 47 

Aged 46 years u months and 18 days. 48 

Buried in the choir of the monastery at Holyrood. 49 

His Reign lasted 41 years 8 months and 16 days. 60 

REIGN ENDED 2 2ND FEBRUARY I37O-I. 



359, bk. xiv. c. 18 ; Wyntoun, ii. the Scottish National Museum of An - 

497, bk. viii. c. 44, 1. 6923 ; Book of tiquities, Edinburgh. 
Pluscarden, bk. ix. c. 44; Chron. 46. Scotichron., ii. 379, bk. xiv. c. 

Anglise, 37 ; Knighton, ii. 98 ; Cap- 34 ; Wyntoun, ii. 506, bk. viii. c. 46, 

grave, 218; Walsingham, i. 284; 1. 7176 ; Book of Pluscarden, bk. ix. 

Cal. Doc. Scot., iii. pp. liii, liv, c. 46 ; Peerage and Consistorial Law, 

485. ii. 982-987 [the whole case stated]. 

43. Scotichron., ii. 360, bk. xiv. See also below, p. 156, No. 56. 

c. 1 8, some time after 1357 ; Wyn- 47. Fordun, Annals, 186, Feast of 

toun, ii. 501, bk. viii. c. 46, soon St. Peter's Chair [22 Feb.] I37o[-i]; 

after 1358; Book of Pluscarden, bk. Scotichron., ii. 380, bk. xiv. c. 34; 

ix. c. 44 ; Chron. Anglise, 53 ; Wals- Wyntoun, ii. 507, bk. viii. c. 46 ; 

ingham, i. 179, a 1362. Book of Pluscarden, bk. ix. c. 46 ; 

44. Fordun, Annals, 185 ; Scoti- Kalendarium de Hyrdmanistoun, 37, 
chron., ii. 370, bk. xiv. c. 28, p. 379, 22 Feb. I37o[-i]. 

bk. xiv. c. 34 ; Wyntoun, ii. 506, bk. 48. See above, Nos. 3 and 47. 
viii. c. 46, Apr. 1363 ; Book of Plus- 49. Fordun, Annals, 186 ; Scoti- 

carden, bk. ix. c. 46; Scalachron., chron., ii. 380, bk. xiv. c. 34; 

203; Cal. Doc. Scot., iv., No. 93; Wyntoun, ii. 507, bk. viii. c. 46 ;, 

Extracta, 190. Book of Pluscarden, bk. ix. c. 46. 

45. See the collection of coins in 50. See above, Nos. 6 and 47. 



1 370- 1] DAVID THE SECOND 155 



ISSUE 

King David the Second left no issue either by his first wife, 
Johanna of England, or by his second wife, Margaret Drummond 
or Logic. 51 

NOTES 

'Black Agnes of Dunbar.' In the Chronicon de 
Lanercost it is stated that ' the castle of Dunbar, notwith- 
standing a heavy siege, held out manfully, and because the 
Countess of Dunbar, who was the principal guardian of the 
castle, was sister of the Earl of Moray, then a prisoner at 
Nottingham, the English brought him down to Dunbar in 
April 1338, threatening that if the countess did not sur- 
render the castle, they would put her brother to death, to 
which she answered, " If you do this I shall be heir to the 
earldom of Moray," for her brother had no children. The 
English, however, did not wish to put the earl to death, 
and sent him back to England to be detained in custody 
as before.' 52 

The Battle of Cregy. Edward III., king of England, 
totally defeated the French under King Philippe VI. (de 
Valois), at Cregy near Abbeville, 26th August 1 346. 53 

The First Pestilence is said to have destroyed one- 
third of the men, women, and children in Scotland, in the 
years 1349 and I35O. 54 

The Second Pestilence is said to have been as severe 
as the first ; it visited Scotland in the year 1 362. 55 

SL Fordun, Annals, 186, 'had no 54. Fordun, Annals, 167; Scoti- 

children' ; Book of Pluscarden, bk. chron., ii. 347, bk. xiv. c. 7 ; Wyn- 

ix. c. 46. toun, ii. 482, bk. viii. c. 42 ; Book of 

52. Cott. Claudius, D. vii. fol. 230 Pluscarden, bk. ix. c. 40 ; Extracta, 

[Chronicon de Lanercost, Maitland 182. 

Club, Edinburgh, 1839, pp. 296, 297. 55. Fordun, Annals, 183; Scoti- 

See also above, p. 151, No. 31]. chron., ii. 364, bk. xiv. c. 24 ; Wyn- 

53- Scotichron., ii. 339, 340, bk. toun, ii. 505, bk. viii. c. 46, a 1362 ; 

xiv. c. i ; Book of Pluscarden, bk. ix. Book of Pluscarden, bk. ix. c. 45 ; 

c. 40; Annals of England, 193. Extracta, 188. 



156 



DAVID THE SECOND 



[1329 



Margaret, the Divorced Wife of King David II., 

escaped to Avignon, and made a successful appeal to the 
Pope to reverse the sentence of divorce which had been 
pronounced against her in Scotland. She survived the 
king, and was alive on the 3ist of January 1374-5, but 
seems to have died soon after that date. 56 



A TABLE OF KEGNAL YEARS 



1st began 7 June 1329, 
ended 6 June 1330. 

2nd began 7 June 1330, 
ended 6 June 1331. 

3rd began 7 June 1331, 
ended 6 June 1332. 

4th began 7 June 1332, 
ended 6 June I333. 57 

5th began 7 June 1333, 
ended 6 June 1334. 

6th began 7 June 1334, 
ended 6 June 1335. 

7th began 7 June 1335, 
ended 6 June 1336. 

8th began 7 June 1336, 
ended 6 June 1337. 

9th began 7 June 1337, 
ended 6 June 1338. 

10th began 7 June 1338, 
ended 6 June 1339. 

llth began 7 June 1339, 
ended 6 June 1340. 



12th began 7 June 1340, 
ended 6 June 1341. 

13th began 7 June 1341, 
ended 6 June 1342. 

14th began 7 June 1342, 
ended 6 June 1343. 

15th began 7 June 1343, 
ended 6 June 1344. 

16th began 7 June 1344, 
ended 6 June 1345. 

17th began 7 June 1345, 
ended 6 June 1346. 

18th began 7 June 1346, 
ended 6 June 1347. 

19th began 7 June 1347, 
ended 6 June 1348. 

20th began 7 June 1348, 
ended 6 June 1349. 

21st began 7 June 1349, 
ended 6 June 1350. 

22nd began 7 June 1350, 
ended 6 June 1351. 



56. Cal. Doc. Scot., iv., Preface, 
pp. xv, xvi, p. 44, Nos. 193, 197 ; p. 
401, No. 17 ; Foedera, iii. 948 ; Peer- 
age and Consistorial Law, ii. 982-987 
[the whole case stated]. See also 
above, p. 154, Nos. 44 and 46. 



57. [Edward Balliol was crowned 
king of Scotland by the English and 
his adherents, at Scone, 24th Sep- 
tember 1 332, and fled from Scotland 
in less than three months afterwards. 
See above, p. 148, Nos. 17 and 18.] 



1 370-1] DAVID THE SECOND 

A TABLE OF REGNAL YEARS confirmed. 



157 



23rd began 7 June 1351, 
ended 6 June 1352. 


33rd began 7 June 1361, 
ended 6 June 1 362. 


24th began 7 June I352, 58 
ended 6 June 1353. 


34th began 7 June 1362, 
ended 6 June 1363. 


25th began 7 June 1353, 
ended 6 June 1354. 


35th began 7 June 1363, 
ended 6 June 1364. 


26th began 7 June 1354, 
ended 6 June 1355. 


36th began 7 June 1364, 
ended 6 June 1365. 


27th began 7 June 1355, 
ended 6 June 1356. 


37th began 7 June 1365, 
ended 6 June 1366. 


28th began 7 June 1356, 
ended 6 June 1357. 


38th began 7 June 1366, 
ended 6 June 1367. 


29th began 7 June 1357, 
ended 6 June 1358. 


39th began 7 June 1367, 
ended 6 June 1368. 


30th began 7 June 1358, 
ended 6 June 1359. 


40th began 7 June 1368, 
ended 6 June 1369. 


31st began 7 June 1359, 
ended 6 June 1360. 


41st began 7 June 1369, 
ended 6 June 1370. 


32nd began 7 June 1360, 
ended 6 June 1361. 


42nd began 7 June 1370, 
ended 22 Feb. 1370-1. 


Only 8 months and 16 days of the 42nd year. 68 



58. [The above dates are correct ; 
but from some unexplained cause the 
charters granted by King David II. 
from the 24th year to the 42nd year 
of his reign inclusive, are dated one 
regnal year short of the truth. 
Therefore, to find the correct date, 



it is necessary to add one to any 
regnal year that dates a charter of 
King David II. after the 6th of 
June 1352. The question which 
year was made 24 months long ? is 
still (1906) undetermined. See above, 
p. 153, No. 39.] 



158 



DAVID THE SECOND 



[I370-I 



CONTEMPORARY SOVEREIGNS 



KING OF ENGLAND KINGS OP FRANCE 



POPES 



ANTIPOPE 



EDWARD III. PHILIPPE VI. 


(at Avignon) 


(at Rome) 


' 3 2 7- i 377 'deValois' 


JOHN XXII. 69 


Nicolas V. 


1328-1350. 


1316-1334. 


1328-1330. 


JEAN II. 


BENEDICT XII. 




' le Bon ' 


1335-1342. 




1350-1364. 








CLEMENT VI. 




CHARLES V. 


1342-1352. 




'leSage' 






1364-1380. 


INNOCENT VI. 






1352-1362. 






URBAN V. 






1362-1370. 






Went to Rome 






1367, returned 






to Avignon in 






1370. 






GREGORY XI. 






1371-1378. 






The last French 






Pope. He moved 






the papal seat 






from Avignon to 






Rome in 1376-7, 






and was the first 






Pope who lived 






in the Vatican. 





59. See above, p. 136, Nos. 42 and 43 ; also p. 144, note 82. 



I370- 1 ] 159 



EGBERT THE SECOND 

(STEWART) 

KING OF SCOTS 

1370-1 1390 

Keign began 22nd February 1370-1, 
ended I9th April 1390, 
lasted 19 years i month and 29 days. 

Robert the Second (Stewart). ' King of Scots/ ' the High 

Steward ' [the first king of the House of Stewart]. 1 
Only Son of Walter, 6th high steward of Scotland, by his 

first wife, Marjorie Brus, who was the only child of the 

first marriage of Robert I., king of Scots. 2 
Born 2nd March 131 5- 16. 3 
Declared Heir to the Crown, in default of male issue of 

his grandfather, King Robert I., by Parliament, at Scone, 

3rd December 1318.* 
Ceased to be Heir-Presumptive to the Crown, on the 

birth of David, son of King Robert I., 5th March 1323-4. 5 
High Steward of Scotland, on the death of his father, 9th 

April I326. 6 

1. Nat. MSS.,ii. 35, 36, No. XLin. a ; ofc. 25, and note J, '2 Mar. 1315-16'; 
Diplomata Scotise, facsimile, PI. LVI.; Extracta, 146, a 1315; Book of Plus- 
Ancient Scottish Seals, i. Nos. 33, 35; carden, bk. ix. c. 14, a 1316. 
Armorial de Gelre, fol. 64, No. i. 4. Acts of Parliaments, i. 105, 
TJte roitinc toan fcotlattt, his arms. black (465, red), 3 Dec. 1318 ; Scoti- 

2. Fordun, Annals, 77 ; Book of chron., ii. 290, 291, bk. xiii. c. 13. 
Pluscarden, bk. ix. c. 14. See above, 5. Fordun, Annals, 138; Scoti- 
Robert I., p. 141, Nos. 65, 66. chron., ii. 279, bk. xiii. c. 5. 

3. Scotichron., ii. 259, bk. xii. end 6. Scotichron.,ii. 288, bk. xiii. c. 12. 



160 ROBERT THE SECOND [1370-1 

Became Heir-Presumptive a second time, on the death of 
his grandfather, King Robert I., 7th June 1 329.7 

Chosen Guardian of the Kingdom in the year 1338, and 
was Guardian until the return of King David II. from 
France, 2nd June I34I. 8 

Present at the Battle of Durham, i7th October I346. 9 

Chosen Guardian of the Kingdom a second time about 
the end of October 1 346. 10 

Married First. Robert, the high steward, married, first, 
Elisabeth, daughter of Sir Adam Mure of Rowallan. Papal 
dispensation dated at Avignon, 22nd November I347- 11 

Married Secondly. Robert, the high steward, married, as 
his second wife, Euphemia, countess of Moray, daughter 
of Hugh, earl of Ross, and widow of John Ranulph, 3rd 
earl of Moray. Papal dispensation dated at Avignon, 2nd 
May I355. 12 

REIGN BEGAN 2 2ND FEBRUARY 1 3 70- 1. 

King of Scots. Robert, the high steward, became king of 
Scots as Robert II., on the death of King David II., his 
mother's half-brother, 22nd February I37O-I. 13 

7. Fordun, Annals, 143 ; Scoti- cembris,' is 22 Nov., not December, 
chron., ii. 292, bk. xiii. c. 14. 1347]; Fordun, Annals, 77, a 1349 ; 

8. Fordun, Annals, 158, 160, a Extracta, 247, a 1349 [the last two 
1341 ; Book of Pluscarden, bk. ix. make an error of 2 years in the date. ] 
cc. 37, 39, a 1342. 12. The Papal dispensation is re- 

9. Fordun, Annals, 165 ; Book of corded in the Register of Pope Inno- 
Pluscarden, bk. ix. c. 40. cent VI. in Rome ; Theiner, Vetera 

10. Fordun, Annals, 1 66. Monumenta, 307, No. 620 ; Genea- 

11. The Papal Dispensation is re- logical History of the Stewarts, 420, 
corded in the Register of Pope Cle- 421 [Andrew Stewart is mistaken ; 
ment VI. in Rome [the lady's name Pope Innocent VI. was elected 18 
is written ' Mox ' instead of 'Mure' Dec. 1352, not on the 1st]; Diplo- 
by mistake] ; Theiner, Vetera Monu- mata Scotiae, PL LVIII., engraving of 
menta, 289, 290, No. 577 ; Genealogi- an impression of the seal of Queen 
cal History of the Stewarts, 418-420 Euphemia ; Ancient Scottish Seals, 
[Andrew Stewart is mistaken in his i. 9, No. 36. 

dates, Pope Clement VI. was elected 13. Extracta, 190, a 1370; For- 
7 May 1342 (not i7th), and the date dun, Annals, 1 86 ; Wyntoun, iii. 8, 
of the dispensation, ' X. Icalen. De- bk. ix. c. 1, 11. 1-3. 






i 3 9o] ROBERT THE SECOND 161 

Aged 54 years 1 1 months and 21 days when he succeeded his 

uncle, King David II. 14 

Anointed and Crowned by William de Laundelys, bishop 
of St. Andrews, in the presence of the prelates, earls, and 
barons, and of a great multitude of people, at Scone, 26th 
March I37i. 15 

Heir to the Crown. ' The Lord John,. Earl of Carrick, 
and Steward of Scotland, first-born son of King Robert II. / 
was declared heir to the Crown, by Parliament, in the abbey 
at Scone, 27th March I37i. 16 

The Queen Crowned. Euphemia, second wife of King 
Robert II., was crowned by the bishop of Aberdeen at 
Scone in I372. 17 

Succession in the Male Line. The King, in full par- 
liament at Scone, decreed that the succession to the Crown 
of Scotland was to be in the male line, 4th April I373. 18 

The Papal Seat at Rome. England joined Italy, 
Austria, Bohemia, and Hungary in acknowledging Urban 
VI. as Pope (seated at Rome). He was elected by sixteen 
cardinals at Rome, on the 9th of April 1 378. 19 

14. See above, p. 159, No. 3, and ['The Lord John, earl of Carrick/ 
p. 1 60, No. 13. was styled 'Robert III.' after he 

15. Acts of Parliaments, i. 184, had succeeded his father, King 
black (545, red), 26 Mar. 1371; Robert II.] See below, Robert III. , 
Extracta, 191, crowned ' in the feast p. 173, No. n. 

of the Annunciation, 1371; Fordun, 17. Scotichron., ii. 386, bk. xiv. 

Annals, 186, enthroned and crowned c. 39, a 1372 ; Extracta, 192, a 

25 Mar. 1370 [a year and a day 1371 ; Book of Pluscarden, bk. x. c. 

wrong]; Wyntoun, iii. 9, bk. ix. c. 2, a 1372. 

i, 11. 29-34; Scotichron., ii. 382, 18. Original deed, with seals at- 

383, bk. xiv. c. 36, crowned in the tached, in H.M. General Register 

feast of the Annunciation, 1371 ; House, Edinburgh; Acts of Parlia- 

Book of Pluscarden, bk. x. c. I, ments of Scotland, i. 549, red (185, 

crowned 1371; Exchequer Rolls, ii. black), facsimile, with coloured seals, 

pp. Ixxix, 365. and transcript ; Nat. MSS., ii. 37, 38, 

1 6. Original deed, with seals at- No. XLin. b , facsimile, transcript, 
tached, in H.M. General Register and translation. 

House, Edinburgh; Acts of Parlia- 19. Tresor de Chronologic, p. 1 1 34, 

ments, i. 546, red (185, black), fac- ccvu., Urban VI. ; Scotichron., ii. 

simile, with coloured seals, and tran- 448, a 1414 ; 451, bk. xv. cc. 23-25 ; 

script; Nat. MSS., ii. 35, 36, No. Book of Pluscarden, bk. x. c. 2, a 

XLiii. a , transcript and translation. 1378; Chronology of History, 203. 



162 ROBERT THE SECOND [1370-1 

The Papal Seat at Avignon. Scotland joined France, 
Spain, Sicily, and Cyprus in acknowledging Clement VII. 
as Pope (seated at Avignon). Fifteen of the sixteen car- 
dinals, who had previously elected Urban VI., elected 
Clement VIL, at Fondi, on the 2ist of September I378. 20 

The Battle of Benrig. The Scots, under George, earl 
of Dunbar and March, totally defeated the English, under 
the Baron of Greystoke, at Benrig, in the year I382. 21 

The Baron of Greystoke, who was on his way, with a 
large force of English, to take command of Roxburgh 
Castle, was taken prisoner at Benrig ; and all his baggage, 
including vessels of gold and silver, was seized by George 
of Dunbar, earl of March (roth earl of Dunbar), who held 
him to ransom at Dunbar Castle, in the year I382. 22 

Lochmaben Castle Taken. Archibald Douglas, lord of 
Galloway, with the assistance of the Earls of March and 
Douglas, after a siege of nine days, took Lochmaben Castle 
from the English and razed it to the ground, on the 4th of 
February I3&4-5. 23 

Scotland Invaded. John of Gaunt, duke of Lancaster, 
uncle of Richard II., king of England, with a large army, 
invaded Scotland as far as the Firth of Forth, about the 
beginning of April I385. 24 

The French in Scotland. John de Vienne, admiral of 



20. Tresor de Chronologic, p. 1133, Extracta, 195; Book of Pluscarden, 
CCV., Clement VII. ; Scotichron., ii. bk. x. c. 5, a 1384 ; Cal. Doc. Scot., 
448, bk. xv. c. 22, a 1414; p. 451, iv. 69, Nos. 312, 315, ' 1382' [this is 
bk. xv. cc. 23-25 ; Book of Plus- the right date] ; Exchequer Rolls, 
carden, bk. x. c. 2, a 1378 ; Chrono- iii., Preface, p. Ixiii. 

logy of History, 203, a 1378. 23. Wyntoun, iii. 18, bk. ix. c. 5, 

21. Wyntoun, iii. 19, bk. ix. c. 5, 11. 295-330; Scotichron., ii. 397, c. 
N- 33 i -34 2 ; Scotichron., ii. 397, 398, 47; Extracta, 195; Book of Plus- 
bk. xiv. c. 47 ; Extracta, 195 ; Book carden, bk. x. c. 5 ; Exchequer Rolls, 
of Pluscarden, bk. x. c. 5 ; Cal. Doc. iii., Preface, pp. Ixii, Ixiii, a 1384-5. 
Scot., iv. 69, Nos. 312, 315, a 1382 24. Wyntoun, iii. 20-22, bk. ix. 
(before 6 Nov.) ; Exchequer Rolls, c. 5, 11. 353-416, a 1385; Scotichron., 
iii., Preface, p. Ixiii. ii. 398, bk. xiv. c. 47 ; Extracta, 

22. Wyntoun, iii. 19, 20, bk. ix. 195 ; Book of Pluscarden, bk. x. cc. 
c - 5> !! 33 r -35 2 > a J 384; Scotichron., 5, 6 ; Exchequer Rolls, iii., Preface, 
"397. 398, bk. xiv. c. 47, a 1384; pp. Ixiii, Ixiv. 



i 3 9o] ROBERT THE SECOND 163 

France, with 50 knights, 26 bannerets, 1050 men-at-arms, 
80 suits of armour, 80 iron -headed spears, and 50,000 
francs in gold, landed in Scotland to help the Scots against 
the English, about the end of May I385. 25 

A White St. Andrew's Cross. One of the orders to 
the allied forces when invading England was, that every 
one, whether Scot or Frenchman, should wear a white St. 
Andrew's cross both before and behind, ist July I385. 26 

England Invaded. The Scots, under the sons of King 
Robert II. and the earls of Douglas, Moray, Mar, and 
Sutherland, with their French allies, invaded England, 
took the castle of Wark, and after ravaging the country 
as far as Newcastle, they retired about the beginning of 
August I385. 27 

Scotland Invaded a Second Time. Richard II., king 
of England, with a large army invaded Scotland by the 
East Marches, and burned Dryburgh, Melrose, Neubotle, 
and Edinburgh, about the loth of August I385. 28 

England Invaded a Second Time. The Scots and 
French invaded England by the West Marches, and 
after ravaging, plundering, and burning, they returned 
safely, about the middle of August I385. 29 

The French Troops returned to France in French 
ships, about the 2nd of November I385. 30 

John Wiclif, an Englishman, born in 1324, one of the 
first Reformers, professor of theology at Oxford in 1377, 



25. Froissart, iii. cc. 2, 3 ; Wals- 28. Froissart, iii. cc. 13-15 ; Chron. 
ingham, ii. 129; Chronicon Ang- Angliae, 364; Walsingham, ii. 131; 
Use, 364; Extracta, 198, a 1385; Extracta, 199 ; Fordun, Annals, 189 ; 
Fordun, Annals, 189, ' about the end Scotichron., ii. 401, 402, bk. xiv. c. 
of May'; Scotichron., ii. 400, 401, 50; Wyntoun, iii. 28, bk. ix. c. 7, 
bk. xiv. c. 49; Book of Pluscarden, 11. 615, etc. ; Book of Pluscarden, 
bk. x. c. 7 ; Wyntoun, iii. 23, bk. ix. bk. x. c. 7. 

c. 6, 11. 455, etc. 29. Froissart, iii. cc. 13, 14; Wals- 

26. Acts of Parliaments, i. 554, ingham, ii. 132, 133 ; Extracta, 199 ; 
555, red (190, 191, black). See Wyntoun, iii. 29, bk. ix. c. 7, 11. 645, 
above, William, p. 81, No. 30. etc. ; Book of Pluscarden, bk. x, c. 7. 

27. Froissart, iii. cc. 10, II ; Ex- 30. Froissart, iii. c. 16 ; Fordun, 
tracta, 198 ; The Armorial de Gelre Annals, 189 ; Book of Pluscarden, 
gives their arms [Sutherland wrong]. bk. x. c. 7. 



164 



ROBERT THE SECOND 



translated the Bible into English ; his disciples were called 
Lollards. He died 3ist December I385. 31 

Fordun the Historian, born about 1320, seems to have 
written his history of Scotland between 1384 and I387. 32 

Death of the Queen. Euphernia, daughter of Hugh, 
earl of Ross, widow of John Ranulph, 3rd earl of Moray, 
and second wife of King Robert II., died in I387. 33 

England Invaded. Robert, earl of Fife, son of King 
Robert II., having assembled a large army, invaded Eng- 
land by the West Marches and ravaged Cumberland and 
Westmoreland with impunity, in August I388. 34 

The Battle of Otterburn (or 'Chevy Chase'). The 
Scots, under James Douglas, 2nd earl of Douglas (who was 
killed), George Dunbar, earl of March, and his brother, 
John Dunbar, earl of Moray, totally defeated the Eng- 
lish and Henry Percy (' Hotspur '), son of the earl of 
Northumberland, was taken prisoner at Otterburn in 
Northumberland, on the 5th of August I388. 35 



31. Chron. Angliae, 115, 116, his 
opinions ; Appendix, 395, his rise and 
doctrines ; 362, his death ; Hook, 
Church Dictionary, 804, * Wiclitites.' 

32. Historians of Scotland, i. Pre- 
face to Fordun, p. 14. 

33. Extracta, 200, a 1387 ; Scoti- 
chron., ii. 402, bk. xiv c. 50, a 

1387- 

34. Scotichronicon, ii. 404, bk. xiv. 
c. 52 ; Walsingham, ii. 175, 176. 

35. Scotichron., ii. 405-414, bk. 
xiv. cc. 53, 54 ; p. 407, Thomas de 
Barry, a Scot, canon of Glasgow, 
the first provost of Bothville, in his 
rhyming Latin verses, describing 
the battle of Otterburn, gives the 
date as Wednesday, 5th Aug. 1388 
(St. Oswald's day), and blazons the 
arms of the 3 earls ; Wyntoun, iii. 
32-40, bk. ix. cc. 8, 9 ; Chron. Scots 
(Skene), 390, a 1388 ; Book of Plus- 
carden, bk. x. c. 9 [error : John of 
Dunbar, earl of Moray, was not 
killed there ; see Rotuli Scotise, ii. 



p. no b ]; Extracta, 200-202; Wals- 
ingham, ii. 144, 'Hotspur'; pp. 175, 
176, Otterburn ; Armorial de Gelre 
MS. in the Bibliotheque Koyale at 
Brussels (No. 15652-15656), fol. 64, 
Nos. 6, 7, 10, emblazoned arms of 
the 3 earls ; Proceedings Society of 
Antiquaries, Scotland, xxv. p. 12, 
drawings of the arms of the 3 earls ; 
Froissart (ed. 1852), ii. 366-376, 
chap, cxxvi. , ' both parties agree 
that it was the hardest and most 
obstinate battle that was ever 
fought ' ; chap, cxxvii. , ' the Scots 
behaved most valiantly, for the 
English were three to one ' ; chap. 
cxxx., 'fought in the year of grace 
1388, ... on the 1 9th day of 
August ' ; Acts of Parliaments of 
Scotland, i. 555, red (191, black), 
general council held at Linlithgow, 
on Tuesday the i8th of August 1388 ; 
Original Precept, No. 190, Calendar 
of Writs, H.M. General Register 
House, Edinburgh ; this Precept is 



1390] 



EGBERT THE SECOND 



165 



Early Scottish Coats of Arms. The earliest Roll of 
emblazoned Scottish coats of arms, now known to be 
extant, is in the * Armorial de Gelre,' a MS. in the Biblio- 
theque Royale, at Brussels. The forty-two Scottish coats 
in the MS. appear to have been emblazoned between the 
years 1370 and I388. 36 

Governor of the Kingdom. Robert, earl of Fife, second 
son of King Robert II., owing to the old age and infirmity 
of his father and to the ill-health of his elder brother, 
was elected Governor of the Kingdom by the king's council 
in Edinburgh, ist December I388. 37 

Died. King Robert the Second died at his castle of Dun- 
donald in Ayrshire, iQth April I39O. 38 

Aged 74 years i month and 1 8 days. 39 

Buried before the high-altar in the abbey at Scone, I3th 
August I39O. 40 



printed in the Acts of Parliaments, 
i. 565, red (p. 2Oi b , No. 14, black). 
[The above-mentioned Act of Parlia- 
ment and Original Precept prove 
that James, earl of Douglas, was 
dead before the i8th of August, con- 
sequently Froissart is wrong in 
"stating that the battle was fought 
on the i gth.] 

36. Armorial de Gelre, MS. No. 
15652-6 in the Bibliotheque Royale, 
at Brussels ; three of its pages, fol. 
64, 64 b , and 65, contain forty-two 
Scottish coats of arms. [Drawings 
carefully traced, coloured, compared, 
and verified, penes A. H. D. With 
his sanction the Society of Antiquaries 
of Scotland had nine hundred and 
sixty copies of the three pages taken, 
in facsimile, for insertion in their 
Proceedings, and the Edinburgh 
Heraldic Exhibition Committee had 
two hundred and sixty copies taken 
for their Catalogue.] Proceedings 
Society of Antiquaries 1 890- 1891, vol. 
xxv. pp. 9-19, facsimiles of the forty- 
two Scottish coats of arms, with 



notes. See, also Heraldic Catalogue, 
p. 80, No. 752, Plates vn. vui. 
and ix. 

37. Acts of Parliaments, i. 555, 
red (191, black), i Dec. 1388 ; Scoti- 
chron., ii. 414, bk. xiv. c. 55; Ex- 
tracta, 201 ; Wyntoun, iii. 338, 
Brevis Chronica ; Book of Pluscar- 
den, bk. x. c. 10. [The last three 
make the year 1389, instead of 1388 
as it ought to be.] 

38. Reg. Epis. Moraviensis, 381, 
No. 303; Scotichron., ii. 415, bk. 
xiv. c. 56, 19 April 1390; Wyntoun, 
iii. 44, bk. ix. c. 10, 11. 1093-1096; 
338, Brevis Chronica, 19 Apr. 1390; 
Book of Pluscarden, bk. x. c. 10, 20 
Apr. 1390. 

39. See above, Nos. 3 and 38 ; 
Exchequer Rolls, iii., Preface, p. 
Ixxii. [The editor is wrong; 
Robert II. was 74 at his death, 
not 84.] 

40. Reg. Epis. Moraviensis, 381, 
No. 303; Scotichron., ii. 415; Ex- 
tracta, 202, Aug. 1390; Wyntoun, 
iii. 44, bk. ix. c. 10, 11. 1097-1101 ; 51, 



166 EGBERT THE SECOND [1370-1 

His Reign lasted 19 years i month and 29 days. 41 

REIGN ENDED I9TH APRIL I39O. 

ISSUE 

King Bobert the Second had by his first wife, Elisabeth Mure, 
four sons, John, Walter, Eobert, and Alexander; and five 
daughters, Margaret, Marjorie, Elisabeth, Isabella, and Jean. 42 
(i.) Jonn, earl of Carrick, afterwards Robert III., king of Scots 
from i Qth April 1390 to 4th April i4o6. 43 
(n.) Walter, married (as her fourth husband) Isabella, countess 
of Fife, and seems to have died about I362. 44 
(m.) Bobert, duke of Albany, ' earl of Fyff and of Menteth,' 
Governor of the Kingdom from ist December 1388 until his 
death at Stirling, 3rd September 1420. He married first, 
Margaret, countess of Menteth, by whom he had an only son, 
Murdac, and several daughters. He married secondly, Muriella, 
daughter of Sir William Keith; issue three sons ; the eldest, John 
Stewart, earl of Buchan, was Constable of France. 45 

Murdac, duke of Albany, succeeded his father as Governor of 
the Kingdom, in 1420, and was beheaded at Stirling, 25th 
May 1425. He married Isabella, daughter of Duncan, earl 
of Lennox, and had with other issue three sons : 46 

bk. ix. c. xii. 11. 1301-1303, 13 Aug. tish Seals, i., Nos. 786-788; Scoti- 

1393 ; p. 338, Brevis Chronica ; Book chron., ii. 414, bk. xiv. c. 55, ap- 

of Pluscardeu, bk. x. c. 10. pointed Governor ; 422, bk. xv. c. 4, 

41. See above, Nos. 13 and 38. created duke, a 1398 ; 466, bk. xv. 

42. Exchequer Rolls, iv. p. ciii, an c. 37, death and burial, a 1419 ; 
account of the sons and daughters of Reg. Epis. Moraviensis, 382, No. 
King Robert II. by his first wife, 303 ; Extracta, 220, death and epi- 
Elisabeth Mure ; Extracta, 202. taph ; Wyntoun, iii. 39, bk. ix. c. 9 ; 

43. Styled 'Robert III.' after he Armorial de Gelre, fol. 64, No. 
had succeeded his father. See be- 4, arms of * cotmt &e fattic ' [Fife] ; 
low, Robert III., p. 173, No. u. Peerage of Scotland, i. 56 ; ii. 188. 

44. Exchequer Rolls, iv. clvi,No. 2; 46. Exchequer Rolls, iv. p. clxxviii, 
[his wife was countess of Fife in her etc. ; Walsingham, ii. 252 ; Ancient 
own right, and survived him.] Scottish Seals, i., No. 789; Scoti- 

45. Exchequer Rolls, iv. p. clxxv, chron., ii. 467, bk. xv. c. 37; 482, 
etc. ; Acts of Parliaments, i. 555, 483, bk. xvi. c. 10, beheaded. See 
red (191, black), i Dec. 1388; Nat. below, p. 186, No. 24; p. 188, Nos. 
MSS., ii. 45, No. LV. ; Ancient Scot- 35, 36 ; Peerage of Scotland, i. 57, 58. 



1390] ROBERT THE SECOND 167 

(A) Robert, master of Fife, died before 142 1. 46 

(B) Sir Walter, beheaded at Stirling, 24th May I425- 46 
(c) Sir Alexander, beheaded at Stirling, 25th May I425. 46 

(iv.) Alexander, 'The Wolf of Badenoch,' earl of Buchan and 
Ross, burned Forres in May 1390, and burned Elgin on the 
1 7th June 1390. He is supposed to have been buried in the 
choir of the Cathedral at Dunkeld. By his wife Euphemia, 
countess of Ross, he left no issue. 47 His illegitimate son, 

Alexander Stewart, earl of Mar, forcibly married the widowed 
countess of Mar. He defeated the Highlanders and Islanders, 
at Harlaw, 24th July 14 n. 48 

(v.) Margaret, married, as his second wife, to John, lord of the 
Isles; Papal dispensation, 1 4th June i35o. 49 
(vi.) Marjorie, married to John of Dunbar, brother to George, 
roth earl of Dunbar, 3rd earl of March; Papal dispensation, 
nth July 1370. John of Dunbar and his wife were created 
earl and countess of Moray, in parliament at Scone, 9th March 
1371-2. The earl, wounded in a tournament in London, died at 
York in 1391. His widow, 'Marjorie, countess of Moray,' held 
the earldom of Moray jointly with her elder son, Thomas of 
Dunbar. She was married secondly to Alexander Keith of Gran- 
down, son of Sir William Keith, great Marischal of Scotland. 50 

47. Exchequer Rolls, iii. 600, 634 ; a photograph of the Papal dispensa- 
iv. pp. clvii, clviii ; Reg. Epis. tion to John de Dombar and Mariorie 
Moraviensis, 381, No. 303, par. 2; Senescalli, dated II July 1370, in the 
Extracta, 202 ; Scotichron., ii. 416, Register of Pope Urban V. in Rome ; 
bk. xv. 0.56; Wyntoun, iii. 55, bk. Genealogical History of the Stewarts, 
ix. c. 12, 11. 1437-1444; Book of Supplement, 439, Papal dispensation 
Pluscarden, bk. x. c. 10 ; Armorial to John de Dombar and Mariorie 
deGelre, fol. 64, No. 2, ' count tic ros.' Senescalli; Acts of Parliaments, i. 

48. Exchequer Rolls, iv. pp. Ixxiii- 560, red (196, black), No. 3, grant of 
Ixxv; Peerage of Scotland, ii. 201. the earldom of Moray to John of 

49. Exchequer Rolls, iv. p. clxii, Dunbar and Marjorie [Steward] in 
No. i ; Theiner, Vetera Monumenta, full parliament, at Scone, 9 Mar. 
294, No. 588, Papal dispensation, 14 1371-2 ; Register of the Great Seal, 
June 1 350; p. 343, No. 691, Papal dis- i., No. 309, 9 Mar., in the second 
pensation, 24 Sep. 1371; Genealogical year of King Robert II. [1371-2]; 
History of the Stewarts, Supplement, also Rot. iv., No. 3, charter of the 
439, Papal dispensation, 24 Sep. earldom of Moray to John of Dunbar 
1371- See also below, next page, No. and his wife Marjorie ; Armorial de 
51 (vui.), Isabella, her sister. Gelre, fol. 64, No. 10, arms of 

50. Exchequer Rolls, iv. p. clxii, * count lie tnorrcf ' [John of Dunbar, 
No. 4 ; Autotype [penes A. H. D.] of earl of Moray] ; Proceedings Society 



168 



ROBERT THE SECOND 



[1370-1 



(vn.) Elisabeth, married to Thomas Hay, of Errol, Constable of 
Scotland. Charter dated, Edinburgh, yth November 1372. 51 
(vill.) Isabella, married first [Papal dispensation, 24th September 
137 1] to James, 2nd earl of Douglas, who was killed at Otterburn, 
5th August 1388; married secondly to Sir John Edmonston. 52 
(ix.) Jean, married first to Sir John Keith ; secondly to John 
Lyon ; and thirdly to Sir James Sandilands of Calder. 53 
King Eobert the Second had by his second wife, Euphemia of 
Ross, widow of John Ranulph, 3rd earl of Moray, two sons, 
David and Walter ; and two daughters, Egidia and Katherine : 54 
(x.) David, earl palatine of Stratherne and earl of Caithness, 
left an only daughter, and died between 23rd February 1381-2 
and I389. 55 

(xi.) Walter, earl of Athol, earl of Caithness and lord of Brechin, 
married the daughter and heir of Sir David de Berkley ; he was 
beheaded in Edinburgh, as accessory to the assassination of his 



of Antiquaries, xxii. (1887-88), 187, 
and Pedigree; xxv. (1890-91), pp. 
9-19 ; Ancient Scottish Seals, ii. 56, 
Nos. 320, 321 [No. 318 is the seal 
of John Ranulph, 3rd earl of Moray, 
not the seal of John Dunbar, 5th 
earl of Moray ; error of Henry 
Laing] ; p. 55, No. 321, seal of Mar- 
jorie, wife of John Dunbar, earl of 
Moray ; Wyntoun, iii. 317, last 
note, not Mar but ' Mor ' [the 
contraction of Moraviensis (Latin 
for Moray) there was no earl of 
Mar alive at that time] ; Foedera 
(ed. 1709), vii. 666, 26th Mar. 1390 ; 
Original charter at Castle Grant, 
No. 20, 15 Feb. 1391-2 ; Scottish 
Arms, ii. n, No. xii. ; Rotuli 
Scotiae, ii. no b . See also below, 
p. 289. [This John of Dunbar, 5th 
earl of Moray, one of the three 
commanders at the battle of Otter- 
burn, was 2nd son of Sir Patric 
Dunbar by his wife Isabella, younger 
daughter of Sir Thomas Ranulph, 
ist earl of Moray. Sir Patric was 
son of Sir Alexander Dunbar, who 
was the 3rd son of Patric, 7th earl 



of Dunbar.] See above, p. 164, No. 35, 
and below, pp. 281, 282, 288, 289. 
[For the second marriage of Marjorie, 
countess of Moray, see Avinionenses 
Regista, vol. 307, f. 63 i b , 8 Kal. 
Maij (24 Apr.) 1403; Vatican Re- 
gista, vol. 323, same date ; Peerage 
of Scotland, ii. 188.] 

51. Reg. Mag. Sig., vol. i. p. 115, 
No. 9 ; Peerage of Scotland, vol. i. 
p. 546, No. vin. ; Exchequer Rolls, 
iv., Preface, p. clxii, No. 2. 

52. [She is called ' Margaret,' by 
mistake, in the Papal dispensation.] 
Theiner, Vetera Monumenta, 343, 
No. 691 ; Armorial de Gelre, fol. 64, 
No. 6, arms of * count a foouglas ' ; 
fol. 65, No. 7, arms of * sur Jloon of 
cctmoitston.' 

53. Exchequer Rolls, iv. p. clxiv, 
No. 6 ; Armorial de Gelre, fol. 65, 
No. 5, arms of ' lottrt a faets ' ; fol. 65, 
No. i, arms of ' santielan&ts/ 

54. Exchequer Rolls, iv. pp. clviii- 
clxvi, an account of the sons and 
daughters of King Robert II. by 
his second wife, Euphemia of Ross. 

55. Exchequer Rolls, iv. p. clviii, 



1390] 



ROBERT THE SECOND 



169 



nephew, James I., king of Scots, 3ist March 1437. He left two 
sons, James and Alan : 56 

(1) James, died in England when a hostage for James I., 
king of Scots, and left a son Robert : 56 

Sir Robert Stewart, master of Athol, one of the assassins of 
King James I., beheaded in Edinburgh in March 143 7. 56 

(2) Alan, earl of Caithness, slain at the battle of Inverlochy, 
in 143 1. 56 

(xn.) Egidia, married to Sir William Douglas of Nithsdale. 57 
(XIII.) Katherine [called also ' Jean ' and ' Elisabeth ' by different 
genealogists], married to Sir David Lindesay, who was created 
earl of Crawford 2ist April I398. 58 

King Robert the Second had a number of illegitimate children; 
the names of eight sons appear in the records, 59 viz. : 

(a) John Stewart, heritable sheriff of Bute, ancestor of the 
present marquess of Bute. 60 

(b) Thomas Stewart, archdeacon of St. Andrews. 61 

(c) Alexander Stewart, canon of Glasgow. 62 

(d) Sir John Stewart, of Dundonald, ' the red Stewart.' 63 

(e) Sir Alexander Stewart, of Inverlunan, charter 3rd 
January 137 7-8. 64 



No. i ; Rotuli Scotise, ii. 42 ; Ex- 
tracta, 192 ; Scotichron., ii. 386, bk. 
xiv. c. 39 ; Book of Pluscarden, bk. 
x. c. 2 ; Armorial de Gelre, fol. 64, 
No. 5, arms of ' count a straoerm ' ; 
Peerage of Scotland, i. 48 ; ii. 560. 

56. Rotuli Scotise, ii. 114; Ex- 
chequer Rolls, iv. pp. clix-clxi ; Ex- 
tracta, 192 ; Scotichron., ii. 386, bk. 
xiv. c. 39 ; Book of Pluscarden, bk. 
x. c. 2 ; Armorial de Gelre, fol. 64 b , 
No. 3, arms of count a affol ' ; 
Peerage of Scotland, i. 294. 

57- Exchequer Rolls, iv., Preface, 
p. clxiv, No. 7. 

58. Exchequer Rolls, iv., Preface, 
p. clxv, No. 8 ; Armorial de Gelre, 
fol. 64 b , No. 13, arms of 'gut oautU 
tic Ijmocjag.' 

59. Exchequer Rolls, iv., Preface, 
pp. clxvi-clxx. 

60. [' Heritable,' not 'hereditary']; 



Exchequer Rolls, iv., Preface, p. 
clxiv ; vol. v. p. 782. 

61. Rotuli Scotise, ii. 130 ; Ex- 
chequer Rolls, iv. pp. clxvi, clxvii. 

62. Exchequer Rolls, iv. p. clxvii. 

63. Ibid. , and note 8 ; Armorial 
de Gelre, fol. 64*", No. 10, stir jofltt 
senescal. 

64. Exchequer Rolls, iv. p. clxviii, 
and notes ; Armorial de Gelre, fol. 
64 b , No. 12, s|jr alejcfanotr stufoatt. 

[This name, written in Flemish, 
from the dictation of a Scotsman, is, 
perhaps, the earliest instance of the 
final letter of Steward being t in- 
stead of d. The name, which con- 
stantly occurs in the Records, after 
this date, generally appears as 
'Stewart.'] Letters of William 
Stubbs, Bishop of Oxford, p. 362 
(Letter to Dr. George Prothero, 
loth Jan. 1894) : ' Unless you are, 




170 



ROBERT THE SECOND 



[1370-1 



(/) James Stewart had a charter of the east half of Kinfauns,, 
Rate, etc., i5th January I382-3- 65 
(g) Sir John Stewart, of Cairdney. 66 
(h) Walter Stewart. 67 



in the body of the book, committed 
to the form "Stuart," please spell 

"Stewart."' 



65. Exchequer Rolls, iv. p. clxix. 

66. Ibid. 

67. Ibid. 



A TABLE OF KEGNAL YEAKS 



1st began 22 Feb. 1370-1, 
ended 21 Feb. 1371-2. 


llth began 22 Feb. 1380-1, 
ended 21 Feb. 1381-2. 


2nd began 22 Feb 1371-2, 
ended 21 Feb. 1372-3. 


12th began 22 Feb. 1381-2, 
ended 21 Feb. 1382-3. 


3rd began 22 Feb. 1372-3, 
ended 2i Feb. 1373-4. 


13th began 22 Feb. 1382-3, 
ended 21 Feb. 1383-4. 


4th began 22 Feb. 1373-4, 
ended 21 Feb. 1374-5. 


14th began 22 Feb. 1383-4, 
ended 21 Feb. 1384-5. 


5th began 22 Feb. 1374-5, 
ended 21 Feb. 1375-6. 


15th began 22 Feb. 1384-5, 
ended 21 Feb. 1385-6. 


6th began 22 Feb. 1375-6, 
ended 21 Feb. 1376-7. 


16th began 22 Feb. 1385-6, 
ended 21 Feb. 1386-7. 


7th began 22 Feb. 1376-7, 
ended 21 Feb. 1377-8. 


17th began 22 Feb. 1386-7, 
ended 21 Feb. 1387-8. 


8th began 22 Feb. 1377-8, 
ended 21 Feb. 1378-9. 


18th began 22 Feb. 1387-8, 
ended 21 Feb. 1388-9. 


9th began 22 Feb. 1378-9, 
ended 21 Feb. 1379-80. 


19th began 22 Feb. 1388-9, 
ended 21 Feb. 1389-90. 


10th began 22 Feb. 1379-80, 
ended 21 Feb. 1380-1. 


20th began 22 Feb. 1389-90, 
ended 19 Apr. 1390. 


Only i month and 29 days of the 2Oth year. 



^390] 



EGBERT THE SECOND 



171 



CONTEMPORAEY SOVEREIGNS 



KINGS OF ENGLAND KINGS OF FRANCE 



EDWARD III. 
I327-I377. 

RICHARD II. 
I377-I399. 



CHARLES V. 
Me Sage' 
1364-1380. 

CHARLES VI. 

; leBien Airne' 

1380-1422. 



POPES 

GREGORY XI. 

I37I-I378. 

The last French Pope. He removed 
the Papal seat from Avignon to 
Rome in 1376-7, and was the first 
Pope who lived in the Vatican. 



SCHISM 
1378-1429. 



Popes seated 

at Rome, 
acknowledged in 
England, Italy, 
Austria, Bohemia, 
and Hungary. 

URBAN VI. 
1378-1389. 

BONIFACE IX. 
1389-1404. 



Pope seated 
at Avignon, 
acknowledged in 
Scotland, France, 
Spain, Sicily, and 
Cyprus. 

Clement VII. 
1378-1394. 



172 [1390 



EGBERT THE THIRD 
(STEWART) 

KING OF SCOTS 
13901406 

Reign began i9th April 1390, 
ended 4th April 1406, 

lasted 15 years 1 1 months and 17 days. 

Robert the Third (Stewart). 'King of Scots,' originally 

named John, ' Steward of Scotland/ ' Earl of Carrick.' l 
Eldest Son of Robert II., king of Scots, by his first wife 

Elisabeth, daughter of Sir Adam Mure of Rowallan. 2 
Born about I337- 3 
Married Annabella, daughter of Sir John Drummond of 

Stobhall, in or just before 1367* 
Created Earl of Carrick. The earldom of Carrick was 

granted to him and his wife Annabella by King David II. 

in Parliament at Scone, 22nd June 1368.* 
Heir to the Crown. As ' John, earl of Carrick, and Steward 

of Scotland,' he was declared heir to the Crown by decree 

of Parliament at Scone, 2/th March 1371. 



1. Acts of Parliaments, i. 569, red (171, black), No. 32, Annabella was 
(207, black) ; Nat. MSS., ii. 41, No. his wife, 22 June 1368; Exchequer 
XLVIII., transcript and translation; Rolls, iv. , Appendix to Preface, 170, 
Ancient Scottish Seals, i. 10, Nos. Robert III., note I. 

37-40 ; Diplomata Scotise, PI. LX. 5. Acts of Parliaments, i. 531, red 

2. Acts of Parl., i. 531, red (171, (171, black), No. 32; Exchequer 
black), Nos. 32, 545, red (181, black); Rolls, iv., Appendix to Preface, 170, 
Scotichron., ii. 418, bk. xv. c. I. also notes 2 and 3. 

3. Exchequer Rolls, iv. , Appendix 6. Acts of Parl., i. 546, red (182, 
to Preface, 170, Robert III. black) ; Armorial de Gelre, fol. 64, 

4. Acts of Parliaments, i. 531, red No. 3, his arms as count tie catric. 



I 4 o6] ROBERT THE THIRD 173 



REIGN BEGAN IQTH APRIL 1 390. 

King of Scots. John, earl of Carrick, became king of Scots 
on the death of his father King Robert II., igth April 1 39O. 7 

Aged about 53 when he succeeded his father. 8 

The Cathedral at Elgin Burned. ' The Wolf of Bade- 
noch,' Alexander, third son of King Robert II., burned 
Forres at the end of May 1390; and burned Elgin with 
its church of St. Giles, the Maison Dieu, eighteen houses 
of the canons and chaplains, and the Cathedral, 'the 
mirror of the country and the glory of the kingdom,' 
1 7th June 1390. 

Anointed and Crowned. John, earl of Carrick, was anointed 
and crowned as Robert III. at Scone, I 4 th August I39O. 10 

Styled Robert III. instead of John, with consent of the 

Estates of the Kingdom, on and after I 4 th August I39O. 11 

The Queen Crowned. Annabella, daughter of Sir John 

Drummond of Stobhall and wife of King Robert III., was 

crowned as Queen, at Scone, I5th August I39O. 12 

John Barbour, archdeacon of Aberdeen, born about 
1325, wrote 'The Story of the Brus,' and seems to have 
died i3th March I394-5. 13 

The Battle of the Clans. Thirty of the Clan Quhele, 
with the loss of nineteen men, slew twenty-nine out of 
thirty of the Clan Kay in a pitched battle before the 

7. Reg. Episcopatus Moraviensis, xv. c. I ; Extracta, 204 ; Book of 
381, No. 303; Extracta, 202. Pluscarden, bk. x. c. u. 

8. Exchequer Rolls, iv. , Appendix n. Acts of Parliaments, i. 577, 
to Preface, p. 170, Robert III. red (215, black); Reg. Epis. Mora- 

9. Reg. Epis. Moraviensis, 204, viensis, 381, No. 303; Scotichron., 
No. 173 ; p. 381, No. 303, par. 2; ii. 418, bk. xv. c. i ; Book of Plus- 
Wyntoun, iii. 55, bk. ix. c. 12, 11. carden, bk. x. cc. 10, n. 
1437-1444; Scotichron., ii. 416, bk. 12. Reg. Epis. Moraviensis, 381, 
xiv. c. 56 ; Book of Pluscarden, bk. No. 303 ; Wyntoun, iii. 44, bk. ix. 
x. c. 10. See also above, Robert II., c. 10, 11. 1108-1112 ; p. 54, bk. ix. c. 
p. 167, No. 47. 12, 11. 1415-1424; Scotichron., ii. 

10. Reg. Epis. Moraviensis, 381, 418, bk. xv. c. I ; Extracta, 202 ; 
No. 303; Wyntoun, iii. 44, bk. ix. Book of Pluscarden, bk. x. c. n. 

c. 10, 11. 1102-1107 ; P- 54> c - 12,11. 13. The Brus (Spalding Club), Pre- 
1401-1408; Scotichron., ii. 418, bk. face, 3-6. 



174 ROBERT THE THIRD [1390 

king, within an enclosure on the North Inch at Perth, 
28th September I396. 14 

The First Scottish Dukes. King Robert III. created 
David, his eldest son, duke of Rothesay ; and Robert, his 
(the king's) brother, duke of Albany, in the church of 
the monastery of St. Michael of Scone, on the 28th of 
April I398. 15 

Lawlessness. The following is a translation of a Latin 
paragraph in the Registrum Episcopatus Moraviensis, 
which refers to the year 1 398 : 

' In those days there was no law in Scotland, but the 
strong oppressed the weak, and the whole kingdom was 
one den of thieves. Homicides, robberies, fire-raisings, 
and other misdeeds remained unpunished, and justice 
seemed banished beyond the kingdom's bounds.' 16 

King's Lieutenant Appointed. King Robert III. being 
'unable to govern the realm, or to restrain trespassers 
and rebels,' his son, David, duke of Rothesay, was 
appointed King's Lieutenant through all the kingdom for 

14. Reg. Epis. Moraviensis, 382, 440, bk. viii. c. 35 ; Book of Pluscar- 

28 Sep. 1396; Scotichron., ii. 420, don, bk. ix. c. 37; Extracta, 173; 

bk. xv. c. 3 [the men belonged Scalachron., Appendix, 299 ; Fu-deni 

respectively to the districts under (ed. 1709), v. pp. 198, 199, Ed ward III., 

Thomas Dunbar, earl of Moray, king of England, challenged Philip 

nephew of King Robert III., and VI., king of France, to fight TOO on 

Sir David Lindesay of Crawford, each side, 26 July 1340; 30 French 

the king's brother-in-law]; Extracta, knights fought, and, * by treachery,' 

203 ; Wyntoun, iii. 63, bk. ix. c. 17, defeated 30 English knights at Caen 

11. 1669-1696, a 1396; Book of Plus- in Normandy, in 1355.] 
carden, bk. x. c. ii [1391, wrong 15. Reg. Epis. Moraviensis, 382; 

date]; Exchequer Rolls, vi. 418, Wyntoun, iii. 69, bk. ix. c. 19, 11. 

also Appendix to Preface, 79, 80; 1860-1876; Scotichron., ii. 422, bk. 

Celtic Scotland, iii. 310-318, the dif- xv. c. 4; Book of Pluscarden, bk. x. 

ferent accounts of the combat; Sir c. II. 

Walter Scott, The Fair Maid of 16. This quotation is part of tin- 
Perth ; Shaw, The Battle of the text in the original MS. in the Advo- 
Clans ; Ecclesiastical Annals of Perth, cates' Library, No. 34.4. 10. ' Char- 
159, 160. [This combat does not tidarium Episcopatus Moraviensis n - 
stand quite alone in Scottish, Eng- tustius ' ; Reg. Epis. Moraviensis, 
lish, or French history. 20 Scottish 382, the quotation printed ; Acts of 
knights fought 20 English knights Parliaments, i. 570, red (208, black) ; 
at Berwick, in 1338 ; Wyntoun, ii. Book of Pluscarden, bk. x. cc. 10, n. 



1 406] ROBERT THE THIRD 175 

three years, by the General Council held at Perth, 27th 
January I398-9. 17 

Richard II., king of England, resigned on the 29th, 
and was deposed on the 3Oth September I399. 18 

The Duke of Rothesay's Betrothal to Elisabeth, 
daughter of George, loth earl of Dunbar (3rd earl of 
March), took place in 1395; and the payment of a large 
sum of gold to the king as her dowry, was made in I399- 19 

George, 10th earl of Dunbar (3rd earl of March), hear- 
ing that the Duke of Rothesay intended to repudiate his 
marriage, went to the king and demanded, either that 
the marriage should be solemnised, or that his daughter's 
dowry should be repaid to him. Not satisfied with the 
king's answer, the earl threatened that if the king did 
not keep his engagement, it would be the worse for him 
and for his kingdom. (February 1399- 1400. ) 20 

The Duke of Rothesay's Marriage. David, duke of 
Rothesay, eldest son of King Robert III., repudiated his 
marriage to Elisabeth of Dunbar, and married Marjorie, 
daughter of Archibald, 3rd earl of Douglas, in the church 
of Both well, in February I399-I4OO. 21 

Vernacular Scots began to come into general use in 
written documents about the year 1400.-- 

Among the earliest written examples now extant are 
the following, viz. : 

(a) Renunciation by ' Alysandre Lyndessay Lorde of 
Glennesk knycht ' to ' Dame Mergarete Contesse of Marr 
and to Elyzabeth hir systir,' dated the ' xij day of Marce 

17. Acts of Parliaments, i. 572, 20. Extracta, 207 ; Scotichron., ii. 
red (210, black), 27 Jan. 1398-9. 428, bk. xv. c. 10; Book of Pluscarden, 

1 8. Walsiugham, ii. 263; Reg. bk. x. c. 15; Armorial de Gelre, f. 
Epis. Moravieusis, 383 ; Wyntoun, 64, No. 7, his arms, count tor marrdir. 
iii. 70, bk. ix. c. 20; Scotichron., ii. 21. Extracta, 207; Scotichron., 
424-427, bk. xv. cc. 7, 8 ; Book of ii. 428, bk. xv. c. 10 ; Book of Plus- 
Pluscarden, bk. x. cc. 12, 14. carden, bk. x. c. 15. See also below, 

19. Extracta, 207; Scotichron., ii. Robert III., p. 180, No. 43. 

428, bk. xv. c. 10 ; Book of Pluscar- 22. [Until this time, deeds, Acts of 
den, bk. x. c. 15. See also below, Parliament, official documents, etc., 
Robert III., p. i So, No. 43. were written in Latin.] 



176 ROBERT THE THIRD [1390 

the yhere of grace Miii c sevynty and nyne' [i2th March 

I379]- 23 

(b) Obligation by William, earl of Douglas and Mar, to 
Margaret Stewart, countess dowager of Mar, ' the xi day 
of Maij the yhere of grace Miii c iiij xx and ane' [nth May 
I38i]. 24 

(c) A Decreet Arbitral by Andrew Mercer, laird of 
Mekylhour, dated ' on Mononday neste before Whyssonday 
the yher of hour Lorde a thousand thre hundyr four scor 
and fyve' [i$th May isSs]. 26 

(d) A Charter by Thomas of Dunbar, earl of Moray, 
nephew of the king, to the alderman, baylis, and burges 
of the Burgh of Elgyne, [dated] ' at Elgyne xxiij day of 
the moneth of Jule in the yhere of Grace mccc nynety 
and thre' [23rd July I393]. 26 

(e) The Minutes of the Council General of Stirling in 
1397, and of the council held at Perth 'the xxvij day 
of Januar the yher of grace m.ccc. nynty and acht' [27th 
January I398-9]. 27 

George, 10th earl of Dunbar (3rd earl of March), left 
his castle at Dunbar in charge of his nephew Maitland, 
and went to England under a safe-conduct from King 
Henry IV., dated 8th March 1399-1 400. 28 

Scotland Invaded. Henry IV., king of England, with 



23. The Douglas Book, iii. 28, with 'grauntyt,' ' vncustomyt,' 'consay- 
facsimile. vit,' 'oysyt,' and 'befornemyt.'] 

24. The Douglas Book, iii. 29, with 27. Acts of Parliaments, i. 570,. 
facsimile. red (208, black), a 1397 [unfortun- 

25. The Red Book of Grandtully, ately there is no day or month] ; 572, 
i. 138. red (210, black), on the opposite 

26. Original charter at Elgin in page there is a facsimile of 'The 
' the town cad jet' [? casket]. act of the consail gnale haldyn at 

[An autotype of the charter, penes p~th ' [Perth]. 

A. H. D. , was shown by him to the See also two facsimiles, Nat. MSS. 
late Henry Bradshaw (in the Univer- ii. 41, No. XLVII. and 44, No. LIU. 
sity Library at Cambridge, on the 28. Scotichron., ii. 428, 429, bk. 
9th July 1879), who said, 'This is xv. c. 10; Wyntoun. iii. 78, bk. ix. 
invaluable ; it proves what I have c. 21, 11. 2097-2128 ; Book of Plus- 
been maintaining for years.' The Garden, bk. x. c. 15; Rotuli Scotue r 
words which delighted him were ii. 153 ; Extracta, p. 207. 






1406] ROBERT THE THIRD 177 

a large army aided by a fleet, invaded Scotland as 
far as Haddington, Leith, and Edinburgh, I4th August 
I400. 29 

Geoffrey Chaucer, ' The father of English poetry,' born 
about 1340, died 25th October I4OO. 30 

Death of the Queen. Annabella, wife of King Robert 
III., was buried at Dunferinline. She died at Scone ' in 
harvest,' I4OI. 31 

The Duke of Rothesay's Death. David, duke of 
Rothesay, eldest son of King Robert III. (generally sup- 
posed to have been starved to death by his uncle Robert, 
duke of Albany, and his brother-in-law Archibald, 4th 
earl of Douglas), died at Falkland, 26th March 14.02.^ 

The Second Battle of Nesbit. The English defeated 
the Scots at Nesbit Muir in Berwickshire, on the 22nd of 
June I4O2. 33 

The Battle of Homildon. The English by their archers, 
with the loss of a few men, totally defeated the Scots, 
killing or taking six earls, fourteen barons, sixty-five 
knights, and a great number of men, at Homildon Hill 
in Northumberland, i4th September 1402.^ 

The Battle of Shrewsbury. Henry IV., king of Eng- 
land, defeated the rebellion of Hotspur, who was killed. 
George, loth earl of Dunbar (3rd earl of March), fought 



29. Walsingham, ii. 246 ; Ex- 7 Apr. 1402 [probably a mistake 
tracta, 207, 208 ; Scotichron., ii. for vii. kal. Apr., which is 26 
430, bk. xv. c. ii ; Wyntoun, iii. Mar., Easter Day in 1402]. See 
77, bk. ix. c. 21, 11. 2065-2082 ; also above, p. 175, Nos. 19, 20, 
Book of Pluscarden, bk. x. c. 16. 21 ; and below, James I., p. 190,. 

30. From his tomb in ' Poets' No. 48. 

Corner,' Westminster Abbey. 33. Extracta, 209 ; Scotichron. , ii 

31. Extracta, 208; Wyntoun, iii. 432, 433, bk. xv. c. 13, 22 June 

81, bk. ix. c. 22, 11. 2193-2202, in 1402 ; Book of Pluscarden, bk. x. 
hervist'; Scotichron., ii. 430, bk. c. 18. 

xv. c. 12 ; Book of Pluscarden, bk. 34. Black Book of the Exchequer ; 

x. c. 17. Cal. Doc. Scot., iv., Introduction, 

32. Extracta, 208; Wyntoun, iii. 27, 28; Walsingham, ii. 251, 252; 

82, bk. ix. c. 23, 11. 2211-2234; Extracta, 209, 210; Scotichron., ii. 
Scotichron., ii. 430, bk. xv. c. 12 ; 433-435, bk. xv. c. 14 ; Book of 
Book of Pluscarden, bk. x. c. 17, Pluscarden, bk. x. c. 18. 

M 



178 



ROBERT THE THIRD 



[1390 



on the king's side, and Archibald, 4th earl of Douglas, 
who was taken prisoner, fought against the king, at 
Shrewsbury, 2ist July I4O3. 35 

Fight at Lang Hermandston. Sir David Fleming of 
Cumbernauld was slain by Sir James Douglas after a 
desperate fight on the moor of Lang Hermandston, i4th 
February I4O5-6. 36 

The Heir-Apparent Captured. James, ' the Steward 
of Scotland/ only surviving son of King Robert III., 
aged ii years and about 3 months, embarked at the 
Bass for France, in time of peace, and was taken prisoner 
by English sailors, at sea off Flamborough Head, on St. 
Ambrose's Day, Palm Sunday, 4th April I4O6. 37 



35. Walsingham, ii. 256-258, 21 
July 1403 ; Wyntoun, iii. 92, bk. ix. 
c. 24, 11. 2477-2536; Extracta, 211, 
212 ; Scotichron. , ii. 438, bk. xv. c. 
17 ; Cal. Doc. Scot., iv., Introduc- 
tion, 29. 

36. Wyntoun, iii. 95, bk. ix. c. 25, 
11. 2621, etc., a '1405'; Extracta, 
212, ' I4th February 1404' [? 1405-6]; 
Scotichron., ii. 439, bk. xv. c. 18, 
14 Feb. 1404 [? 1405-6] ; Book of 
Pluscarden, bk. x. c. 21, ' 1404,' 
[? 1405-6]. 

37. Wyntoun, iii. 94, bk. ix. c. 25, 
11. 2668-2670 ; Walsingham, ii. 273, 
a '1406'; Scotichron., ii. 439, bk. 
xv. c. 1 8, 'captured 30 Mar. 1404'; 
'kept prisoner for 18 years'; Ex- 
tracta, 212, 'kept prisoner in Eng- 
land for 1 8 years from the date of his 
capture, 30 Mar. 1404 ' ; Book of 
Pluscarden, bk. x. c. 21 (Robert III.), 
' heard of his son's capture, 4 Apr. 
1404,' 'kept prisoner for 18 years' ; 
Exchequer Rolls, iii., Preface, 95, 
96 ; iv., Preface, 42, 43, and Appen- 
dix to Preface, 172, No. 3, also Pre- 
face, 196-200; Cal. Doc. Scot., iv., 
Introduction, 30, 31, 144, No. 698. 

[With regard to the year in which 
Prince James was captured, Walsing- 



ham gives 1406 ; and although the 
Scotichronicon, the Extracta, and 
the Book of Pluscarden give 1404, 
they all three agree that the captiv- 
ity lasted 1 8 years, so that as King 
James was released in April 1424, 
his 1 8 years' captivity must have 
begun in 1406. With regard to the 
month and day, at that time and for 
nearly two centuries afterwards, that 
is, until 1600, in Scotland, the year 
began on the 25th of March. In 1406 
the moveable feast of Palm Sunday 
happened to fall on April 4, which 
was the tenth day of the new year. 
Wyntoun, who usually gives the 
date at the beginning of each of his 
chapters, begins chapter xxv. of 
book ix. with the date 1405. He 
then records the slaughter of Sir 
David Fleming, which took place in 
February or March 1405 [-6] ; he does 
not stop to point out that a new year 
began on the 25th of March, because 
his contemporaries knew it per- 
fectly well, but he goes on with his 
narrative and states that, after the 
death of Sir David Fleming, the 
prince stayed some time in the 
castle of the Bass waiting for his 
ship, and that when the ship 



1406] 



ROBERT THE THIRD 



179 



Died. King Robert the Third died at Dundonald in Ayrshire, 
on St. Ambrose's Day, Palm Sunday, 4th April I4o6. 38 

Aged about 6g. m 

Buried in front of the high-altar in the abbey church at 
Paisley. 40 

His Reign lasted 15 years n months and 17 days. 41 

REIGN ENDED 4TH APRIL 1406. 



ISSUE 

King Robert the Third had by his wife, Annabella Drummond, 
three sons, David, Robert, and James, and four daughters, 
Margaret, Mary, Elisabeth, and Egidia. 42 



came from Leith he embarked, and 
adds : 

' This ilke Schip gone takyn wes, 
Ewyn upon the Palm Sonday, 
Before Pasch that fallis ay.' 

It is therefore clear that Wyntoun, 
the trustworthy contemporary his- 
torian, means that Prince James was 
captured on Palm Sunday, Apr. 4, 
1406.] See also below, James L, p. 
182, No. 4, and p. 183, No. 5. 

38. Wyntoun, iii. 98, bk. ix. c. 26, 
11. 2711, etc., 'St. Ambrose, 4 Apr. 
1406, Palm Sunday' ; also 316, note 
to page 98, 1. 2726 [copied from Mac- 
pherson's Wyntoun, London, 1795, 
ii. 520, xxvi. 1 6] ; Extracta, 212, 
' abstained from all food, until he 
died of grief in the year of our Lord 
1405, quarto kalendas Aprilis ' [29 
March], ' Palm Sunday.' [Day, 
month, and year are wrong, and 
Palm Sunday was on 12 Apr. in 
1405.] Scotichron., ii. 440, bk. xv. 
c. 1 8, ' abstained from food, until he 
died at Botham, 4 kal. Apr. [that is, 
29 Mar. Palm Sunday 1405] ; Book of 
Pluscarden, bk. x. c. 21, 'heard of 
his son's capture, 4th April 1404, 
after which day he never took his 



food with a good heart, until he gave 
up the ghost.' [1406 appears to be 
the correct year, as Palm Sunday 
was on Apr. 4 in that year. ' 4 kal. 
Aprilis ' is the 29th March, and is 
evidently a mistake for 4th April.] 
Cal. Doc. Scot., Introduction, 30, 31 ; 
Exchequer Rolls, iii., Preface, xcvi ; 
iv., Preface, xlii. [From the above, 
and from the references in No. 37, 
it appears that the king could not 
possibly have heard of his son's cap- 
ture, as King Robert the Third died 
at Dundonald, in Ayrshire, upon the 
very day on which Prince James was 
taken prisoner offFlamboroughHead, 
so that the story of the king's abstain- 
ing from food must be imaginary. 
Wyntoun makes no mention of it.] 

39. Exchequer Rolls, iv., Appendix 
to Preface, p. 170, Robert III. 

40. Wyntoun, iii. 98, bk. ix. c. 26, 
11. 2719,2724; Extracta, 213; Scoti- 
chron., ii. 440, bk. xv. c. 1 8 ; Book 
of Pluscarden, bk. x. c. 21. 

41. Wyntoun, iii. 98, bk. ix. c. 26, 
11. 2725-2728; Extracta, 213; Scoti- 
chron., ii. 440, bk. xv. c. 18. 

42. Exchequer Rolls, iv., Preface, 
pp. clxxi-clxxv. 



180 



ROBERT THE THIRD 



[1390 



(i.) David, earl of Carrick, born 24th October 1378 ; married 
first, Elisabeth, daughter of George, earl of Dunbar and March, 
Papal dispensation 28th August 1395, had a second dispensa- 
tion after marriage, nth March 1396-7; created Duke of 
Rothesay, 28th April 1398; married secondly, Marjorie, 
daughter of Archibald, 3rd earl of Douglas, in February 
1399-1400; died without issue (? starved to death) at Falk- 
land, 26th March 1402 ; buried at Lundors. 43 
(n.) Robert, died in infancy. 44 

(in.) James, the Steward of Scotland, king of Scots as James 
I. from 4th April 1406 to 2ist February I436-7. 45 
(iv.) Margaret, married to Archibald, 4th earl of Douglas, 
duke of Touraine in France. 46 

(V.) Mary, married first (marriage-contract 24th May 1397), 
to George Douglas, ist earl of Angus; secondly, to Sir James 
Kennedy of Dunure ; thirdly, to William, lord of Graham ; 
and fourthly, to Sir William Edmonston of Duntreath. 47 
(vi.) Elisabeth, married to Sir James Douglas of Dalkeith. 48 
(vii.) Egidia. 49 

King Robert the Third had two illegitimate sons whose names 
appear in the records : 50 

(viii.) James Stewart of Kilbride, i388-i4oo. 51 
(ix.) Sir John Stewart of Auchingowan, i39o. 52 



43. Exchequer Rolls, iv. p. clxxi, 
No. i ; Extracta, 193, born 24 Oct. 
1378; Scotichron., ii. 391, bk. xiv. 
c. 43, born 24 Oct. 1378 ; Reg. Epis. 
Moraviensis, 382, created Duke of 
Rothesay ; Extracta, 207, married 
a 1400 ; Scotichron., ii. 428, bk. xv. 
c. 10, married a 1400 ; 430, bk. xv. 
c. 12, died ; Extracta, 208, died ; 
Wyntoun, iii. 82, bk. ix. c. 23, 11. 
221 1-2234, died ; Annals of Scotland, 
iii. 57-60, charter. See also above, 
p. 175, Nos. 19, 20, 21. [For the dis- 
pensations, see Regesta Avinionensia, 
280, f . 3236 and 303, f . 4896 ; also The 
Scots Peerage, vol. iii. p. 279.] 



44. Exchequer Rolls, iv. , Preface, 
p. clxxi, No. 2. 

45. See below, James I., pp. 182- 
194. 

46. Exchequer Rolls, iv., Preface, 
p. clxxii, No. i. 

47. Exchequer Rolls, iv., Preface, 
p. clxxiii, No. 2. 

48. Exchequer Rolls, iv., Preface, 
p. clxxiv, No. 3. 

49. Exchequer Rolls, iv., Preface, 
p. clxxiv, No. 4. 

50. Exchequer Rolls, iv., Appen- 
dix to Preface, p. clxxv. 

51. Ibid. 
$2. Ibid. 



[ 4 o6] 



ROBERT THE THIRD 
A TABLE OF EEGNAL YEARS 



181 



1st began 19 Apr. 1390, 
ended 18 Apr. 1391. 

2nd began 19 Apr. 1391, 
ended 18 Apr. 1392. 

3rd began 19 Apr. 1392, 
ended 18 Apr. 1393. 

4th began 19 Apr. 1393, 
ended 18 Apr. 1394. 

5th began 19 Apr. 1394, 
ended 18 Apr. 1395. 

6th began 19 Apr. 1395, 
ended 18 Apr. 1396. 

7th began 19 Apr. 1396, 
ended 18 Apr. 1397. 

8th began 19 Apr. 1397, 
ended 18 Apr. 1398. 

Only ii months and 17 



9th began 19 Apr. 1398, 
ended 18 Apr. 1399. 

10th began 19 Apr. 1399, 
ended 18 Apr. 1400. 

llth began 19 Apr. 1400, 
ended 18 Apr. 1401. 

12th began 19 Apr. 1401, 
ended 18 Apr. 1402. 

13th began 19 Apr. 1402, 
ended 18 Apr. 1403. 

14th began 19 Apr. 1403, 
ended 18 Apr. 1404. 

15th began 19 Apr. 1404, 
ended 18 Apr. 1405. 

16th began 19 Apr. 1405, 
ended 4 Apr. 1406. 

of the 1 6th year. 



CONTEMPORARY SOVEREIGNS 



KINGS OF ENGLAND 


KING OF FRANCE POPES 


RICHARD II. 


CHARLES VI. SCHISM, 1378-1429- 


I377-I399- 


' le Bien Aime" ' Popes at Rome, Popes at Avignon, 




1380-1422. acknowledged in acknowledged in 


House of Lancaster 


England, Italy, Scotland, France, 


' Red Rose ' 


Austria,Bohemia, Spain, Sicily, and 


HENRY IV. 


and Hungary. Cyprus. 


I399-I4I3. 


BONIFACE IX. Clement VII. 




1389-1404. 1378-1394. 




INNOCENT VII. BENEDICT XIII. 63 




1404-1406. 1394-1417. 




Deposed in 1409 




and in 1417. 




Died in 1424. 



53. See, below, p. 186, No. 21, and p. 326. 



182 [i 406 



JAMES THE FIRST 

(STEWART) 

KING OF SCOTS 

14061436-7 

Keign began 4th April 1406, 

ended 2ist February 1436-7, 

lasted 30 years 10 months and 18 days. 

James the First (Stewart). ' King of Scots,' ' Kynge of 
Scottis.' During his father's lifetime he was styled 
'James the Steward of Scotland,' and 'James, earl of 
Carrick.' l 

Third and only Surviving Son of Robert III., king of Scots, 
by his wife Annabella, daughter of Sir John Drummond 
of Stobhall. 2 

Born at Dunfermline in December 1 394. 3 

Embarked for France at the Bass, in March or April 1406.* 

1. Acts of Parliaments, ii. 3, 26 shows that his birthday must have 
May 1424 ; Nat. MSS., ii. LIX.-LXVII. been in December. 

p. 48, No. LXII., facsimile of auto- 4. Wyntoun, iii. 94, 95, bk. ix. c. 

graph letter ; Diplomata Scotise, PL 25, 11. 2601-2620; Extracta, 212; 

LXVI. ; Scotichron., ii. 439, bk. xv. Scotichron., ii. 439, bk. xv. c. 18, 

c. 1 8, * James, earl of Carrick ' ; and note, 440 ; Book of Pluscarden, 

Ancient Scottish Seals, 10, n, Nos. bk. x. c. 21 ; Exchequer Rolls, iv., 

41-43, and PL n. fig. i ; Exchequer Appendix to Preface, pp. cxcvi-cc, 

Rolls, iv. , Preface, xlii, par. 2, Ap- date of capture. [On comparing the 

pendix to Preface, p. clxxii, No. 3 ; different statements it seems that 

vol. vi., Preface, p. xciii, last lines. Prince James waited some time at 

2. Exchequer Rolls, iv. , Appendix the Bass for the ship that came for 
to Preface, pp. 170-172, Nos. 1-3. him from Leith, and after its arrival 

3. Wyntoun, iii. 62, bk. ix. c. 15, the ship may well have been weather- 
11. 1633, 1634, 'born 1394'; Scoti- bound or storm-stayed, as it was 
chron., ii. 487, bk. xvi. c. 14, par. 2, about the time of the equinoctial 



H36-7] 



JAMES THE FIRST 



183 



Captured at Sea, when on his way to France, in time of 
peace, by English sailors off Flaniborough Head, on St. 
Ambrose's Day, Palni Sunday, the 4th of April I4o6. 5 

Prisoner. Henry IV., king of England, remarked, when 
Prince James was brought to him, that Tie would teach 
him French, and he sent him as a prisoner to the Tower 
of London in April 14.06* 



REIGN BEGAN 4TH APRIL 1406. 

King of Scots. James I. became king of Scots on the 
death of his father, King Robert III., 4th April I4o6. 7 

Aged 1 1 years 3 months and about 1 5 days when he suc- 
ceeded his father. He was a prisoner in England at the 
time. 8 



gales and easterly winds, so that it 
is quite possible the prince did not 
leave the Bass until the end of March 
or the beginning of April 1406.] See 
above, Robert III., p. 178, No. 37, 
and p. 179, No. 38. 

5. Walsingham, ii. 273, a ' 1406 ' ; 
Wyntoun, iii. 94, bk. ix. c. 25, 11. 
2668-2670 [chapter 25 begins with 
the date 1405, and the first events 
,which it records took place in Feb- 
ruary and March 1405-6. The year 
1405" ended on Mar. 24]. Line 2669 
states that the prince was captured 
' upon the Palm Sonday ' [which was 
Apr. 4, being the loth day of the 
new year 1406] ; Extracta, 212, 
' kept prisoner in England for 18 
years from the date of his capture, 
Mar. 30, 1404' ; Scotichron., ii. 439, 
bk. xv. c. 1 8, ' captured Mar. 30, 
1404, kept prisoner for 18 years ' ; 
Book of Pluscarden, bk. x. c. 21 
(Robert III.), 'heard of his son's 
capture, Apr. 4, 1404,' * kept prisoner 
for 18 years'; Cal. Doc. Scot., iv., 
Introduction, xxx, xxxi, p. 144, No. 
698; Exchequer Rolls, iii., Preface, 



p. 96 ; iv., Preface, 42, 43, and Ap- 
pendix to Preface, 172, No. 3, also 
pp. 196-200. 

[In comparing the different state- 
ments, it is well to note that Palm 
Sunday was on Apr. 12, in 1405 ; 
and on Apr. 4, in 1406. The year of 
Prince James's capture appears to 
have been 1406, which was 18 years 
before his release. The day of 
Prince James's capture, according to 
Wyntoun, his contemporary, was 
Palm Sunday, which was Apr. 4, in 
1406 ; and was the day on which his 
father, King Robert III., died. 
The Prince may have been landed 
at Hull or Lynn, or possibly at 
Cley in Norfolk, where his captors 
lived, but it is not likely that he 
was landed further south. Perhaps 
some chronicle, giving the dates of 
his movements, may yet be found.] 
See above, Robert III., p. 178, No. 
37, and p. 179, No. 38. 

6. Walsingham, ii. 273. 

7. Wyntoun, iii. 98, bk. ix. c. 26, 
also 316, Macpherson's note. 

8. Wyntoun, iii. 62, bk. ix. c. 15, 



184 JAMES THE FIRST [1406 

Declared King. The Estates of the Kingdom being as- 
sembled, declared that although King James was a pris- 
oner in England, and unable to assume the crown in 
succession to his father, King Robert III., he should be 
styled 'our King.' Council held at Perth in June I4o6. 9 

Governor of the Kingdom. Robert, duke of Albany, 
earl of Fife and of Menteth, was appointed Governor of 
the Kingdom by ordinance of the Council assembled at 
Perth in June I4o6. 10 

Resby Burned for Heresy. James Resby, an English 
priest, a disciple of Wiclif, seems to have been the first 
victim. He was burned for heresy at Perth in I4O/. 11 

A Gaelic Charter, supposed to be the earliest dated 
charter in Celtic speech now extant, is one by which 
M c Domhnaill of the Isles granted lands in Islay to Brian 
Vicar Mackay. The charter is dated ' the sixth day of the 
month of Beltane' (6th May) I4O8. 12 

Insurrection at Lie"ge. The Duke of Burgundy, with 
the assistance of Alexander Stewart, earl of Mar, and 
about eighty Scottish knights and followers, won an 
important battle at Liege, 23rd September I4O8. 13 

George, 10th earl of Dunbar (3rd earl of March), 
after nine years' absence from Scotland, was reinstated in 
his earldom and castle of Dunbar, and in most of his 



11. 1633, 1634, born 1394; Scoti- tracta, 214; Knox, i. 495, 496, Ap- 

chron., ii. 487, bk. xvi. c. 14, par. pendix n. 

2, his birthday must have been in 12. Original in H.M. General 

December; Scotichron., ii. 503, bk. Register House, Edinburgh; Nat. 

xvi. c. 27, 'in his 44th year at his MSS., ii. 47, No. LIX., facsimile, tran- 

death,' in 1436-7. [Error for 43rd script, and translation ; see also In- 

year.] troduction, p. xiii, No. LIX., and the 

9. Wyntoun, iii. 98, 99, bk. ix. c. Gaelic in The Book of Deer. 

26, 11. 2729-2752. 13. Chroniques de Monstrelet, i. 

10. Wyntoun, iii. 98, 99, bk. ix. c. 47, fol. 71-79, p. 218, ' le Comte 
c. 26, 11. 2729-2755; Scotichron., ii. de Mareuse Escocois ' ; Wyntoun, 
441, bk. xv. c. 19; Extracta, 213, iii. 104-116, bk. ix. c. 27, 11. 2893, 
also the last note ; Book of Pluscar- etc., a 1408, also 319 (note to p. 
clen, bk. x. c. 21. 116) ; Scotichron., ii. 441, bk. xv. c. 

11. Reg. Epis. Glasguensis, i. 316 ; 19, a 1407 ; Extracta, 213 ; Book of 
Scotichron., 441, bk. xv. c. 20 ; Ex- Pluscarden, bk. x. c. 22, a 1405. 



1436-7] JAMES THE FIRST 185 

former possessions, with the exception of the castle of 
Lochmaben and the lordship of Annandale, in I4O9. 14 

The Battle of Harlaw. The Scottish Lowlanders and 
the citizens of Aberdeen, under Alexander Stewart, earl of 
Mar, defeated an invasion of Highlanders and Islanders, 
under Donald of the Isles, at Harlaw in Aberdeenshire, 
24th July 141 1. 15 

St. Andrews University was founded by Henry Ward- 
law, bishop of St. Andrews ; charter dated, in the chapter- 
house of the Cathedral at St. Andrews, on the 28th of 
February I4H-I2. 16 

'Jamis, throu the grace of God, Kynge of Scottis,' is 
his style in a letter supposed to have been written by 
him to ' schyr William of douglas of drumlangrig/ dated 
at ' Croidoune,' 3Oth November I4I2. 17 

St. Andrews University. The foundation charter was 
confirmed by Bull of Pope Benedict XIII., dated at Panis- 
cola, in the diocese of Tortosa in Spain, 28th August 141 3- 18 

The Battle of Agincourt. The English, under their 
king, Henry V., totally defeated the French and their 
Scottish allies, at Agincourt, near Calais, on the 25th of 
October 141 5. 19 

14. Scotichron., ii. 444, bk. xv. c. Nat. MSS., ii. 48, No. LXII., fac- 

21 ; p. 460, c. 32, 'most fortunate in simile and transcript. 

war'; Extracta, 214; Book of Plus- 18. Nat. MSS., ii. 50, No. LXIII., 

carden, bk. x. c. 22 ; Gal. Doc. Scot., transcript and translation ; see also 

iv. Introduction, xx-xxiv ; Proceed- Introduction, p. xv, No. LXIII. ; Scoti- 

ings Society of Antiquaries, Scotland, chron., ii. 445, 446, bk. xv. c. 22; 

a' 1887-8, new series, x. 186-192. Tre"sor de Chronologic, p. 1133. 

15. Scotichron., ii. 444, 445, bk. [Mas Latrie is wrong, the igth Reg- 
xv. c. 21 [a misprint (in Goodall) nal year of Benedict XIII. began n 
transforms Maclane, a Highland Oct. (not ' Sep.') 1412, and ended 10 
chief, into an army doctor]; Extracta, Oct. 1413. See below, p. 326.] 
215; Book of Pluscarden, bk. x. c. 19. Black Book of the Exchequer, 

22 ; Sutherland Case, c. 5, s. 7. 25 Oct. 1415 ; Chroniques de Mon- 

16. Nat. MSS., ii. 50, No. LXIII. strelet, i. cc. 148, 150, 25 Oct. 1415; 
A transcript of Bishop Wardlaw's Scotichron., ii. 448, bk. xv, c. 23, a 
charter is contained in the confirma- 1415 ; Extracta, 217 ; Manuel du 
tion by Pope Benedict XIII. ; Scoti- Baccalaureat es Lettres, Histoire, 
chron., ii. 445, bk. xv. c. 22. 263, ' 2$th December 1415 ' [wrong 

17- Original letter at Drumlanrig; month]. 



186 JAMES THE FIRST [1406 

Two Storks built their nest in the belfry of the church 
of St. Giles in Edinburgh in I4i6. 20 

The Papal Schism. The Scottish Church transferred 
her allegiance from Pope Benedict XIII. to Pope Martin 
V., in compliance with the decision of a Council General 
assembled at Perth, 2nd October 141 7. 21 

Richard II., ex-king of England, or the individual who 
personated him, after having been maintained in Scotland 
for many years, died in Stirling Castle, and was buried at 
the north corner of the altar in the church of the Preach- 
ing Friars at Stirling, i3th December 141 9. 22 

Death of the Governor. Robert, duke of Albany, earl 
of Fife and of Menteth, Governor of the Kingdom, uncle of 
King James I., was buried between the choir and the Lady 
Chapel in the church of the monastery at Dunfermline. 
He died in Stirling Castle, 3rd September 1420. 

Murdac, Duke of Albany, eldest son of the late duke, 
assumed the position of Governor of the Kingdom, after 
his father's death, in September I42O. 24 
Taken to France. James I., king of Scots, was taken to 
France as a prisoner by Henry V., king of England, and 
was present at the siege of Melun from the 22nd of July 
to the ist November I42O. 25 

The Battle of Bauge or Anjou. The Scots and French, 
under John Stewart, earl of Buchan, totally defeated the 



20. Extracta, 218; Scotichron., death, etc. ; Book of Pluscarden, bk. 
ii. 449, bk. xv. c. 24. xi. c. I ; Diplomata Scotiae, PI. LXIL, 

21. Scotichron., ii. 449-451, bk. facsimile of charter and seal; Ancient 
xv. cc. 24, 25, p. 478 ; bk. xvi. c. 5, Scottish Seals, i. 130, Nos. 786-788 ; 
a 1378 ; Extracta, 218 ; Chronology Exchequer Rolls, iv., Preface, 48, 
of History, 203 ; L'Artde verifier les 79, 1420 was the year of his death ;. 
Dates, tome iii. 396, 401 ; Tresor de Peerage of Scotland, i. 56. 
Chronologic, p. 1133. 24. Scotichron., ii. 467, bk. xv. c. 

22. Extracta, 221 ; Scotichron., ii. 37; Diplomata Scotise, No. 64, fac- 
459, bk. xv. c. 31 ; Exchequer Rolls, simile of charter and seal ; Ancient 
iv., Preface, 65-69, a full account of Scottish Seals, i. 130, No. 789 ; Ex- 
Thomas Warde of Trumpington. chequer Rolls, iv., Appendix to Pre- 
23. Extracta, 220 ; Scotichron., ii. face, 178 ; Peerage of Scotland, i. 57- 

459, bk. xv. c. 31, year of death ; p. 25. Walsingham, ii. 335 ; Extracta, 

466, bk. xv. c. 37, a 1419, date of 223; Scotichron., ii. 462, bk. xv. c. 



1436-7] JAMES THE FIRST 187 

English, under the Duke of Clarence, who was killed at 

Bauge, in France, 22nd March 1420-2 1. 26 
Andrew of Wyntoun, Scottish historian, born about 

1355, Canon-regular of St. Andrews, Prior of Lochleven 

from 1395 to 1413, seems to have died about 1422.^ 
' The Kingis Quair ' (the king's book). A poem, bearing 

that title of which King James I. has generally been 

supposed to be the author purports to have been written 

about the beginning of May I423. 28 
The Battle of Crevant. Thomas Montacute, earl of 

Salisbury, defeated the French under John Stewart, earl 

of Buchan, at Crevant, in July 1 423.2 
Married. King James I. married Joan, daughter of John 

Beaufort, ist earl of Somerset, in the church of St. Mary 

Overy, Southwark, 2nd February I423-4. 30 
Released. King James I., after having been a prisoner in 

England for about 1 8 years, was released on giving hostages 

for the payment of 40,000 the amount alleged to have 

been expended for his maintenance 28th March 1424.^ 
Returned to Scotland with his Queen, and was at Melrose 

on the 5th April I424. 32 
Crowned. King James I. and his Queen were crowned by 

Henry Wardlaw, bishop of St. Andrews, in presence of the 

bishops, prelates, and magnates of the kingdom, and set 

34 ; Book of Pluscarden, bk. x. 29. Chroniques de Monstrelet, ii. 7. 

c. 27. 30. Fcedera (3rd ed. 1709), iv. p. 

26. Chroniques de Monstrelet, i. 107; Extracta, 226; Scotichron., ii. 
c. 240, Easter Eve ; Extracta, 222, 474, bk. xvi. c. 2 ; Book of Pluscar- 
Easter Eve, a 1421 ; Scotichron., den, bk. xi. c. I ; Stowe, Annals, 364. 
ii. 460, bk. xv. c. 33, Easter Eve, a 31. Extracta, 226; Scotichron., 
1421 ; Book of Pluscarden, bk. x. ii. 474, bk. xvi. c. 2 ; Book of 
cc. 25, 26, a full account of the Pluscarden, bk. xi. c. I ; Rotnli 
battle. [Easter Eve was on Mar. Scotise, ii. 240-246, p. 242, names 
22 in 1420-21.] of hostages ; p. 246, obligation for 

27. Wyntoun, iii., Appendix to 40,000; Fcedera (London, 1709), 
Preface, 11-13; Macpherson's Wyn- x. 327, 333; Pinkerton, i., Appen- 
toun, i., Preface. dix, 456, 457 ; Tytler, iii. 395, 

28. ' The Kingis Quair,' Scottish Appendix E, list of hostages. 

Text Society, 1884. See also 'The 32. Extracta, 226; Scotichron., 
Authorship of The Kingis Quair, ii. 474, bk. xvi. c. 2 ; Book of 
a New Criticism,' by J. T. T. Brown. Pluscarden, bk. xi. c. i. 






188 JAMES THE FIRST [1406 

on the throne by Murdac, duke of Albany, at Scone, on 
the 2ist of May 1424.^ 

Parliament. The three Estates of the Kingdom passed 
a number of statutes in parliament at Perth, on the 26th 
of May 1424?* 

The Battle of Verneuil. The English, under the Duke 
of Bedford, defeated the French and Scots (the French 
under John Stewart, earl of Buchan, Constable of France, 
who was killed, and the Scots under Archibald, 4th earl 
of Douglas, duke of Touraine, who was also killed) at 
Yerneuil in Normandy, i7th August 1424.^ 

The Duke of Albany's Son Beheaded. Sir Walter 
Stewart, eldest surviving son of Murdac, duke of Albany, 
was beheaded for treason in front of the castle at Stirling, 
24th May 142$* 

Murdac, Duke of Albany, Beheaded. Murdac, duke 
of Albany, the ex-Governor, with his son Sir Alexander 
Stewart, and Duncan, earl of Lennox, were beheaded for 
treason, in front of Stirling Castle, and were buried at 
the south side of the high-altar in the church of the 
Preaching Friars, at Stirling, 25th May 142$ 

Embassies from France and Flanders were received 
courteously by King James I., the former in autumn, the 
latter at the castle of St. Andrews, at Christmas 142^ 

The Session. King James I, with consent of his par- 



33. Extracta, 227; Scotichron., Scotichron., ii. 483, bk. xvi. c. 10, 
ii. 474, bk. xvi. c. 2 ; Book of Plus- 24 May 1425 ; Book of Pluscarden, 
carden, bk. xi. c. I. bk. xi. cc. 2, 3. 

34. Acts of Parliaments, vol. ii. 37. Extracta, 228, 23 May 1425 ; 
3-6. Scotichron., ii. 483, bk. xvi. c. 10, 

35. Chroniques de Monstrelet, ii. 25 May 1425 ; Book of Pluscarden, 
fol. i3 b , 1 5 b , 'Thursday, 1 7th August bk. xi. cc. 2, 3; Exchequer Rolls, 
1423' [the 1 7th was Tuesday]; Ex- iv., Appendix to Preface, clxxviii. 
tracta, 224, 225, 17 Aug. 1423; [The editor is wrong; Murdac was 
Scotichron., ii. 463, bk. xv. c. 35, beheaded, 25th May 1425, not on 
17 Aug. 1423 ; Book of Pluscarden, the 24th.] Peerage of Scotland, 
bk. x. cc. 28-31, a long circum- i. 85. 

stantial account; Peerage of Scot- 38. Scotichron., ii. 485, c. 12, and 

land, i. 265, 267. p. 487, c. 14 ; Extracta, 229 ; Book 

36. Extracta, 228, ' 22 May 1425 ' ; of Pluscarden, bk. xi. c. 3. 



1436-7] JAMES THE FIRST 189 

liament, ordained that his Chancellor, and certain discreet 
persons of the three Estates, should sit three times in the 
year to try and determine all cases, nth March I425-6. 39 
The King held a Parliament at Inverness, and ordered 
the arrest of Alexander of the Isles, and of the principal 
Highland chiefs in the north ; of these some were liberated, 
some were imprisoned in different castles, and some were 
executed at Inverness in 14.27.^ 

Inverness Burned. Alexander of the Isles having 
regained his freedom, burned Inverness in I429. 41 

A Battle in Badenoch. King James assembled an 
army in haste, and totally routed Alexander of the Isles 
and ten thousand of his followers, in Lochaber, on the 
23rd of June I42Q. 42 

A Carthusian Monastery was founded by King James I. 
on the South Inch at Perth in I42Q. 43 

The Clans Chattan and Cameron. The clan Chattan 
massacred a large number of the clan Cameron in a cer- 
tain church, on Palm Sunday, Qth April I43O. 44 

The Battle of Inverlochy. Donald Balloch, with a 
fleet and an army of Highlanders, totally defeated the 
king's forces, under Alexander Stewart, earl of Mar, and 
Alan Stewart, earl of Caithness, at Inverlochy, in I43I. 45 

Feud in Caithness. Angus Duff, alias Mackye, and 
Angus of Murray, with their followers, numbering twelve 
hundred men, had a feud, and fought at Strathnaver 
until only nine men were left alive, in September 143 1. 46 



39. Acts of Parliaments, ii. n, 43. Scotichron., ii. 492, bk. xvi. 
No. 19. c. 18 ; Extracta, 233 ; Book of Plus- 

40. Scotichron., ii. 488, c. 15, carden, bk. xi. c. 5 ; Exchequer 
a 1427 ; Extracta, 231, a 1427; Rolls, iv., Preface, pp. 113-115. 
Book of Pluscarden, bk. xi. c. 4, a 44. Scotichron., ii. 489, bk. xvi. 
1426. c. 16 ; Extracta, 232. 

41. Scotichron., ii. 489, bk. xvi. c. 45. Scotichron., ii. 491, bk. xvi. 
16; Extracta, 232; Book of Plus- c. 17; Extracta, 233, 234; Ex- 
carden, bk. xi. c. 4. chequer Rolls, iv., Preface, 73-75 ; 

42. Scotichron., ii. 489, bk. xvi. Appendix to Preface, p. 161, No. 2. 
c. 16 ; Extracta, 232 ; Book of 46. Scotichron., ii. 491, bk. xvi. 
Pluscarden, bk. xi. c. 4. c. 17 ; Extracta, pp. 231, 233. 




190 JAMES THE FIRST [1406 

Paul Crawar Burned for Heresy. A German doctor 
named Paul Crawar, sent from Prague in Bohemia to 
preach the doctrines of Wiclif, was convicted of heresy, 
and was burned at St. Andrews, 23rd July I433- 47 

Forfeiture of the Earl of March. Sentence of for- 
feiture was passed against George, nth earl of Dunbar 
(4th earl of March), on account of his father's rebellion 
which had taken place thirty-five years before by a jury 
in parliament, at Perth, nth January I434-5. 48 

The Battle of Piperden. The Scots, under William 
Douglas, 2nd earl of Angus, defeated the English, under 
Percy and Sir Robert Ogle, at Piperden near Berwick, on 
the loth of September I436. 49 

Assassinated. Walter Stewart, earl of Athol (the king's 
uncle), Sir Robert Stewart (the earl's grandson), Sir Robert 
Graham, and their accomplices instigated the assassina- 
tion of King James the First, which took place in the 
monastery of the Preaching Friars at Perth, on the 2ist 
of February 1436-7.^ 

Aged 42 years and about 2 months. 51 

Buried in the church of the Carthusian monastery which 
he had founded at Perth, 22nd February 1 436-7.^ 

The Heart of King James I. was taken on a pilgrimage to 
the East ; it was brought back to Scotland from the island 

47. Extracta, 234 ; Scotichron., ii. 50. Pinkerton, vol. i. pp. 462-475, 
495, bk. xvi. c. 20, 23 July 1433 ; Appendix, Contemporary Account, 
Book of Pluscarden, bk. xi. c. 5 ; translated by John Shirley ; Chron. 
Knox, i. 497-499, Appendix n. de Monstrelet, ii. I37 b , 138; Scoti- 

48. Acts of Parliaments, ii. 23, chron., ii. 503, bk. xvi. c. 27 ; Ex- 
ii Jan. i434[-5l ; Extracta, 234, 7 tracta, 236 ; Book of Pluscarden, bk. 
Aug. 1434 ; Scotichron., ii. 5> bk. xi. c. 9 ; Exchequer Rolls, v. xliii. 
xvi. c. 24, 7 Aug. 1434 ; Exchequer 51. Wyntoun, iii. 62, bk. ix. c. 15, 
Rolls, vi., Preface, 105-107. See&lso 11. 1633, 1634, born 1394; Scoti- 
above, Robert III., p. 175, No. 20. chron., ii. 487, bk. xvi. c. 14, par. 

49. Extracta, 235, a 1436 ; Scoti- 2 [shows that his birthday must 
chron., ii. 500, bk. xvi. c. 25, 10 Sep. have been in December.] 

1436 ; Vesp. F. vii. f. 48, 5 Feb. 52. Chroniques de Monstrelet, ii. 

regni 14, 1436; Pinkerton, i. 130, I37 b ; Scotichron., ii. 515, 516, bk. 

note 6 ; Notes and Queries, 8th xvi. c. 38, epitaph ; Extracta, 236 ; 

Series, No. 145, 6 Oct. 1894, 261-263. Exchequer Rolls, v., Preface, xliii. 



JAMES THE FIRST 



191 



of Rhodes by a knight of St. John of Jerusalem, and was 
presented to the monks of the Carthusian monastery at 
Perth, about 1443-4 
Reign lasted 30 years 10 months and 18 days. 54 

REIGN ENDED 2 1ST FEBRUARY 14367. 



ISSUE 

King James the First had by his wife, Joan Beaufort, twin sons, 
Alexander and James; and six daughters, Margaret, Isabella, 
Joan, Eleanora, Mary, and Annabella. 55 

(i.) Alexander, elder twin son, born in the monastery at 

Holyrood in Edinburgh, i6th October 1430, died in infancy. 56 

(n.) James, younger twin son, was king of Scots as James II. 

from 2ist February 1436-7 to 3rd August i46o. 57 

(in.) Margaret, born in 1424, married to the Dauphin 24th 

June 1436, died without issue, i6th August 1445. After her 

death her husband became king of France as Louis XL, 22nd 

July 1 46 1. 68 

(iv.) Isabella, married, as his second wife, to Fra^ois L, due 

de Bretagne, 3oth October I442. 59 

(v.) Joan, ' the dumb lady,' married to James Douglas of 

Dalkeith, ist earl of Morton. 60 

(vi.) Eleanora, married to Sigismund, duke of Austria, in the 

year I449. 61 



53. Exchequer Rolls, v., Preface, 
43, 44, and 156, 179. 

54. Reckoning from the death of 
his father, King Robert III., 4 Apr. 
1406. See above, Nos. 7 and 51. 

55- Book of Pluscarden, bk. xi. 
cc - 5> 9 J The Auchinleck Chronicle, 
7,38. 

56. Scotichron., ii. 490, bk. xvi. 
c. 16, born 16 Oct. 1430 ; Extracta, 
232 ; Book of Pluscarden, bk. xi. c. 
5 ; The Auchinleck Chronicle, 7, 38. 

57- See below, James II., pp. 
195-204. 

58. Scotichron., ii. 484, bk. xvi. 
c. n, birth; p. 485 ; bk. xvi. c. 12, 



married to the dauphin ; Extracta, 
227, note a, pp. 229, 230 ; Book of 
Pluscarden, bk. xi. cc. 4, 5 ; Tresor de 
Chronologic, p. 1525 ; The Auchin- 
leck Chronicle, 7, 38 ; The Chron- 
icles of Monstrelet (ed. 1809), vol. 
v. PL No. 23, 'her "arrival" at 
Tours, 24th June 1400' [about 24 
years before she was born] ! 

59. Exchequer Rolls, v., Preface, 
pp. 57, 58; The Auchinleck Chronicle, 
7, 38 [erroneously calls her Elenor]. 

60. Exchequer Rolls, v., Preface, 
pp. 68, 69, and note I. 

61. Exchequer Rolls, v., Preface, 
pp. Ixviii-lxx. 



192 JAMES THE FIRST [1406 

(vn.) Mary, married to Wolfaert van Borselen, count of 
Grandpre" and lord of Campvere in Zealand, in I444- 62 
(vin.) Annabella, married first, to Louis, count of Geneva; 
secondly, to George, Lord Gordon, who afterwards became 
second earl of Huntly. 63 

Joan, widow of King James I., was married secondly, in 1439, 
to Sir James Stewart, * the Black Knight of Lorn.' She died 
in Dunbar Castle, i5th July 1445, an ^ was buried beside her 
first husband, King James I., in the church of the Carthusian 
monastery at Perth. By Sir James Stewart she had three 
sons, John, James, and Andrew : 64 

(a) Sir John Stewart of Balveny, earl of Athol, married 
first, in 1457 (as her third husband), Margaret Douglas, 
only daughter of Archibald, 5th earl of Douglas, duke of 
Touraine ; married secondly, Eleonora, daughter of William, 
earl of Orkney and Caithness. He died igih September 
1512, and was buried in the cathedral at Dunkeld. Issue 
by his first marriage, two daughters ; by his second marriage, 
two sons and nine daughters. 65 

(b) James, earl of Buchan, in 1469, married Margaret, 
daughter and heir of Sir Alexander Ogilvy of Auehterhouse, 
and died before 6th February i499-i5oo. 66 

(c) Andrew, bishop of Moray from 1483 until his death in 
1501. He was buried in the cathedral at Elgin. 67 

62. Exchequer Rolls, v., Preface, 65. Peerage of Scotland, i. 50, 
62. No. x., James I., p. 140, Nos. iv. 

63. Reg. Mag. Sig., 156; Ex- and v. 

chequer Rolls, v., Preface, 62 ; The 66. Peerage of Scotland, i. 50, No. 

Records of Aboyne, 1230-1681, x., James I., pp. 267, 268; Ex- 

PP- 397> 398i New Spalding Club, chequer Rolls, xiii., Preface, p. 108, 

1894 ; The Scots Peerage, i. p. 19. had a son Alexander, earl of Buchan, 

64. Chroniques de Monstrelet, ii. who died in 1505. 

fol. 138; Exchequer Rolls, v., Pre- 67. Peerage of Scotland, i. 50, No. 
face, pp. 52-54, 67 ; Foedera, ii. 107 ; x., James I., 140, No. iv. 3 ; Scot- 
Genealogical History of the Stewarts, tish Bishops, 145, 146; History of 
443, a post-nuptial Papal dispensa- the Province of Moray, 271, No. 22; 
tion, dated at Florence, 2 1st Sep. 1439; Ancient Scottish Seals, i. 157, also 
Auchinleck Chronicle, pp. 7, 37. PL xix., fig. 2, Seal. 



1436-;] JAMES THE FIRST 

A TABLE OF REGNAL YEABS 



193 



1st began 4 Apr. 1406, 
ended 3 Apr. 1407. 


16th began 4 Apr. 1421, 
ended 3 Apr. 1422. 


2nd began 4 Apr. 1407, 
ended 3 Apr. 1408. 


17th began 4 Apr. 1422, 
ended 3 Apr. 1423. 


3rd began 4 Apr. 1408, 
ended 3 Apr. 1409. 


18th began 4 Apr. 1423, 
ended 3 Apr. 1424. 


4th began 4 Apr. 1409, 
ended 3 Apr. 1410. 


19th began 4 Apr. 1424, 
ended 3 Apr. 1425. 


5th began 4 Apr. 1410, 
ended 3 Apr. 1411. 


20th began 4 Apr. 1425, 
ended 3 Apr. 1426. 


6th began 4 Apr. 141 1, 
ended 3 Apr. 1412. 


21st began 4 Apr. 1426, 
ended 3 Apr. 1427. 


7th began 4 Apr. 1412, 
ended 3 Apr. 1413. 


22nd began 4 Apr. 1427, 
ended 3 Apr. 1428. 


8th began 4 Apr. 1413, 
ended 3 Apr. 1414. 


23rd began 4 Apr. 1428, 
ended 3 Apr. 1429. 


9th began 4 Apr. 1414, 
ended 3 Apr. 1415. 


24th began 4 Apr. 1429, 
ended 3 Apr. 1430. 


10th began 4 Apr. 1415, 
ended 3 Apr. 1416. 


25th began 4 Apr. 1430, 
ended 3 Apr. 1431. 


llth began 4 Apr. 1416, 
ended 3 Apr. 1417. 


26th began 4 Apr. 1431, 
ended 3 Apr. 1432. 


12th began 4 Apr. 1417, 
ended 3 Apr. 1418. 


27tn began 4 Apr. 1432, 
ended 3 Apr. 1433. 


13th began 4 Apr. 1418, 
ended 3 Apr. 1419. 


28th began 4 Apr. 1433, 
ended 3 Apr. 1434. 


14th began 4 Apr. 1419, 
ended 3 Apr. 1420. 


29th began 4 Apr. 1434, 
ended 3 Apr. 1435. 


15th began 4 Apr. 1420, 
ended 3 Apr. 1421. 


30th began 4 Apr. 1435, 
ended 3 Apr. 1436. 


31st began 4 Apr. 1436, 
ended 21 Feb. 1436-7. 


Only 10 months and 18 days of the 3ist year. 



194 



JAMES THE FIRST 



[1436-7 



CONTEMPORARY SOVEREIGNS 



KINGS OF ENGLAND KINGS OF FRANCE 



House of Lancaster 
1 Red Rose ' 
HENRY IV. 
I399-I4I3- 

HENRY V. 

1413-1422. 

HENRY VI. 

1422-1461. 



CHARLES VI. 
* le Bien Aim 
1380-1422. 

CHARLES VII. 

' le Victorieux ' 

1422-1461. 



Popes seated at 

Rome, 

acknowledged in 
England, Italy, 
Am stria, Bohemia, 
and Hungary. 

INNOCENT VII. 
1404-1406. 

GREGORY XII. 

1406. 
Deposed 1409. 

ALEXANDER V. 
1409-1410. 

JOHN XXIII. 

1410. 
Deposed 1415. 

MARTIN V. 

1417-1431. 
Scotland acknow- 
ledged Martin V. 
as Pope, 2nd Oct. 
141 7. 69 

EUGENIUS IV. 
I43I-I447. 

Deposed in 1439 
by the bishops as- 
sembled at Basle, 
but continued to 
be acknowledged 
as pope. Began 
the year some- 
times ist January, 
sometimes 25th 
March, and some- 
times 25th De- 
cember. 



Popes seated at 

Avignon, 
acknowledged in 
Scotland, France, 
Spain, Sicily, and 
Cyprus. 

BENEDICT XIII. 

1394-1417. 
Deposed in 1409 
and in 14 17. 68 
Died in 1424. 



ANTIPOPE 



Clement 

1424-1429. 
By his abdication 
the Schism of 51 
years came to an 
end in 1429. 



68. See above, p. 186, No 21, and below, p. 326. 



69. Ibid. 



195 



JAMES THE SECOND 

(STEWART) 
KING OF SCOTS 

1436-71460 

Reign began 2ist February 1436-7, 
ended 3rd August 1460, 
lasted 23 years 5 months and 14 days. 

James the Second (Stewart). ' King of Scots/ ' James with 

the firye face.' l 
Younger Twin Son of James L, king of Scots, by his wife 

Joan, daughter of John Beaufort, ist earl of Somerset. 2 
Born in the monastery at Holyrood, Edinburgh, on the i6th 

of October I43O. 3 

REIGN BEGAN 2 IST FEBRUARY 1436-7. 

King of Scots. James II. became king of Scots on the 

death of his father, King James I., 2ist February 1436-7.* 

Aged 6 years 4 months and 5 days when he succeeded his 

father. 5 

1. Acts of Parliaments, ii. 31 ; c. 16; Book of Pluscarden, bk. xi. 
Nat. MSS. ii. 57, No. LXXI., fac- c. 5 ; Exchequer Rolls, iv., Preface, 
simile of autograph letter, and p. cv. 

transcript ; Diplomata Scotise, PI. 3. Ibid. 

LXXXIII. ; Ancient Scottish Seals, 4. Acts of Parliaments, ii. 31 ; 

i. ii, Nos. 45-47 ; Auchinleck Scotichron., ii. 514 [error for 518], 

Chronicle, 9, 46 ; Chroniques de bk. xvi., notes of the history of 

Monstrelet, ii. fol. 138, 1. 10 ; Mac- James II., par. 2; Extracta, 237. 

pherson's Wyntoun, at the end of 5. Scotichron., ii. 490, 514 [518], 

MS., Reg. 17, DXX. bk. xvi. par. 2 ; Extracta, 237 ; 

2. Scotichron., ii. 490, bk. xvi. Book of Pluscarden, bk. xi. c. 5. 



196 JAMES THE SECOND [1436-7 

Anointed and Crowned. King James II. was anointed and 
crowned by the Bishop of Dunblane, in presence of the 
three Estates of the Kingdom, in the monastery at Holy- 
rood, Edinburgh, 25th March I43/. 6 

The Assassins of King James I. Walter Stewart, 
earl of Athol (the king's uncle), Sir Kobert Stewart (the 
earl's grandson), Sir Robert Graham and his son, Christo- 
pher and Thomas Chamber, with Sir John and Thomas 
Hall, implicated in the assassination of King James I., 
were tortured and beheaded in March I437- 7 

The Queen-Dowager Married. Joan, widow of King 
James I., was married to her second husband, Sir James 
Stewart, ' the black knight of Lorn,' in I439- 8 

The Queen-Dowager a Prisoner. Sir Alexander 
Livingston arrested the Queen-Dowager, with her hus- 
band, Sir James Stewart, and kept them prisoners in 
Stirling Castle from the 3rd of August, until they were 
released by order of the three Estates, assembled in Council 
at Stirling, 3ist August I439. 9 

Crichton and Livingston. Sir William Crichton, 
keeper of Edinburgh Castle, and Sir Alexander Living- 
ston, keeper of Stirling Castle, who were rivals for supreme 
power, seem to have become reconciled, and to have acted 
together for their self-interest, in and after I439. 10 

William, 6th Earl of Douglas, 3rd and last duke of 
Touraine, in his i8th year, with his brother David, and 



6. Acts of Parliaments, ii. 31 ; 8. History of the Stewarts, 443, 
Scotichron., ii. 514 [518], bk. xvi. ; 444, a post-nuptial papal dispensa- 
Extracta, 237. tion by Pope Eugenius IV., dated 

7. Translation of Contemporary Florence, 21 Sep. 1439 ; Exchequer 
Account, printed in Pinkerton, i. Rolls, v. , Preface, p. 52 ; Chroniques 
462-475 ; Chroniques de Monstrelet, de Monstrelet, ii. fol. 138. 

ii. 138; Auchinleck Chronicle, pp. 9. Auchinleck Chronicle, pp. 3, 33, 

24, 33; Scotichron., ii. 514 [518], 34; Acts of Parliaments, ii. 54, 

bk. xvi., notes of the history of Appendix, No. 3 ; Reg. Mag. Sig., 

James II., par. 2; Extracta, 237; bk. iv., No. 4, 7th Mar. 1449-50; 

Book of Pluscarden, bk. xi. c. 10 ; Exchequer Rolls, v., Preface, 53. 
Exchequer Rolls, v., Preface, 40-43, 10. Exchequer Rolls, v., Preface, 

No. ii.; The Life and Death of James pp. 54, 55 ; Acts of Parl., ii. p. 54; 

I. of Scotland (Maitland Club). Indenture in H.M. Register House. 



1460] JAMES THE SECOND 197 

Malcolm Fleming of Biggar, were beheaded, for alleged 
treason, in Edinburgh Castle : the Douglases on the 24th 
November, and Fleming on the 28th November I44O. 11 

Excommunication. Bishop James Kennedy 'cursed 
solemnly with mitre and staff, book and candle,' the Earl 
of Crawford ; James Livingston, the king's guardian ; all 
the Ogilvys ; Hamilton, laird of Cadzow ; and others, for 
a year, for having plundered the lands of St. Andrews, on 
the 23rd of January H'H'S- 12 

The Queen-Dowager's Death. The king's mother, 
Joan, daughter of John Beaufort, ist earl of Somerset, 
was buried near her first husband, James I., king of Scots, 
in the Carthusian monastery, at Perth. She died in 
Dunbar Castle, i5th July I44S- 13 

The Battle of Arbroath. David Lindsay, only son of 
Alexander, 2nd earl of Crawford, defeated the Ogilvys and 
Sir Alexander Seton, at the gates of Arbroath, on the 2 3rd 
of January I445-6. 14 

Dunbar Burned. The English, under the younger 
Percy and Sir Robert Ogle, burned Dunbar in May 
I448. 15 

Alnwick Burned. The Scots, under the Earls of 
Douglas, Orkney, Angus, and Ormond, burned Alnwick, 
3rd June I448. 16 

Dumfries Burned. The English, under the Earl of 
Salisbury, burned Dumfries in June I448. 17 

Warkworth Burned. The Scots, under the Earl of 
Douglas, burned Warkworth : they had entered England 
on the 1 8th of July I448. 18 

The Battle of Sarke or Clochmaben Stone. The 



11. Auchinleck Chronicle, 24, 34, 14. Auchinleck Chronicle, 7, 38, 
35; Scotichron., ii. 514 [518], par. 23 Jan. 1445-6; Extracta, 241, 20 
4 ; Extracta, 237 ; Exchequer Rolls, Jan. 1447-8; Exchequer Rolls, v., 
v., Preface, p. 55. Preface, 70, 71 ; Burke, 386. 

12. Auchinleck Chronicle, pp. 7, 15. Auchinleck Chronicle, 27, 39. 
8, 38, 39- 1 6. Ibid. 

13. Auchinleck Chronicle, 7, 37 ; 17. Ibid. 
Exchequer Rolls, v., Preface, Ixvii. 18. Ibid. 



198 JAMES THE SECOND [1436-7 

Scots, under Hugh Douglas, earl of Ormond, and Sir John 
Wallace of Cragy, defeated the English, under the younger 
Percy, with great slaughter, at Clochmaben Stone, on the 
water of Sarke, 23rd October I448. 19 

Marie de Gueldres, accompanied by a distinguished 
suite and a large escort in fourteen ships, arrived at Leith, 
1 8th June I449. 20 

Married. King James II. married Marie, only daughter of 
Arnold, due de Gueldres. She was solemnly crowned as 
Queen on the day of her marriage, in the monastery at 
Holyrood, Edinburgh, 3rd July I449- 21 

Forfeiture of the Livingstons. Some of the Living- 
stons were arrested on the 23rd September 1449, others 
were arrested soon afterwards ; they were all sentenced to 
forfeiture, and two of them were beheaded on the Castle 
Hill, in Edinburgh, 2ist January 1449- 50. 22 

The University of Glasgow. King James II., at the 
instance of William Turnbull, bishop of Glasgow, obtained 
from Pope Nicolas V. a Bull for the foundation of a 
University in the city of Glasgow, dated at St. Peter's in 
Rome, /th January I45O-I. 23 

'The Privilege of the University of Glasgow' was 
proclaimed at the Cross of Glasgow on Trinity Sunday, 
[2Oth June] i45i. 24 

The Earl of Douglas Stabbed. William, 8th earl of 
Douglas, was stabbed by King James II., and was 



19. Auchinleck Chronicle, 18, 19, Scotichron., ii. 515 [519], bk. xvi. a 
40; Nat. MSS., iii., No. xxxvu., fac- 1449; Extracta, 238, note c; Ex- 
simile of map with key, ' lomaban- chequer Rolls, v., Preface, 73-79. 
atane' and 'Sarke Watter' ; Rotuli 22. Auchinleck Chronicle, 25, 26, 
Scotise, ii. I45 b ; Scotichron., ii. 41, 43 ; Exchequer Rolls, v., Preface, 
515 [error for 519], bk. xvi. a 1445 ; pp. 80, 81. 

Extracta, 238, a 1445. 23. Theiner, Vetera Monumenta, 

20. Auchinleck Chronicle, 24, 25, 382, No. DCCLVIII., Bull of Pope 
41; Scotichron., ii. 515 [519], bk. Nicolas V. ; p. 383, No. DCCLIX., con- 
xvi. a 1449; Extracta, 238, note firmation ; Auchinleck Chronicle, 16, 
3; Exchequer Rolls, v., Preface, 45; Exchequer Rolls, v., Preface, 
73-79. 78, 79, and notes. 

21. Auchinleck Chronicle, 25, 41 ; 24. Auchinleck Chronicle, 16, 45. 



1460] 



JAMES THE SECOND 



199 






despatched by some of his courtiers in Stirling Castle, on 
the 22nd of February 145 1-2. 25 

The Battle of Brechin. Alexander of Seton, ist earl 
of Huntly, who displayed the king's banner, defeated 
Alexander Lindsay, 4th earl of Crawford, on the inoor 
near Brechin, i8th May I452. 26 

Inverkip and Arran Plundered. Donald Balloch of 
the Isles harried all Arran. He had previously burned 
Inverkip on the loth of July H53. 27 

The Earl of Douglas's Lands Devastated. The castle 
of Inverawyne was demolished; all Douglasdale and all 
Avondale were burned by King Jarnes II., and the castle of 
Abercorn was besieged by him in March and April I455- 28 

The Battle of Arkinholme. The king's forces, under 
George Douglas, 4th earl of Angus, totally defeated the 
three brothers of James, 9th earl of Douglas, at Arkin- 
holme on the Esk, in Dumfriesshire, ist May I455- 29 

Forfeiture of the Douglases. Parliament passed sen- 
tence of forfeiture on James Douglas, Qth and last earl of 
Douglas, at Edinburgh, on the loth of June 1455 ; also on 
his mother Beatrice, countess of Douglas, on his brother 
Archibald, ' pretended ' earl of Moray (who had been 
slain at Arkinholme), and on his brother James, laird of 
Balveny, at Edinburgh, i2th June 145 5. 30 

England Invaded. King James II. invaded England, 



25. Auchinleck Chronicle, 9, 10, 
46, 47 ; Acts of Parliaments, ii. 73, 
Appendix, No. 33, with facsimile 
opposite ['James III.', erroneously 
printed instead of James II. on the 
facsimile] ; Exchequer Rolls, v., Pre- 
face, pp. xc. xci. 

26. Auchinleck Chronicle, 27, 47 ; 
Exchequer Rolls, v. , Preface, xcv. 

27. Auchinleck Chronicle, 13, 14, 
55; Exchequer Rolls, v., Preface, 
cvi, and note 2, cvii. 

28. Auchinleck Chronicle, pp. 12, 
: 3> 53, 545 Exchequer Rolls, vi., 
Preface, pp. xxix-xxxi. 



29. Reg. Mag. Sig., bk. v. No. 
46, 22nd Feb. 1458-9, charter to Sir 
Walter Scot of Kyrkurde, * present 
at the battle of Arkinholme, at the 
slaughter and capture of the late 
Archibald and Hugo of Douglas, for- 
merly earls of Moray and Ormonde ' ; 
Extracta, 243 ; Exchequer Rolls, 
vi., Preface, xxxi, xxxii. [At p. 
cxxxv, the editor gives the year of 
the battle erroneously as 1452, in- 
stead of 1455.] 

30. Acts of Parliaments, ii. 42, 75, 
76 ; Extracta, 243 ; Exchequer Rolls, 
vi., Preface, pp. xxxvi, xxxvii 



200 



JAMES THE SECOND 



[H36-7 



taking and destroying seventeen towers or fortalices 
between the i6th and 22nd August I455. 31 

Lochindorb Castle Demolished. King James II. 
ordered the Thane of Cawdor to demolish the castle at 
Lochindorb. The letter is dated at Aberdeen, the 5th of 
March I455-6. 32 

Killed. King James the Second was killed by the bursting 
of a cannon at the siege of Roxburgh, on Sunday, the 
3rd of August i46o. 33 

Aged 29 years 9 months and 1 8 days. 34 

Buried near the middle of the choir in the chapel at Holy- 
rood, Edinburgh. 35 

His Reign lasted 23 years 5 months and 14 days. 36 

REIGN ENDED 3RD AUGUST 1460. 



ISSUE 

King James the Second had by his wife, Marie de Gueldres, four sons, 
James, Alexander, David, and John ; and two daughters, Mary 
and Margaret (also a son and a daughter who died in infancy) : 37 



31. Rotuli Scotiae, ii. 375 ; Scoti- 
chron., ii. 516 [error for 520], bk. 
xvi. par. I ; Auchinleck Chronicle, 
pp. 20, 56 ; Exchequer Rolls, vi. , 
Preface, pp. 41, 44. 

32. The Thanes of Cawdor, 21, 22 ; 
Exchequer Rolls, vi., Preface, p. 50, 
and note 3, pp. 459, 486. In the 
account from 19 July 1457 to 21 
June 1458 there is a charge ' to the 
thane of Caldore for casting down 
the castle of Lochindorb, by order of 
the king,' 24. 

33. Auchinleck Chronicle, 20, 57, 
'1460, the third sonday of august' 
[error for Sunday, the third of 
August] ; Scotichron. ii. 516 [520], 
bk. xvi. par. 2, notes of the history 
of James II. ' on the 3rd August 
1460'; Extracta, 244; Treasurers' 
Accounts, i., Preface, 37, note 2 ; 
Exchequer Rolls, vi., Preface, p. 64. 



[In 1460 Easter Day was on the 
1 3th of April, consequently the 1st, 
2nd, and 3rd Sundays of August 
were the 3rd, loth, and I7th days of 
that month respectively. James III. 
was crowned on Sunday, 10 Aug., 
one week after his father's death, 
which took place on Sunday, 3rd 
Aug. 1460, not on the third Sunday 
of August 1460, as erroneously 
stated in the Auchinleck Chronicle, 
20, 57.] 

34. Scotichron., ii. 490, bk. xvi. 
c. 1 6 ; Book of Pluscarden, bk. xi. 

c. 5- 

35. Scotichron., ii. 516 [520], bk. 
xvi. par. 2 : Extracta, 244. 

36. See above, Nos. 4 and 33. 

37. Extracta, 243 ; Exchequer 
Rolls, vi., Preface, pp. 126, 127, note 
2, gives the children of King James 
II. by his wife, Marie de Gueldres. 



1460] JAMES THE SECOND 201 

(i.) James, king of Scots as James III. from 3rd August 1460 
to nth June I488. 38 

(n.) Alexander, earl of March, 1455 ; duke of Albany, 1458 ; 
heir-presumptive to the Crown from 1460 to 1472-3 ; acci- 
dentally killed at a tournament in Paris in 1485, aged about 
30. He married first, Lady Catherine Sinclair, from whom 
he procured a divorce, Qth March 1477-8. He married 
secondly, i6th February 1479-80, Agnes or Anne, 4th 
daughter of Bertrand II., comte d'Auvergne and Boulogne. 
By his first marriage he had a son : 

Alexander, declared illegitimate by Parliament, i3th 

November 1516, was bishop of Moray from 1527 to 1534. 39 
By his second marriage he had a son : 

John, duke of Albany, heir-presumptive to the Crown, 

Governor of Scotland from 1515 to i524. 40 
(in.) David, earl of Moray, i2th February 1455-6, died before 
the 1 8th July 1457, aged about 3 years. 41 
(iv.) John, earl of Mar, 1458-9, died unmarried in 1479, aged 
about 23 years. 42 

(v.) Mary, married first to Thomas, Lord Boyd, who was 
created Earl of Arran 26th April 1467 ; she was married 
secondly, as his second wife (Papal dispensation, 25th April 
1474), to James, Lord Hamilton, and had a son, James, and 
a daughter, Elisabeth : 43 

(i) James, 2nd Lord Hamilton, created Earl of Arran ; 

married, as his third wife, Janet, daughter of Sir David 

Betoun of Creich, and by her had, with other issue, a son : 44 

38. See below, pp. 205-212. 30; Peerage of Scotland, i. 59, 60 ; 

39. Exchequer Rolls, vi., Preface, Scots Peerage, i. p. 154. 

126, 127, note 2 ; ix., Preface, 56-59 ; 41. Exchequer Rolls, vi., Preface, 

Acts of Parl., ii. 283; Scottish 126, note 2, No. 5. 

Bishops, 149; Mas Latrie, p. 1548; 42. Exchequer Rolls, vi., Preface, 

Peerage of Scotland, i. 58-59 ; Pit- 127, note; viii., Preface, 72, 73. 

cairn, Criminal Trials, vol. i. p. 16, 43. Treasurers' Accounts, i. 510; 

note i ; Scots Peerage, i. pp. 151-154. Exchequer Rolls, vi., Preface, 126, 

[Represented kneeling behind his note 2, No. 3 ; viii., Preface, 50-52 ; 

brother in the portrait of King Theiner, Vetera Monumenta, 477, 

James III. See below, pp. 207, No. 478, No. DCCCLXI., Papal dispensa- 

17, and 211, No. 43.] tion, 25 Apr. 1474; Peerage of Scot- 

40. Acts of Parliaments, ii. 283, land, i. 51, No. XL, and p. 121. 
288, 13 Nov. 1516; Exchequer Rolls, 44. Peerage of Scotland, i. 697, 
ix., Preface, 59; xiv., Preface, 29, viii. and note*; 699, note*. 



202 JAMES THE SECOND [1436-7 

James, 2nd (Hamilton) earl of Arran, heir-presumptive 
to the Crown, chosen Governor of the Kingdom by Par- 
liament, 1 3th March 1542-3; created Duke of Chatel- 
herault by Henri II., king of France, in June 1548. He 
married Margaret, daughter of James Douglas, 3rd earl of 
Morton, by whom he had four sons and four daughters: 45 

(A) James, 3rd earl of Arran, became insane. 46 

(B) John, ist marquis of Hamilton, ancestor of the 
present Duke of Hamilton. 47 

(c) David, died without issue. 48 

(D) Claud, ancestor of the present Duke of Abercorn ; 
commanded the vanguard for Queen Mary at the 
battle of Langside. 49 

(2) Elisabeth, married to Matthew, 2nd earl of Lennox. 50 
(vi.) Margaret. Negotiations for her marriage with the Duke 
of Clarence, and afterwards with Anthony, Earl Eivers, were 
broken off. She was married [or ought to have been married] 
to William, 3rd Lord Crichton, and had a daughter : 51 

Margaret Orichton, married first, in 1505-6, to William 
Todrik, merchant burgess of Edinburgh; secondly, in 1510, 
to George Halkerstoun, merchant burgess of Edinburgh; 
and thirdly, in 1517, as his third wife, to George Leslie, 
3rd earl of Rothes, by whom she had a son : 52 

Norman Leslie, Master of Eothes. 53 

Marie de Gueldres, widow of King James II., died in 
Edinburgh, ist December 1463, and was buried there, in 
the church of the Holy Trinity, which she had founded. 54 
King James the Second is said to have had an illegitimate son : 
John Stewart of Sticks and Ballechin. 55 

45. Peerage of Scotland, i, 699, surers' Accounts, i., Appendix to- 
No. xi. 700, 701. See also below, Preface, cclxxxv-ccxcii ; Peerage of 
Mary, p. 247, No. 6, chosen Gover- Scotland, i. 51, No. XL, and p. 610. 
nor; p. 250, No. 20, Arran resigns. 52. Treasurers' Accounts, i., Ap- 

46. Peerage of Scotland, i. 701,702. pendix to Preface, cclxxxv-ccxcii. 

47. Peerage of Scotland, i. 701 (2), 53. Peerage of Scotland, ii. 428. 
702, No. x. 703. See below, Mary, p. 249, No. 14. 

48. Peerage of Scotland, i. 701 (3). 54. Treasurers' Accounts, i. 510 ;. 

49. Peerage of Scotland, i. i, No. Extracta, 244, note a; Exchequer 
i. p. 701 (4). Rolls, vii., Preface, 54, 55. See also 

50. Peerage of Scotland, i. 697. below, James III., p. 206, No. II. 

51. Exchequer Rolls, vi., Preface, 55. Peerage of Scotland, i. 51, XL; 
126, note 2, No. 7, next page ; Trea- Baronage of Scotland, 488-490. 



1460] 



JAMES THE SECOND 



203 



A TABLE OF REGNAL YEARS 



1st began 21 Feb. 1436-7, 
ended 20 Feb. 1437-8. 


13th began 21 Feb. 1448-9, 
ended 20 Feb. 1449-50. 


2nd began 21 Feb. 1437-8, 
ended 20 Feb. 1438-9. 


14th began 21 Feb. 1449-50, 
ended 20 Feb. 1450-1. 


3rd began 21 Feb. 1438-9, 
ended 20 Feb. 1439-40. 


15th began 21 Feb. 1450-1, 
ended 20 Feb. 1451-2. 


4th began 21 Feb. 1439-40, 
ended 20 Feb. 1440-1. 


16th began 21 Feb. 1451-2, 
ended 20 Feb. 1452-3. 


5th began 21 Feb. 1440-1, 
ended 20 Feb. 1441-2. 


17th began 21 Feb. 1452-3, 
ended 20 Feb. 1453-4. 


6th began 21 Feb. 1441-2, 
ended 20 Feb. 1442-3. 


18th began 21 Feb. 1453-4, 
ended 20 Feb. 1454-5. 


7th began 21 Feb. 1442-3, 
ended 20 Feb. 1443-4. 


19th began 21 Feb. 1454-5, 
ended 20 Feb. 1455-6. 


8th began 21 Feb. 1443-4, 
ended 20 Feb. 1444-5. 


20th began 21 Feb. 1455-6, 
ended 20 Feb. 1456-7. 


9th began 21 Feb. 1444-5, 
ended 20 Feb. 1445-6. 


21st began 21 Feb. 1456-7, 
ended 20 Feb. 1457-8. 


10th began 21 Feb. 1445-6, 
ended 20 Feb. 1446-7. 


22nd began 21 Feb. 1457-8, 
ended 20 Feb. 1458-9. 


llth began 21 Feb. 1446-7, 
ended 20 Feb. 1447-8. 


23rd began 21 Feb. 1458-9, 
ended 20 Feb. 1459-60. 


12th began 21 Feb. 1447-8, 
ended 20 Feb. 1448-9. 


24th began 21 Feb. 1459-60, 
ended 3 Aug. 1460. 


Only 5 months and 14 days of the 24th year. 



204 



JAMES THE SECOND 



[1460 



CONTEMPORARY SOVEREIGNS 



KINO OF ENGLAND KING OF FRANCE 



HENRY VI. 
1422-1461. 



CHARLES VII. 

' le Victorieux ' 

1422-1461. 



POPES 

EUGENIUS IV. 

1431-1447. 

Deposed in 1439 by the 
bishops assembled at 
Basle, but continued to 
be acknowledged as 
pope. 

Began the year 
sometimes ist January, 
'sometimes 25th March, 
sometimes at Easter, 
sometimes at Christ- 
mas. 



ANTIPOPE 

Felix V. 
1440-1449. 
Elected at 
the Council 
of Basle in 
1440, abdi- 
cated in 
1449. 



NICOLAS V. 
1447-1455. 

CALIXTUS III. 

1455-1458. 

Began the year 

25th March. 

Pius II. 56 

1458-1464. 
Began the year 
sometimes ist January, 
sometimes 25th March, 
sometimes 25th Decem- 
ber. 



56. JSneas Sylvius Piccolomini 
about 23 years before he became 
Pope as Pius II. was sent on a 
secret mission to James I., king of 



Scots, in 1435. He was well received 
by King James, but there does not 
appear to be any contemporary Scot- 
tish account of his visit. 



1460] 205 



JAMES THE THIRD 

(STEWART) 
KING OF SCOTS 

1460 1488 

Reign began 3rd August 1460, 
ended nth June 1488, 
lasted 27 years 10 months and 9 days. 

James the Third (Stewart), ' King of Scots.' l 

Eldest Son of James II., king of Scots, by his wife Marie, 

only daughter of Arnold, due de Gueldres. 2 
Born at Stirling, loth July 145 1. 3 

REIGN BEGAN 3RD AUGUST 1460. 

King of Scots. James III. became king of Scots on the 
death of his father, King James II, 3rd August I46o. 4 

Aged 9 years and 25 days when he succeeded his father. 5 

Roxburgh Castle was taken by the Scots from the 
English on the 8th of August I46o. 6 

Crowned. King James III. was crowned in the abbey at 
Kelso on the loth of August i46o. 7 

1. Acts of Parliaments, ii. 83, 19 73, x. 314. [James III. was bap- 
Oct. 1462; Nat. MSS., ii. 63, No. tized (not born) in January 1452-3.] 
LXXIX. ; Diplomats Scotiae, PI. 4. Auchinleck Chronicle, 21, 57 ; 
LXXXIV. ; Ancient Scottish Seals, Treasurers' Accounts, i., Preface, 37; 
i. 12, No. 50 ; see also p. ii, Nos. 45 Exchequer Rolls, vii., Preface, 34. 
and 46. 5. See above, No. 3. 

2. Auchinleck Chronicle, 21, 57 ; 6. Auchinleck Chronicle, 20, 57. 
Treasurers' Accounts, i., Preface, 37; 7. [Brought by his mother, the 
Exchequer Rolls, vii., Preface, 34. queen, from Edinburgh to Kelso, 8 

3. Treasurers' Accounts, i., Pre- Aug. 1460.] Auchinleck Chronicle, 
face, 37, note i, 10 July 1451 ; Ex- 21, 57, 58; Treasurers' Accounts, i., 
chequer Rolls, v., Preface, 88, 89; Preface, 37, and notes i, 2; Exche- 
607, baptism of the prince; Pro- quer Rolls, vii., Preface, 34; MS. 
ceedings Society of Antiquaries, 1872- Reg. 17, D. 20, a 1460. 



206 JAMES THE THIRD [1460 

Berwick was surrendered to the Scots by the English 
on the 25th of April I46i. 8 

Treaty with Edward IV. John, earl of Ross, lord of 
the Isles, Donald Balloch, and John, son and heir of 
Donald, made a treaty with Edward IV., king of England, 
that in the event of the subjugation of Scotland, the 
whole of the kingdom north of the Forth was to be 
divided among the Earl of Ross, Donald Balloch, and his 
eldest son. This treaty was to be approved, ratified, and 
returned to Edward before the ist of July I462. 9 

Trinity College Church, Edinburgh, was founded by 
Marie de Gueldres, widow of King James II. The con- 
firmation of its foundation by Pope Pius II. is dated loth 
July I462. 10 

Death of the Queen-Dowager. Marie, daughter of 
Arnold, due de Gueldres, widow of King James II., was 
buried in the church of the Holy Trinity, Edinburgh. 
She died ist December H63. 11 

James Kennedy, bishop of St. Andrews, eminent for 
his virtues and ability, who had the chief management of 
the government, died between the 2nd and the 1 8th of 
July i46s. 12 

Seized by the Boyds. King James III. was carried off by 
the Boyds from Linlithgow to Edinburgh, on the pth of 
July H66. 13 

St. Giles', in Edinburgh, was made a collegiate church 

8. [Through the influence of Henry No. 821; Treasurers' Accounts, i., 
VI., ex-king of England, and of his Preface, 233 ; Exchequer Rolls, vii., 
wife, Margaret of Anjou.] Exche- Preface, lii-lv. [See also above, p. 
quer Rolls, vii., Preface, pp. 36, 204, No. 56, Pope Pius II.] 

37; Annals of England, 250, 25th u. Exchequer Rolls, vii., Preface, 

Apr. 1461. pp. 54, 55, ist Dec. 1463; Trea- j 

9. Rotuli Scotise, ii. 405-407, 13 surers' Accounts, i., Preface, p. 40, 
Feb. i46i[-2] ; Foedera, ix. pp. 474, quotes Lesley [who is in error], 
483, 484, 492, 499; Cal. Doc. Scot., 12. Treasurers' Accounts, Preface, 
iv., Nos. 1317, 1326, 1328, 1334; 40, note 4; Exchequer Rolls, vii., 
Exchequer Rolls, viii., Preface, 63, Preface, 56, note 4 ; Peerage of 
64. See also below, p. 208, No. 24. Scotland, i. 327 [wrong date]. 

10. Reg. Ecc. Col. S. Trinitatis, 13. Treasurers' Accounts, i., Pre- 
Preface, 13-32, and Appendix, 103- face, 40; Exchequer Rolls, vii., Ivi- 
107 ; Theiner, 439, No. 818; p. 442, Ix; Acts of Parliaments, ii. 186, 187. 



i 4 88] JAMES THE THIRD 207 

by Bull of Pope Paul II., dated at St. Mark's in Rome, 
22nd February I467-8. 14 

Orkney and Shetland were pledged to Scotland in the 
marriage contract between King James III. and Margaret, 
princess of Denmark, for the payment of her dowry. 
Contract dated at Copenhagen, 8th September I468. 15 

Married. King James III. married Margaret, daughter of 
Christiern L, king of Denmark, in Holyrood House, 
Edinburgh, on the I3th of July 1469 

Portraits of King James III. and of his queen, Margaret 
of Denmark, are now (1906) in Holyrood Palace; they 
were formerly in the altar-piece of Trinity College 
Church, Edinburgh, and are supposed to have been 
painted by Hugo Van der Goes in 1469^ 

Fall of the Boyds. Sir Alexander Boyd was beheaded 
in Edinburgh, and Parliament passed sentence of forfeiture 
against his brother and his nephew, 22nd November i^g. 13 

Armorial Bearings of King James III. ' The king, with 
advice of the three Estates, ordained that in time to come 
there should be no double tressure about his arms, but 
that he should bear whole arms of the lyoun without any 
more ' ; in parliament, at Edinburgh, on the 2Oth of Feb- 
ruary I4/I-2. 19 

Orkney and Shetland. The King, with the consent of 

14. Theiner, 455, No. 837 ; p. 463, 16. Treasurers' Accounts, i., Pre- 
No. 847. St. Giles and its clergy, at face, 41, note 4 ; p. 44 ; Exchequer 
the instance of King James III., Rolls, viii., Preface, 39-43, Appendix 
were exempted from the jurisdiction to Preface, 77-87, Marriage Contract 
of the Bishop of St. Andrews by of King James III. ; Proceedings So- 
Bull of Pope Paul II., dated at St. ciety of Antiquaries, 1872-73, x. 316 ; 
Peter's, Rome, 30 Apr. 1470. MS. Reg. 17, D. 20, 13 July 1469. 

15. The original Marriage Contract 17. Proceedings Society of Anti- 
ism H.M. General Register House, quaries, iii. 8-22, 30 Nov. 1857; x. 
Edinburgh. Treasurers' Accounts, 310-324, 1872-73, copies of the por- 
i., Preface, 41, note 4; Exchequer traits. See also below, p. 211, No 43. 
Rolls, viii., Preface, 40-42, also Ap- 18. Acts of Parliaments, ii. 186, 
pendix to Preface, 77-87, Marriage 187; Exchequer Rolls, viii. , Preface, 
Contract of King James III. ; Ork- pp. 44, 45 ; Treasurers' Accounts, i., 
neyinga Saga, Introduction, 70, 71, Preface, 42. 

and 71, note i ; Proceedings Society 19. Acts of Parliaments, ii. iO2 b . 

of Antiquaries, 1872-73, x. 316. [This appears to have been ignored.] 



208 JAMES THE THIRD [1460 

the three Estates of Parliament, annexed the earldom of 
Orkney and the lordship of Shetland to the Crown. They 
were not to be given away in time to come to any person 
except to one of the king's legitimate sons. Dated Edin- 
burgh, 2Oth of February 147 1-2. 20 

Thirteen Scottish Bishoprics, viz., St. Andrews, Glas- 
gow, Dunkeld, Aberdeen, Moray, Brechin, Dunblane, Ross, 
Caithness, Whithorn, Lismore, Sodor or The Isles, and 
Orkney, existed in Scotland I7th August I472. 21 

St. Andrews an Archbishopric. St. Andrews was made 
a Metropolitan See by Bull of Pope Sixtus IV., dated at 
St. Peter's in Rome, i7th August 1472.22 

Intrigues of Albany and Mar. Alexander, duke of 
Albany, and John, earl of Mar, brothers of King James 
III, accused of treason, were imprisoned: Mar died, but 
Albany escaped to France in April I479. 23 

Albany styled King of Scotland. In a treaty between 
Alexander, duke of Albany, and Edward IV., king of 
England, Albany, brother of King James III., is styled 
' Alexander, king of Scotland,' loth June 1 482.2* 

The King's Favourites Hanged. Cochrane, Rogers, and 
others, favourites of King James III., were seized by the 
nobles and were hanged on Lauder Bridge, about the 22nd 
of July I482. 25 

Berwick Retaken. The English took Berwick from the 
Scots when Scotland was invaded by Richard, duke of 
Gloucester, on the 22nd of August 1482.26 

20. Acts of Parliaments, ii. iO2 b ; 24. Fcedera, xii. 156, 172, 173; 
Treasurers' Accounts, i., Preface, 41. Exchequer Rolls, ix., Preface, 40, 41. 

21. Theiner, 465-468. tfeethearms 25. Ms. Reg. 17, D. 20, July 1482; 
of the Bishops on the Cathedral ceil- Exchequer Rolls, ix., Preface, 41, 
ing, at Old Aberdeen, put up 50 years 42; Treasurers' Accounts, i., Pre- i 
later by Bishop Gavin Dunbar ; and face, 63 ; Peerage of Scotland, i. 434. 
below, Map. No. in. [Archibald Douglas, 5th earl of < 

22. Theiner, 465-468, No. 852 ; Angus, was one of the nobles, and 
Exchequer Rolls, viii., Preface, 53, was afterwards known as 'Archi- 
54 ; Concilia Scotiae, Preface, no. bald Bell the Cat.'] 

23. Treasurers' Acts., i., Preface, 26. Foadera, xii. 160, 162; Ex- 
62,63; Exchequer Rolls, viii., Pre- chequer Rolls, ix., Preface, 42; 
face, 68-71 ; Acts of Parl. ii. 126. Leslie, bk. viii. 98. 



1 4 88] JAMES THE THIRD 209 

Kept Prisoner. King James III. was kept a prisoner by the 
confederate lords, in Edinburgh Castle, from the 22nd of 
July to the 25th of September I482. 27 

Albany, Lieutenant-General of the Realm. Alexander, 
duke of Albany, who had been appointed Lieutenant- 
General of the realm, nth December 1482, was relieved of 
his office, iQth March I482-3. 28 

The Battle of Lochmaben. Alexander, duke of Albany, 
and James Douglas, earl of Douglas, invaded Scotland with 
five hundred light horsemen, but they were defeated at 
Lochmaben, 22nd July I484. 29 

Death of the Queen. Margaret of Denmark, queen of 
King James III., died at Stirling, I4th July 1486, and was 
buried in the abbey at Cambuskenneth, on or about the 
2Qth of July i486. 30 

Rebellion of the Nobles. The confederate lords, who 
had been plotting against the king, conducted their pro- 
ceedings in the name of James, duke of Rothesay, heir- 
apparent to the throne, whose person they had secured, 
2nd February I48/-8. 31 

A Skirmish at Blackness took place between the forces 
of King James III. and those of the confederate lords,, 
after which certain articles were signed by the king, and 
his forces were disbanded, about the middle of May I488. 32 



27. Ms. Reg., 17, D. 20, from St 
Magdalen's Day to Michaelmas 
Treasurers' Accounts, i., Preface 
63, 64 ; Exchequer Rolls, ix. p. xli. 

28. Acts of Parliaments, ii. 143 
xii. 123 ; Exchequer Rolls, vol. ix. 



authority) as the *27th or 2Qth of 
February 1486-7'; but neither of 
those years had a 2gth of February]. 
Theiner, 499, 500, No. 883, commis- 
sion, to inquire as to the life, morals, 
death, and miracles of Margaret,. 



Preface, 48-56. late queen of Scots, dated 10 June 

29. Exchequer Rolls, ix., Preface, 1487. [The above, ordered by Pope 
55> 56, Albany escaped, but Douglas Innocent VIII., refers to the queen 
was taken prisoner. of James III. , king of Scots. ] 

30. Treasurers' Accounts, vol. i., 31. Acts of Parliaments, ii. 222 
Preface, 64, note 2, 230 ; Exchequer 223 ; Fcedera, xii. 340. 

Rolls, ix., Preface, 60; Reg. Cam- 32. Acts of Parliaments, ii. 210., 

buskenneth, Preface, 129, 130 [the 211,269,270; Treasurers' Accounts, 

editor, W. Fraser, gives the date of i., Preface, 67, 68 ; Exchequer Rolls, 

her burial (without quoting his x., Preface, 38. 

O 



210 JAMES THE THIRD [1460 

The Battle of Sauchieburn. The confederate lords 
defeated King James III. at Sauchieburn, near Stirling, 
1 1 th June I488. 33 

Murdered. King James the Third was murdered after the 
battle of Sauchieburn, in a cottage at Milltown, near 
Bannockburn in Stirlingshire, nth June I488. 34 

Aged 36 years 1 1 months and 2 days. 35 

Buried near his wife in the abbey at Cambuskenneth in 
Stirlingshire, 25th June I488. 36 

His Reign lasted 27 years 10 months and 9 days. 37 

REIGN ENDED IITH JUNE 1488. 

ISSUE 

King James the Third had by his wife, Margaret of Denmark, 
three sons, James, James, and John : 38 

(l.) James, Prince and Steward of Scotland, earl of Carrick 

and duke of Rothesay, was king of Scots as James IV. from 

the nth June 1488 to the 9th September i5i3. 39 

(n.) James, born in March 1475-6; marquis of Ormonde, 

1476; duke of Ross, 1488; archbishop of St. Andrews, 1497; 

chancellor of the Kingdom, 1502 ; died between the 4th and 

1 3th of January I503-4. 40 

(in.) John, who seems to have been born in December 1479, 

was created Earl of Mar in 1486, and died unmarried on the 

nth of March I502-3. 41 

33. Acts of Parliaments, ii. 207, 37; Exchequer Rolls, vii., Preface, 
210, 211, 269, 270; Treasurers' Ac- 34. See above, Nos. 4, 34. 
counts, i., Preface, 68; Exchequer 38. Treasurers' Accounts, i., Pre- 
Rolls, x., Preface, 38, 39. face, 64. 

34. Treasurers' Accounts, i., Pre- 39. See below, James IV., pp. 
face, 68, 69; Exchequer Rolls, x., 213-223. 

Preface, 38, 39. 40. Treasurers' Accounts, i. Ixiv, 

35. #ee above, Nos. 3 and 34. Ixv; ii. 415; Reg. Mag. Sig., bk. ' 

36. Reg. Mag. Sig., bk. xiii., No. xiv., No. 158; Acts of Parliaments, 
251, 6 Apr. 1496; Treasurers' Ac- ii. 181, 29 Jan. 1487; Exchequer 
counts, i., Preface, 74; Exchequer Rolls, xii., Preface, 32; Ancient Scot- 
Rolls, x., Preface, 39 ; Reg. Cambus- tish Seals, i. 148, No. 875, andPLxx., I 
kenneth, Preface, 131. fig. 3 ; Scottish Bishops, 32, 33. 

37. Auchinleck Chronicle, 21, 57; 41. Treasurers' Accounts, vol. i.,j 
Treasurers' Accouuts, i., Preface, Preface, pp. 64, 65. 



1488] 



JAMES THE THIRD 



211 






NOTES 

Copper Coins. King Jaines III. seems to have been 
the first king of Scots who instituted a copper coinage. 42 

A Portrait of King James III. is reproduced as a 
frontispiece to vol. i. of A History of Scotland, by Andrew 
Lang, where it is inscribed ' James III. and his son, after- 
wards James IV. From the painting in Holyrood Palace.' 
[The young man kneeling behind the king is his brother 
Alexander, heir-presumptive to the Crown from 1460 to 
1472-3, and is not his son.] 43 



42. Acts of Parliaments, ii. p. 86, 
No. 12, 9th October 1466. 

43. See above, p. 201, note 39 ; p. 
207, No. 17, and Proceedings of the 



Society of Antiquaries of Scotland, 
iii. 8-22 (1857), and x. 310-324 (1872). 
[King James III. was only 18 years 
and 3 days old when he married.] 



A TABLE OF REGNAL YEARS 



1st began 3 Aug. 1460, 
ended 2 Aug. 1461. 


10th began 3 Aug. 1469, 
ended 2 Aug. 1470. 


2nd began 3 Aug. 1461, 
ended 2 Aug. 1462. 


llth began 3 Aug. 1470, 
ended 2 Aug. 1471. 


3rd began 3 Aug. 1462, 
ended 2 Aug. 1463. 


12th began 3 Aug. 1471, 
ended 2 Aug. 1472. 


4th began 3 Aug. 1463, 
ended 2 Aug. 1464. 


13th began 3 Aug. 1472, 
ended 2 Aug. 1473. 


5th began 3 Aug. 1464, 
ended 2 Aug. 1465. 


14th began 3 Aug. 1473, 
ended 2 Aug. 1474. 


6th began 3 Aug. 1465, 
ended 2 Aug. 1466. 


15th began 3 Aug. 1474, 
ended 2 Aug. 1475. 


7th began 3 Aug. 1466, 
ended 2 Aug. 1467. 


16th began 3 Aug. 1475, 
ended 2 Aug. 1476. 


8th began 3 Aug. 1467, 
ended 2 Aug. 1468. 


17th began 3 Aug. 1476, 
ended 2 Aug. 1477. 


9th began 3 Aug. 1468, 
ended 2 Aug. 1469. 


18th began 3! Aug. 1477, 
ended 2 Aug. 1478. 



212 



JAMES THE THIRD 



[1488 



A TABLE OF REGNAL YEARS continued. 



19th began 3 Aug. 1478, 
ended 2 Aug. 1479. 

20th began 3 Aug. 1479, 
ended 2 Aug. 1480. 

21st began 3 Aug. 1480, 
ended 2 Aug. 1481. 



22nd began 3 Aug. 1481, 
ended 2 Aug. 1482. 

23rd began 3 Aug. 1482, 
ended 2 Aug. 1483. 

Only 10 months and 9 days of the 28th year. 



24th began 3 Aug. 1483, 
ended 2 Aug. 1484. 

25th began 3 Aug. 1484, 
ended 2 Aug. 1485. 

26th began 3 Aug. 1485, 
ended 2 Aug. 1486. 

27th began 3 Aug. 1486, 
ended 2 Aug. 1487. 



28th began 3 Aug. 1487, 
ended n June 1488. 



CONTEMPORARY SOVEREIGNS 



KINGS OF ENGLAND 

House of Lancaster. 

'Red Rose' 

HENRY VI. 

1422-1461. 

House of York. 

'White Rose' 

EDWARD IV. 

1461-1483. 

HENRY VI. 

was restored from 9th 

October 1470 to i4th 

April 1471. 

EDWARD V. 

1483- 
RICHARD III. 

1483-1485. 
House of Tudor. 

Union of 

Red and White Roses. 

HENRY VII 

1485-1509. 



KINGS OF FRANCE 

CHARLES VII. 

' le Victorieux ' 

1422-1461. 

Louis XL 
1461-1483. 

CHARLES VIII. 
1483-1498. 



POPES 

Pius II. 44 
1458-1464. 
Began the year 
sometimes ist January, 
sometimes 25th March, 
sometimes 25th December. 

PAUL II. 

1464-1471. 

Began the year 

25th March. 

SIXTHS IV. 
1471-1484. 

INNOCENT VIII. 

1484-1492- 
Began the year 
sometimes ist January, 
sometimes 25th March, 
sometimes 2^th December. 



44. See above, p. 204, No. 56. 



1488] 213 



JAMES THE FOUETH 

(STEWART) 

KING OF SCOTS 

14881513 

Reign began nth June 1488, 
ended 9th September 1513, 
lasted 25 years 2 months and 30 days. 

James the Fourth (Stewart). ' King of Scots/ ' Knight of 
the Garter.' He wore an iron chain or girdle round his 
waist after his father's death. 1 

Eldest Son of James III., king of Scots, by his wife 
Margaret, daughter of Christiern I., king of Denmark. 2 

Born 1 7th March 1 472-3.3 

Brought by the Rebel Lords from Stirling Castle to take 
part against his father, 2nd February I487-8. 4 

Present with the Rebel Lords against his father, King 
James III., at Blackness, about the middle of May 1488, 
and at the battle of Sauchieburn, nth June I488. 5 



1. Nat. MSS. iii., No. vin., * James, 3. Treasurers' Accounts, i., Pre- 
the illustrious king of Scots'; Acts face, 45, 46; Exchequer Rolls, viii., 
of Parliaments, ii. 199 ; Diplomata Preface, 53 ; Proceedings Society of 
Scotiae, Pis. LXXXV. seal, and CLXII. Antiquaries, 9 June 1873, x - 3 : 5' 
coins ; Ancient Scottish Seals, i. 12, 4. Acts of Parliaments, ii. 222, 223, 
13, Nos. 51-54; Leslie, bk. viii. 107, No. 25; Treasurers' Accounts, i., 
c. 104, 'an yrne chaynzie'; p. 123, Preface, 67, also note 2; Leslie, bk. 
' protectour of the Christine fayth ' ; viii. 104, c. 103 ; Pitscottie, 87, 88. 
Pitscottie, 96, 118. See below, p. 5. Acts of Parliaments, ii. 222, 
217, note 25. 223, No. 25 ; Treasurers' Accounts, 

2. Treasurers' Accounts, i., Pre- i., Preface, 67, and note 2; Pitscot- 
face, 45, 46. tie, 89 ; Leslie, bk. viii. 107, c. 104. 



214 JAMES THE FOURTH [1488 

REIGN BEGAN IITH JUNE 1488. 

King of Scots. James IV. became king of Scots on the 

death of his father, King James III., i ith June I488. 6 
Aged 15 years 2 months and 26 days when he succeeded 

his father. 7 

Crowned. King James IV. was crowned at Scone, on or 
about the 26th of June I488. 8 

Rebellion. The Earl of Lennox and Lord Lyle, with 
their adherents, were defeated by Lord Drummond, at 
Gartalunane, about the I2th of October 1489^ 

Naval Engagement. The Scots, under Sir Andrew 
Wood of Largo, in the ships ' Flower ' and ' Yellow Carvel/ 
defeated the English in the Firth of Forth, near Dunbar, 
and took five English ships as prizes into Leith, in I489. 10 
Drummond and Murray Feud. The Drummonds, led 
by David, second son of Lord Drummond, burned one 
hundred and twenty Hurrays in the church of Monivaird 
in Stratherne. They were tried at Stirling in October 
I490. 11 

William Caxton, the first English printer, born in Kent 
about 1422, set up a printing-press at Westminster about 
1476; and, after he had printed sixty-four books, died in 
I49I-2. 12 

Glasgow an Archbishopric. The see of Glasgow was 
made an archbishopric, with the bishops of Dunkeld, 

6. Treasurers' Accounts, i., Pre- i., Preface, 88-95 ;Nisbet's Heraldry, 
face, 68, 69; Leslie, bk. viii. c. 104, ii., Appendix, 89, letter from King 
107 ; Pitscottie, 95. James IV., 22 Sep. 1490; Leslie, bk. 

7. See above, p. 213, No. 3. viii. 108, c. 104. 

8. Leslie, 109, bk. viii. 1. 4; Trea- 10. Exchequer Rolls, x. 571, 
surers' Accounts, i., Preface, 73, 74; captain of the king's ship 'Flour'; 
Exchequer Rolls, x., Preface, 40; xiii., Preface, 180; Pitscottie, 99, 
Proceedings Society of Antiquaries, loo. 

9 June 1873, x - 3 J 5> gives the date n. Exchequer Rolls, x., Preface, 

as 26 June 1489 [wrong year]. See 50-52, and notes ; Pitscottie, 104 ; 

Reg. Mag. Sig., bk. xii., Nos. i, 10, Pitcairn, Criminal Trials, i. 101. 

17, and 1 8, 25th and 26th June 1488. 12. Dictionary of National Bio- 

9. Acts of Parliaments, ii. 223, 15 graphy, ix. 381-389; Woodward and 
Feb. 1489-90 ; Treasurers' Accounts, Cates, 297. 



1513] JAMES THE FOURTH 215 

Dunblane, Candida Casa (Whithorn), and Lismore as 
suffragans, by Bull of Pope Innocent VIII., dated at St. 
Peter's in Rome, Qth January I49I-2. 13 

Blind Harry seems to have written his poem, ' Schir 
William Wallace,' about 1460, and to have died in, or soon 
after I492. 14 

Aberdeen University was instituted ' in Old Aberdeen/ 
and Bishop William Elphinston was appointed its first 
Chancellor, by Bull of Pope Alexander VI., dated St. 
Peter's, in Rome, loth February I494-5. 15 

Education. Parliament enacted that 'all barons and 
freeholders shall put their eldest sons to a grammar-school 
from the age of eight or nine until they be competently 
grounded, and have perfect Latin. And thereafter to 
remain three years at the schools of art and law,' isth 
June I496. 16 

Perkin Warbeck, who asserted that he was Richard, 
duke of York, arrived at Stirling, 2Oth November 1495 ; 
married Lady Katherine Gordon, 'The White Rose,' in 
January 1495-6; accompanied King James IV. in an inva- 
sion of England, I9th September 1496; and left Scotland, 
6th July I497. 17 

John, Earl of Ross, Lord of the Isles, was deprived of 
his lands by sentence of Parliament in May 1493, and 

13. Acts of Parliaments, ii. 213, Aberdeen, 21 Aug. 1498; Exchequer 
No. 2, 26 Jan. 1488-9; Theiner, 505, Rolls, xi., Preface, 34-36. See also 
506, No. 889 ; Reg. Epis. Glasguen- Theiner, pp. 508, 509, No. 894. 

sis, ii. 470-473, Nos. 457, 458. See : 6. Acts of Parliaments, ii. 238, 
also below, Map No. m. I3 j une 1496 ; Leslie, bk. viii. 110, 

14. Treasurers' Accounts, i., Pre- in, c. 104. 

face, 99, 100; Schir William Wai- i; . Treasurers' Accounts, i., Pre- 

lace (Scottish Text Society), i. pre- face , 121-131, 138-142, 152-154, exe- 

fatory note, p. iv. cuted at Tyburn, 23 Nov. 1499 ; 

15. Nat. MSS., iii., No, viii., fac- Exchequer Rolls, xi., Preface, 53- 
simile, transcript, and translation of 62 ; Annals of England, 277, and 
the Papal Bull ; Reg. Mag. Sig., bk. note, pp. 279-281, Perkin or Richard 
xiii., No. 260, 22 May 1497 ; No. 323, was ' hanged and quartered at 
19 Aug. 1498 ; Nos. 324, 325, 21 Tyburn, 23 Nov. 1499 ' [a long 
Aug. 1498; History of Aberdeen, account]; Leslie, bk. viii. 111-116, 
3-7, charter and ratification of Old c. 104. 



216 JAMES THE FOURTH [1488 

became a pensioner of the king. He appears to have died 
in the monastery at Paisley in I4Q8. 18 

A Papal Dispensation for the marriage of King James IV. 
with Margaret Tudor, eldest daughter of Henry VII, king 
of England, was granted by Pope Alexander VI., dated 
Rome, 28th July isoo. 19 

Married. James IV., king of Scots, married Margaret 
Tudor, eldest daughter of Henry VII., king of England, in 
the Abbey Church at Holyrood, 8th August I5O3. 20 

Second Naval Engagement. The Scots, under Sir 
Andrew Wood of Largo, in two ships, the ' Flower ' and 
' Yellow Carvel,' defeated the English under Stephen Bull. 
Sir Andrew took Bull a prisoner, and his three ships as 
prizes, into Dundee, in 1 5O4. 21 

The College of Surgeons was constituted by act of the 
Town Council of Edinburgh, ist July I5O5. 22 

Christopher Columbus, born at Genoa about 1440, 
discovered San Salvador, one of the Bahama Islands, 
1 2th October 1492; and the mainland of South America 
in 1498 ; he died at Valladolid in Spain, 2Oth May I5o6. 23 

The Royal College of Surgeons. The act of the Town 
Council of Edinburgh was confirmed, and the constitution 
. of the Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh was ratified 
by King James IV., on the I3th of October I5o6. 24 



1 8. Exchequer Rolls, x., Preface, fication of the queen's dowry; An- 
56-59, and notes; also ix. 123, and nals of England, 277, note k; Pit- 
x. 534 ; Treasurers' Accounts, i. 233, scottie, 105, Aug. 1 504 [wrong year] ; 
235, 266, 308. Leslie, bk. viii. 118-121, c. 104. 

19. Foedera, xii. 765, also 776, 21. Pitscottie, 100-102; Exchequer 
787, treaty of marriage; Exchequer Rolls, x. 571, captain of the king's 
Rolls, xii., Preface, 50, table of their ship 'Flour' ; xiii., Preface, 180. 
consanguinity. 22. The original deed is in the 

20. Fcedera, xii. 572, commission ; safe of the Royal College of Surgeons, 
765, Papal dispensation; 776, 777, Edinburgh. For Doctors, see Ex- 
787; Reg. Mag. Sig., bk. xiv., No. chequer Rolls, xii. 106; xiii., Pre- 
129; see printed ed., p. 588, No. face, 105, and pp. 75, 79, 96, no. 
2772, and Index, p. 905 ; Exchequer 23. Woodward and Gates, 356 ; 
Rolls, xii., Preface, pt. iii. 49-54; Haydn's Dates, America, pp. 37, 38. 
Leland, Collectanea, iv. 258 ; Acts See also above, p. 9, No. 49. 

of Parliaments, ii. 240, 271-273, rati- 24, Privy Seal Register, iii. 73. 



1513] JAMES THE FOURTH 217 

A Sword of State. Pope Julius II. sent a sword and 
hat to James IV., king of Scots, at Christmas 1506. [The 
sword is now (1906) in the Crown Room in Edinburgh 
Castle.] The sword and hat were presented to King James 
at Holyrood on ihe 3ist of March iso?. 25 

Printing. The exclusive privilege of printing was 
granted to Walter Chepman and Andro Millar, on the 
1 5th of September ISO/. 26 

The First Book Printed in Scotland [the earliest now 
extant] is ' The Maying and Disport of Chaucer,' ' imprinted 
in the south gait of Edinburgh be Walter Chepman and 
Androw My liar,' 4th April isoS. 27 

Henry VIII., brother-in-law of King James IV., suc- 
ceeded to the throne of England, 2ist April 15 ex?. 28 

Third Naval Engagement. The English, under Lord 
Howard, defeated the Scots under Andrew Barton, who 
was killed, when his two ships, 'The Lion' and 'The 
Jenny Pirwin,' were taken in the Downs, in August 
15 1 1. 29 

1 The Great Michael,' a ship of 240 feet long, with 35 big 
guns, 300 small artillery, 300 sailors, 120 gunners, and 1000 
soldiers, was built for King James IV. in 15 n. 30 

25. Epistolae Regum Scotorum, 27. Advocates' Library, Edinburgh, 
vol. i. p. 82, No. xliij ; Treasurers' H. 30, a. I. pp. 109-135. 
Accounts, vol. iii. p. 380, xj. Aprile 2g Notitia Historicaj 26 . Chrono . 
[I5o7]tothepapes embassat quhilk j of History> 333 . Anna i s of 
brocht the sword and hat, vij', lib.' ; England> 2 ^ y burie d at Westmin- 
Proceedings Soc. of Antiquaries, vol. ster Legliej bk> viii I3O> c< IO4< 
xxiv. [1890-1] pp. 112-115; Leslie, ... 

bk. viii. 123, 124, c. 104, 'Pope Julius 2 9- Exchequer Rolls, xm., Pre- 
11, directs a legate to the king to face > 6 5 ' in the beginning of August 
declare him Protector of the Christian I 5 11 '; Leslie, bk. viii. 135, c. 104, 
Faith, and in token of this declara- June X S" see also bk " viii ' W> : 3 2 > 
tion, sends to the king a purple crown letter of Kin James , V ' ; Annals of 
set with golden flowers, and a sword England, 287, '1510. 
with scabbard and guard of gold, 30. Exchequer Rolls, xiii., Pre- 
set with precious stones.' [King face, 180, 181 ; xiv., Preface, 77, 78, 
James IV., in his letter, thanks the 136, 137, sold for 40,000 crowns [or 
Pope for the sword and hat, but francs?], 2 Apr. 1514; Annals of 
makes no mention of a title.] Commerce, ii. 42; Pitscottie, 107, 

26. Reg. Sec. Sig., lib. iii. foL 129. 108 ; Leslie, bk. viii. 122, c. 104. 



218 



JAMES THE FOURTH 



[1488- 



William Dunbar (Poet), born in Lothian about 1460; 
Master of Arts in 1479 : friar of the Order of St. Francis ; 
was court poet to King James IV. from about the year 
1500 until the king's death, pth September I5i3. 31 

The Battle of Flodden. The English, under the Earl 
of Surrey, totally defeated the Scots under King James IV. 
The Scots lost their king, i archbishop, i bishop, 2 abbots, 
i dean, 1 3 earls, about the same number of lords, 3 High- 
land chiefs, many lairds, altogether about 10,000 men 
killed. The battle was fought at Flodden, near Branxton 
in Northumberland, 9th September I5I3. 32 

Slain. King James the Fourth was slain at the battle of 
Flodden in Northumberland, 9th September 15 13- 33 

Aged 40 years 5 months and 24 days. 34 

Buried, it is supposed, in the monastery at Sheen, near 
Richmond in Surrey. 35 

His Reign lasted 25 years 2 months and 30 days. 36 

REIGN ENDED 9TH SEPTEMBER 1513. 



31. [He seems to have been one 
of the Dunbars of Bele, cadets of 
the earls of Dunbar and March. Sir 
Walter Scott calls him the Scottish 
Chaucer.'] The Poems of William 
Dunbar, by David Laing, 1834; the 
Poems of William Dunbar, Scottish 
Text Society, 1883-1893; the Poems 
of William Dunbar, by Professor J. 
Schipper, Vienna, 1891-1894. 

32. Nat. MSS. of England, ii., Nos. 
ii. -vi., accounts of the battle of 
Flodden ; Gazette of the Battle of 
Flodden, MS. in the Heralds' College, 
London ; Theiner, 511, 512, No. 899 ; 
Exchequer Rolls, xiii., Preface, 187- 
189 ; xiv., Preface, 37, 38; Appendix 
to Preface, 162-164; Leslie, bk. viii. 
145-147,0. 104; Pitscottie, 116-118; 
Proceedings Society of Antiquaries, 
ii Mar. 1867, vii. 141-152; Dunbar's 
Poems (Laing), i., Supplement, 287- 



292, * King James the Fourth at 
Flodden'; Pinkerton, ii. 456-458, 
Appendix, No. x. ; Tytler, iv. 435, 
Notes and Illustrations, Letter A. 
Battle of Flodden. 

33. Nat. MSS. of England, ii., Nos. 
ii. -vi., account of the battle of 
Flodden ; Theiner, 511, 512, No. 899 ; 
Pitscottie, 118; Exchequer Rolls, 
xiii., Preface, 188. 

34. See above, Nos. 3 and 33. 

35. Chronicle of England, Stowe 
ed., 1631, p. 494; Theiner, 511, 512, 
No. 899, Henry VIII., king of Eng- 
land, applied to Pope Leo X. for 
leave to bury King James's body in 
St. Paul's Cathedral in London; 
Fo3dera, xiii. 385, the application 
was granted; Dunbar's Poems (Laing), 
i. Supplement, 290, 291 ; Annals of 
England, 287, note c. 

36. See above, Nos. 6 and 33. 



JAMES THE FOURTH 



219 



ISSUE 

King James the Fourth had by his wife, Margaret Tudor, four 
sons, viz. : James, Arthur, James, and Alexander ; and two 
daughters, both of whom died in infancy. 37 

(i.) James, born at Holyrood House, 2ist February 1506-7 ; 

died 2yth February 1 507-8. 38 

(n.) A Daughter, born i5th July 1508; died soon after 

her baptism. 39 

(in.) Arthur, born at Holyrood House, 2oth October 1509; 

died 1 4th July i5io. 40 

(IV.) James, Prince of Scotland and of the Isles, born 

at Linlithgow, loth April 1512; king of Scots as King 

James V. from gth September 1513 to i4th December I542. 41 

(v.) A Daughter, born in 1512-1513; died soon after her 

baptism. 42 



37. Exchequer Rolls, xiii. , Preface, 
84-86. 

38. Leslie, bk. viii. 123, c. 104, 
born 21 Feb. ; 126, died 27 Feb. ; 
Exchequer Rolls, xiii., Preface, 84, 
born 21 Feb. 1507 ; 53, 85, died 'at 
Stirling, I7th February 1508 ' [error] ; 
' A date confirmed.' [This is wrong : 
the charter at p. 40, which is recorded 
in the Great Seal Register, bk. xiv. , 
No. 462 (printed ed., p. 684, No. 
3204), only proves that the prince 
was dead, 9 Mar. 1507-8 ; it does not 
' confirm the date. ' The 27th seems 
to have been the date of the prince's 
death.] 

39. Leslie, bk. viii. 129, c. 104, 
daughter born 15 July, died imme- 
diately after baptism ; Exchequer 
Rolls, xiii., Preface, 85, birth and 
death; 53, died 1508; 64, 'born 27 
June.' [This is evidently an error.] 

40. Leslie, bk. viii. 133, c. 104, 
born 20 Oct. ; 134, died 14 July ; 
Exchequer Rolls, xiii., Preface, 64, 
65, born 20 Oct. 1509 ; p. 85, born 20 



Oct. 1509, died I3th [wrong?] July 
1510 ; p. 53, died in October 1510. 
[This last date is certainly wrong.] 

41. Epist. Reg. Scot., i. I4i,?born 
on Easter Eve [ i o Apr. ] 1 5 1 2 ; Leslie, 
bk. viii. 137, c. 104, born Apr. 15 ; 
note *, born Apr. n, 1512; Pit- 
scottie, 107, a son born in May 1511 ; 
Exchequer Rolls, xiii., Preface, 68, 
born 10 Apr., Preface, 85, born n 
Apr., Easter Eve, 1512. [Easter 
Eve was the loth, not the nth Apr. 
in 1512.] See below, James V., 
pp. 224-245. 

42. Leslie, bk. viii. 138, c. 104, 
born, baptized, and died 1513 ; Ex- 
chequer Rolls, xiii., Preface, 85, 
born in November 1512. [This would 
leave only 7 months' interval between 
her birth and that of her immediate 
elder brother, King James V. It 
seems more probable that she was 
born in 1512-13 about half-way be- 
tween the births of her brothers, the 
younger James and Alexander.] 



220 JAMES THE FOURTH [1488 

(vi.) Alexander, duke of Ross, born in Stirling Castle after 
his father's death, and died before he was two years of age ; 
buried at Cambuskenneth. 43 
King James the Fourth had several illegitimate children; the 

names of Alexander and Catherine, James, Margaret, and Janet 

appear in the Records : 44 

(vn.) Alexander Stewart, born about 1493 son f Margaret 
Boyd, who was a daughter of Archibald Boyd of Bonshaw 
made archbishop of St. Andrews, ' though under the age of 
puberty,' in or before July 1505; went abroad in 1505; 
studied under Erasmus at Padua in 1508; returned in 1509; 
appointed Chancellor of Scotland in 1510; slain at Flodden, 
on the 9th of September I5i3- 45 

(vni.) Catherine daughter of Margaret Boyd married to 
James Douglas, 3rd earl of Morton. 46 

(ix.) James Stewart, born about 1499 son of Janet Kennedy, 
who was daughter of John, 2nd Lord Kennedy created 
earl of Moray, i2th June 1501; lieutenant-general of the 
Kingdom, 1535 ; ne married Lady Elisabeth Campbell, only 
daughter of Colin, 3rd earl of Argyll, and died without male 
issue, 1 2th June 1544. He had an only daughter : 47 

Mary, married to John Stewart, Master of Buchan. 48 
(x.) Margaret Stewart, born about 1497 daughter of Mar- 
garet Drummond, who was the daughter of John, ist Lord 
Drummond married, first, to John, Lord Gordon, by whom 

43. Leslie, bk. ix. 150,0. 105, born notes; Peerage of Scotland, i. 51, 
in Stirling Castle after his father's 52. 

death; 161, 'The kinges brother, 45. Treasurers' Accounts, i., Pre- 

Alexander, Duke of Rothesaii' [error face, 164, note 3; Exchequer Rolls, 

for Ross], died in Stirling, 14 Feb. xii., Preface, 40-43 ; xiii., Preface, 

1515-16; note *, died i8th Dec.; 86-92, 188 ; Leslie, bk. viii. 133, c. 

Diurnal of Occurrents, 4, buried at 104 ; Ancient Scottish Seals, i. 148, 

Cambuskenneth ; Exchequer Rolls, No. 876 ; Scottish Bishops, 33, 34 ; 

xiii., Preface, 86, born 13 Apr. 1514, Peerage of Scotland, i. 51, note, 

created Duke of Rothesay [error for 46. Peerage of Scotland, i. 51, note; 

Ross], died 18 Dec. 1515 ; xiv., Pre- ii. 269. 

face, 41, 'Earl of Ross died 1514' 47. Exchequer Rolls, xii. , Preface, 

[Duke, not Earl of Ross, and his birth, 43-48 ; Reg. Mag. Sig. , bk. xiii. , No. 

not his death, was in 1514] ; 52, 54, 517, 12 June 1501 ; Ancient Scottish 

58, born Apr. 30,1514. [No author- Seals, i. 135, No. 807; Peerage of 

ity is given for this date.] Scotland, ii. 254. 

44. Exchequer Rolls, xii., Preface, 48. Peerage of Scotland, ii. 254, 
39-49 ; xiii., Preface, 86-92, and also i. 268, iv. (no issue). 






ISI3] JAMES THE FOURTH 221 

she was mother of the 4th earl of Huntly. She was married, 

secondly, to Sir John Drummond of Innerpeffry. 49 

(xi.) Janet (or Jean) daughter of Isabella Stewart, who 

was daughter of James, earl of Buchan married to Malcolm, 

3rd Lord Fleming. 50 

Margaret Tudor's Second Marriage. Margaret, widow of 

James IV., king of Scots, was married, secondly, in August 

1514, to Archibald Douglas, 6th earl of Angus, from whom 

she procured a divorce, in March 1526. By the earl of Angus 

she had an only daughter : 51 

Lady Margaret Douglas, born at Harbottle in October 
1515; married to Matthew Stewart, 4th earl of Lennox, 
6th July 1544; died at Hackney, gth March 1577-8, 
Their eldest son : 52 

Henry Stewart, Lord Darnley, born 7th December 1545 ; 

married, as her second husband, Mary Queen of Scots, 

29th July 1565 ; and was murdered soon after midnight 

between the gih and loth of February 1 566-7. 53 

Margaret Tudor's Third Marriage. Margaret, widow of 

King James IV., was married, thirdly, in March 1526, to 

Henry Stewart, who was created Lord Methven, i7th July 

1528. Margaret Tudor had no issue by her third marriage. 

She died at Methven, i8th October 1541, and was buried in 

the Carthusian monastery at Perth. 54 

49. [Her mother, Margaret Drum- p. 59, 'born at Harbottle, 30 Oct.' 
mond, is supposed to have been 1515 ; Leslie, bk. ix. 159, c. 105, born 
poisoned in 1502.] Treasurers' Ac- at Harbottle; Pitscottie, 128, born 
counts,!., Preface, 132-134, Appendix in England ; p. 183, married; Peerage 
to Preface, 290 ; Exchequer Rolls, of Scotland, i. 437 ; ii. 97, 98 ; Knox, 
xii., Preface, 48, 49; Peerage of i. bk. i. 124, note I. 

Scotland, i. 51, note ; 647, and note. 53. Exchequer Rolls, xiv., Preface, 

50. Peerage of Scotland, i. 52% last 59; Peerage of Scotland, i. 52; ii. 
note; ii. 633, note t, and p. 634. &' See below, Mary, pp. 254-255, 

51. Ancient Scottish Seals, i. 13, 54. "Exchequer Rolls, xiv. , Preface, 
No. 55, seal [wrong date of mar- sg . Lesli6j bk ix 2 ^ 2 ^ c 1Q5 . 
nage] ; Exchequer Rolls, xiv., Pre- p itsco ttie, 132 ; Peerage of Scotland, 
face, 59, 70 ; Leslie, bk. ix. 151, c. L I59> Lord Avandale . iL 229> Lord 
105, 6 Aug. ; bk. ix. 206, 'publiklie Methven . Fleming's Chronicle, Ad- 
parted'; Pitscottie, 120, 132; Peer- vocates > Library MSB., No. 35, 4. 4. 
age of Scotland, i. 436, 4 37- fol. 3 . Chronicle of Perth, 2, a<> 1541. 

52. Exchequer Rolls, xiv., Preface, See also below, James V., p. 229, No. 
42, * born at Harbottle, 18 Oct. 1515'; 24, and p. 236, No. 55. 



222 



JAMES THE FOURTH 



[1488 



A TABLE OF REGNAL YEARS 



1st began 11 June 1488, 
ended 10 June 1489. 


14th began n June 1501, 
ended 10 June 1502. 


2nd began 11 June 1489, 
ended 10 June 1490. 


15th began 1 1 June 1 502, 
ended 10 June 1503. 


3rd began n June 1490, 
ended 10 June 1491. 


16th began u June 1503, 
ended 10 June 1504. 


4th began n June 1491, 
ended 10 June 1492. 


17th began 1 1 June 1 504, 
ended 10 June 1505. 


5th began n June 1492, 
ended 10 June 1493. 


18th began 1 1 June 1 505, 
ended 10 June 1506. 


6th began n June 1493, 
ended 10 June 1494. 


19th began 1 1 June 1 506, 
ended 10 June 1507. 


7th began n June 1494, 
ended 10 June 1495. 


20th began 1 1 June 1 507, 
ended 10 June 1508. 


8th began 11 June 1495, 
ended 10 June 1496. 


21st began 1 1 June 1 508, 
ended 10 June 1509. 


9th began n June 1496, 
ended 10 June 1497. 


22nd began 1 1 June 1 509, 
ended 10 June 1510. 


10th began n June 1497, 
ended 10 June 1498. 


23rd began n June 1510, 
ended 10 June 1511. 


llth began 11 June 1498, 
ended 10 June 1499. 


24th began n June 1511, 
ended 10 June 1512. 


12th began 1 1 June 1499, 
ended 10 June 1500. 


25th began n June 1512, 
ended 10 June 1513. 


13th began 1 1 June 1 500, 
ended 10 June 1501. 


26th began u June 1513, 
ended 9 Sep. 1513. 


Only 2 months and 30 days of the twenty-sixth year. 



1513] JAMES THE FOURTH 223 

CONTEMPORARY SOVEREIGNS 

KINGS OF ENGLAND KINGS OF FRANCE POPES 

House of Tudor. CHARLES VIII. INNOCENT VIII. 

Union of 1483-1498. 1484-1492. 

Red and White Roses. Began the year 

HENRY VII. Valois-Orleans sometimes ist January, 

1485-1509. Louis XII. sometimes 25th March, 

'le Pere du Peuple' sometimes 25th December. 
HENRY VIII. 1498-1515. 

1509-1547. ALEXANDER VI. 

1492-1502. 

Papal See vacant i year 
i month and 4 days. 
1502-1503. 

Pius III. 
1503- 

JULIUS II. 
i 53-i5 13. 

LEoX. 
1513-1521. 



224 



JAMES THE FIFTH 
(STEWART) 

KING OF SCOTS 



15131542 

Reign began Qth September 1513, 
ended I4th December 1542, 
lasted 29 years 3 months and 6 days. 

James the Fifth (Stewart). ' King of Scots,' ' Roy descosse/ 
* Knight of the Garter/ ' The poor man's King.' x 

Third Son of James IV., king of Scots, by his wife Margaret 
Tudor, daughter of Henry VII., and sister of Henry VIII., 
kings of England. 2 

Born at Linlithgow, loth April 1512, and baptized there on 

* Easter Day, the i ith of April 1 5 1 2. 3 



1. Acts of Parliaments, ii. 282, 12 
July 1 5 15; Nat. MSS., pt. iii., No. 
xvi., autograph letter; No. xix., 
'Le Roi descosse'; No. xxvn., 
dated 24 May 1544, King Henry 
VIII. acknowledges the receipt of the 
insignia of the Garter which belonged 
to the late king of Scots ; Ancient 
Scottish Seals, i. 13, 14, Nos. 56, 
57 ; Diplomata Scotise, Pis. LXXXVI. 
LXXXVII., seals ; PI. CLIV., gold coins ; 
PI. CLXII. , silver coins ; Leslie, bk. 
ix. 261, c. 105, 'The poor man's king.' 

2. Exchequer Rolls, xiii., Preface, 
84-86. 

3. Epis. Reg. Scot., 1. 141, born 



10 Apr. 1512 ; Leslie, bk. viii. 137, 
c. 104, born Apr. 15, note *, born 
Apr. n, 1512; Pitscottie, 107, a son 
born in May 1511 ; Exchequer Rolls, 
xiii., Preface, 68, born ' 10 Apr., the 
eve of Easter'; 85, born 'n Apr., 
Easter Eve, 1512.' [This last is 
doubly wrong ; the nth was neither 
the date of his birth, nor Easter Eve. 
The n Apr. was Easter Day in 1512.] 
Treasurers' Accounts, n Apr. 1512, 
' Item, the same day [Pasche] ' the 
prince's baptism. For ane horse and a 
man to turse [to carry off hastily] the 
cradill to Linlithqo on Pasche day 
in the mornyng, vs.' [five shillings]. 



1542] JAMES THE FIFTH 225 



REIGN BEGAN QTH SEPTEMBER 

King of Scots. James V. became king of Scots on the 
death of his father, King James IV. who was killed at 
Flodden on the Qth of September 1 5 1 3.* 

Aged i year and 5 months when he succeeded his father. 5 

Crowned at Stirling in September 1 5 1 3. 

Letter to the Pope. Henry VIII., king of England, 
wrote to Pope Leo X. that '13,000 Scots with the king 
himself [James IV.] and all the Scottish nobility were 
slain/ and although the king of Scots was excommuni- 
cated, asked leave to have his corpse buried in St. 
Paul's Cathedral; letter dated at Tournay, I2th October 

I5I3- 7 

Regency of the Queen-Dowager. Margaret Tudor, 
widow of King James IV., appears to have assumed the 
Kegency, in compliance with her husband's will, in autumn 

I5I3- 8 

The Queen -Dowager's Second Marriage. Margaret 
Tudor, widow of King James IV., was married, secondly, 
to Archibald Douglas, 6th earl of Angus, at the chapel of 
Kinnoul, in August I5H. 9 

Albany's First Visit to Scotland. John (or Jehan), 
duke of Albany French by birth and education son of 
Alexander, duke of Albany, grandson of King James II., 
and heir-presumptive to the throne, landed at Ayr, i6th 

4. Leslie, book ix. 148, c. 105. the request; The Poems of William 

5. See above, No. 3. Dunbar (Laing), Supplement to vol. 

6. Ms. Calig., bk. iii. 14; Leslie, i. 287-292. 

bk. ix. 148, c. 105, crowned at Stir- 8. Leslie, bk. ix. 148, c. 105 ; 

ling, 21 Sep. 1513; Pitscottie, 119, Buchanan, ii. bk. xiii. 128; Pinkei - 

'crowned at Stirling the 2Oth day ton, ii. 112, also note 3. 

thereafter' [29th]; Pinkerton, ii. 9. Diurnal of Occurrents, 5 ; Les- 

112, also note 3, 'at Perth' [?]. lie, bk. ix. 151, c. 105, 6 Aug.; 

7. Theiner, 511, 512, No. 899; Buchanan, ii. bk. xiii. 128; Pitscot- 
Foedera, xiii. 385, letter from Pope tie, 120; Exchequer Rolls, xiv., 
LeoX., dated 29 Nov. 1513, granting Preface, 59, 4 Aug. 1514. 



226 



JAMES THE FIFTH 



[1513 



May 1515, and was acknowledged as Governor of Scotland, 
by Parliament at Edinburgh, I2th July I5I5- 10 

The Brothers Hume Beheaded. Alexander, lord Hume 
the Chamberlain and his brother William, were tried 
for treason and: found guilty. They were beheaded in 
Edinburgh ; Lord Hume on the 8th, and his brother on 
the 9th of October I5i6. n 

Raid in Moray. Lauchlaine Macintoshe, Ross of Kil- 
rawok, Dolace of Cantray, and others, who had wrecked 
the house of Petty or Halhill, belonging to the late Sir 
William Ogiluy of Stratherne, and had carried of all the 
furniture and stores, were ordered to make restitution, by 
Decreet of the Lords of Council, dated Edinburgh, 2$rd 
March I5I6-I/. 12 

Albany's First Return to France. John, duke of 
Albany, ' The Lord Governor,' after staying in Scotland 
about two years, sailed for France from Newark-on-the- 
Clyde, 8th June 



July 1521 ; Acts of Parliaments, ii. 
382, 383, forfeiture reversed, 12 Aug. 
1522, ratified by the king, 12 Mar. 
1540-1 (in Acts, 14 Mar. 1540-1); 
Buchanan, ii. bk. xiv. 138, ii and 
12 Oct. ; Pinkerton, ii. 160 ; Exche- 
quer Rolls, xiv., Preface, 90-92. 

12. Miscellany of the Spalding 
Club, ii. 77-80, The 'Decreet of 
Spulzie,' contains a list of the things 
carried off beds, chairs, linen, meal, 
malt, wheat, cheese, butter, meat, 
wine of Alicante, Muscade, and Cap- 
rik, a barrel of soap, 2000 tallow- 
candles, a barrel of gunpowder, 
armour, 24 halberts, 18 swords, 10 
dozen arrows, 26 women's gowns, 16 
horses, etc. 

13. [Two years and twenty-three 
days ;] Leslie, bk. ix. 167, c. 105, 
8 June (1517), sailed from Newark, 
' besyd Dumbartane ' ; Pitscottie, 
128; Buchanan, ii. bk. xiv. 139; 
Pinkerton, ii. 167; Exchequer Rolls, 



10. Acts of Parliaments, ii. 282, 
12 July 1515 ; 283, his father's 
divorce ; App. 3, p. 388, divorce ; 
App. 8, p. 394, regency ; Reg. Mag. 
Sig.,bk. xix., No. 149, 13 Nov. 1516; 
Scottish Bishops, 149, Alexander 
Stewart, bishop of Moray, brother 
of Albany ; Diurnal of Occurrents, 
5, at the Whitsonday (27 May) ; 
Leslie, bk. ix. 156, c. 105, 16 May, 
at Ayr; note, 17 May; Edinburgh, 
26 May; Pitscottie, 122-124; Bu- 
chanan, ii. bk. xiv. 133, Dunbarton, 
20 May 1515; 137, 'could not so 
much as speak the language of the 
country'; Pinkerton, ii. 132, 133; 
Peerage of Scotland, i. 59, 60 ; Ex- 
chequer Rolls, xiv., Preface, pp. 29, 
30, 42, 43, 65-67, etc. 

11. Leslie, bk. ix. 165, c. 105, 8 
Oct. 1516 ; 177, 178, their heads 
taken down, 21 July 1520; Diurnal 
of Occurrents, 7, 8th, and 9th Oct. 
1516; their heads taken down, 20 



1542] 



JAMES THE FIFTH 



227 



De la Bastie Murdered. The Humes of Wedderburn 
and their followers murdered Antony de la Bastie, Warden 
of the East March, at Battie's Bog, near Dunbar, on the 
1 9th or 2oth of September isi/. 14 

' Cleanse the Causeway ' was the popular name applied 
to the fight in which Archibald Douglas, 6th earl of Angus, 
and his partisans defeated James Hamilton, earl of Arran, 
and his followers, in the High Street of Edinburgh, on the 
3<Dth of April I52O. 15 

Albany's Second Visit to Scotland. John, duke of 
Albany, ' The Lord Governor/ returned to Scotland from 
France, after an absence of about four years and a half, 
and landed at the Gareloch on the Clyde, on the ipth of 
November i52i. 16 

Albany's Second Return to France. John, duke of 
Albany, ' The Lord Governor,' left Scotland after a stay of 
eleven months, and returned to France, leaving Dumbar- 
ton, 25th October I522. 17 

Jedburgh Burned. The Earl of Surrey, with 9000 men, 



xiv. , Preface, 29, 43, 44, 7 June 
1517 ; 66, 8 June ; 71, 6 June 1517 ; 
292, from the ' 7th June exclusive ' 
[on which day he probably left Edin- 
burgh]. 

14. Leslie, bk. ix. 166, c. 105, 
Warden, i Dec. 1516 ; 170, slain, 
19 Sep. 1517 ; 171, his murderers 
executed ; Buchanan, ii. bk. xiv. 
139, 140, slain, 20 Sep. 1517 ; 
Pitscottie, 129, 130; Pinkerton, 
ii. 169, 170 ; Pitcairn's Criminal 
Trials, i. 235, note 2 ; Exchequer 
Rolls, xiv., Preface, 45, 46, 142, 
note 6. 

15. Leslie, bk. ix. 177, c. 105, 30 
Apr. 1520; Diurnal of Occurrents, 7, 
30 Apr. 1520 ; Buchanan, ii. bk. xiv. 
141, 142, 30 Apr. 1520; Pitscottie, 
121, gives a detailed account, but 
dates the event May 1515, confusing 
it with another ' strife.' See Leslie, 



bk. ix. 1 60, c, 105; Exchequer Rolls, 
xiv., Preface, 47-49, 79- 

1 6. [Four years five months and 
twelve days ;] Diurnal of Occur- 
rents, 7, came to Edinburgh, I Nov. 
1522 ; Leslie, bk. ix. 178, c. 105, 
Gareloch, 19 Nov. 1521 ; Buchanan, 
ii. bk. xiv. 142, 30 Oct. 1521 ; Pink- 
erton, ii. 187; Exchequer Rolls, xiv., 
Preface, 29, 45, 50, 19 Nov. 1521 ; 
72, note 4, his expenses began 3 
Dec. 1521. 

17. [Eleven months and seven 
days ;] Leslie, bk. ix. 178, c. 105, 19 
Nov. 1521 ; 191, returned to France 
after 6 Mar. 1522 ; Diurnal of Occur- 
rents, 8, depairtit to France, 14 
Oct. ; Buchanan, ii. bk. xiv. 144, 25 
Oct.; Pinkerton, ii. 211, 25 Oct. 
1522 ; Exchequer Rolls, xiv., Pre- 
face, 29, returned to France in the 
spring of 1523 ; p. 66, Oct. 1522. 



228 



JAMES THE FIFTH 



invaded Scotland and burned the town and the abbey of 
Jedburgh, 24th September I523. 18 

Albany's Third Visit to Scotland. John, duke of 
Albany, ' The Lord Governor/ returned to Scotland from 
France, after an absence of eleven months, and landed at 
Kirkcudbright, 24th September I523. 19 

Albany's Third Return to France. John, duke of 
Albany, ' The Lord Governor,' left Scotland for the third 
and last time, after a stay of nearly eight months. He 
embarked at Dumbarton for France, and left Scotland 
finally, 2oth May I524. 20 

Albany Ceases to be Governor. Parliament decreed 
that, as John, duke of Albany, had failed to fulfil his pro- 
mise of returning to Scotland on the ist of September, his 
office of tutory and governance had expired : Edinburgh, 
1 6th November I524. 21 

Installed as King 1 . James V., then little more than twelve 
years of age, was taken from Stirling to Edinburgh, where 
he was installed as king, by his mother and her adherents, 
26th July 1 5 24. 22 



1 8. Leslie, bk. ix. 192, c. 105 ; 
Diurnal of Occurrents, 8, 23 Sep. 
1523 ; Buchanan, ii. bk. xiv. 145, 
146, 24 Sep. ; Pinkerton, ii. 219, 
220, 24 Sep. 1523. 

19. [Exactly eleven months ;] 
Diurnal of Occurrents, 8, 23 Sep. 
1523 ; Leslie, bk. ix. 191, 192, c. 105, 
landed at Kirkculbrie, October viii. 
[this looks like a mistake of the 
transcriber, leaving out ' KaL ' as 
' viii. Kal. Oct.' is 24 Sep.] ; Pitscot- 
tie, 130 ; Buchanan, ii. bk. xiv. 145, 
146, arrived at Arran, 24 Sep. ; 
Pinkerton, ii. 221, 24 Sep. 1523. 

20. [Seven months and twenty- 
seven days ;] Diurnal of Occurrents, 
8, 20 May 1523 (four); Leslie, bk. 
ix. 197, 198, c. 105, 'spuris to the 
west cost thair in haist to ship in,' 
and ' til vs neuer agane he turned ' ; 



Buchanan, ii. bk. xiv. 1 50, 20 May ; 
Pitscottie, 131 ; Pinkerton, ii. 234. 

21. Acts of Parliaments, ii. 286, 
No. 2, 1 6 Nov. 1524; Theiner, 542, 
No. 955, 5 Oct. 1524 ; 546, No. 962, 
28 Nov. 1524, letters from James V., 
king of Scots, to Pope Clement VII. ; 
No. 963, 2 Dec. 1524, letter from 
Henry VIII., king of England, to 
Pope Clement VII. 

22. [King James V. was 12 years 
3 mouths and 17 days old on 26 July 
1524. See above, No. 3 ;] Nat. MSS. 
of England, ii. 21, No. xiv., 5 Aug. 
(1524), autograph letter from King 
James V. to King Henry VIII. ; 
Theiner, 542, No. 955, 5 Oct. 1524; 
p. 546, No. 962, 28 Nov. 1524, letters 
from James V., king of Scots, to 
Pope Clement VII. ; p. 547, No. 964, 
29th Nov. 1524, letters from Pope 



1542] 



JAMES THE FIFTH 



229 



Documents must be Signed. Parliament ordained 
that ' no faith be given in time coming to any obligation, 
bond, or other writing under a seal ' without signature and 
witnesses, 1 7th July I525. 23 

The Queen-Dowager's Third Marriage. Margaret 
Tudor, widow of King James IV., procured a divorce from 
Archibald Douglas, 6th earl of Angus, her second husband, 
and was married, thirdly, to Henry Stewart,afterwards Lord 
Methven, second son of Lord Evandale, in March I526. 24 
Assumes 'His Authority Royal.' The three Estates of the 
realm present in parliament, 'seeing that our Sovereign 
Lord is by the grace of God now come to his age of 
fourteen years, therefore declares and decerns that his 
authority royal is in his own hands, and to be exer- 
cised and used by his Highness in time to come.' At 
Edinburgh, 1 4th June I526. 25 

The Battle of Melrose. Archibald Douglas, 6th earl 
of Angus, and his adherents defeated Walter Scott of 
Branksholme and 1000 of his followers, in presence of 
the king, at Melrose, about the 24th of July 1 5 26. 26 

The Battle of Linlithgow. The Earls of Arran and 



Clement VII. to James V. , king of 
Scotland; Leslie, bk, ix. 198, c. 105, 
26 July ; Buchanan, ii. bk. xiv. 150 ; 
Pinkerton, ii. 234-241. 

23. Acts of Parliaments, ii. 295, 
No. 3, 17 July 1525 ; 377, No. 37, 
14 Mar. 1540, ratified and approved. 

24. Acts of Parliaments, ii. 292, 

10 July 1525, action of divorce ; 293, 

11 July 1525, answer by the Earl of 
Angus; 330, 5 Sep. 1528, charter 
made to Henry Stewart, Lord Meth- 
vane, ratified ; Reg. Mag. Sig. , bk. 
xxii., No. 126, 17 July 1528, charter 
to Henry Stewart; Leslie, bk. ix. 
206, c. 105, ' The Archbishop of St. 
Andrews publiklie parted thame.' 
[The queen immediately aftewards 
married Henry Stewart.] Pitscottie, 
132; Peerage of Scotland, i. 159; 



ii. 229 ; Pinkerton, ii. 275, Mar. 
1526. 

25. Acts of Parliaments, ii. 301, 
No. 2, 14 June 1526; Nat. MSS. of 
England, ii., No. 14, letter from King 
James V. to his uncle, King Henry 
VIII. , dated '5th August' (1524); 
Pinkerton, ii. 276. [The dates are 
not quite correct.] 

26. Leslie, bk. ix. 206, 207, c. 105, 
the fourth day after July 24 ; Diur- 
nal of Occurrents, 10, 24 July 1526 ; 
Pitscottie, 135, 136; Buchanan, ii. 
bk. xiv. 154, 23 July 1521 ; Pinker- 
ton, ii. 277, 25 July 1526; Knox, i. 
bk. i. 54, note 5, 25 Jan. 1526 ; Acts 
of Parliaments, ii. 312, 21 Nov. 1526, 
in favour of the Douglases ; p. 330, 5 
Sep. 1528, in favour of Walter Scott 
of Branksholme. 



230 



JAMES THE FIFTH 



Angus, with about 1 3,000 men, defeated and slew the Earl 
of Lennox, who had about 12,000 men, at Linlithgow, 4th 
September I526. 27 

The Captain of the Clan Chattan. Lachlan Mackin- 
tosh, captain of the clan Chattan, was murdered by his 
kinsman, James Malcolmson, who fled to the island of 
Loch-an-eilan, in Strathspey, where he was taken and 
hanged by the clan, sometime between the ist of August 
1521 and the 3Oth of April 1 5 27. 28 

Change of Surname. Robert Bertoun, younger of 
Ovirberntoun, about to marry Barbara, daughter and heir 
of the late John Mowbray of Bernbowgall, to be called 
Mowbray. Approved by our Sovereign Lord, with advice 
and consent of the three Estates of Parliament, at Edin- 
burgh, loth May I52?. 29 

The Abbot of Ferae Burned. Mr. Patrick Hamilton, 
abbot of Ferae, who had studied in Germany, accused and 
convicted of heresy, was burned at St. Andrews, 29th 
February I527-8. 30 



27. Diurnal of Occurrents, 10, the 
Earl of Lennox was slain at Linlith- 
gow, 4 Sep. 1526; Buchanan, ii. bk. 
xiv. 154, 155 ; Leslie, bk. ix. 208, 

209, c. 105, Arran got to Linlithgow, 
3 Sep.; Pitscottie, 137, 138; Pit- 
cairn, Criminal Trials, i. 134, Dec. 
19, 1526; Pinkerton, ii. 279, 280, 
battle, 4 Sep. 1526. 

28. Leslie, bk. ix. 210-214, c - IO 5> 

210, 1. 30, note; Miscellany of the 
Spalding Club, ii. pp. xxxiij-xxxvi ; 
pp. 77-80, a 1517. [The extract is 
dated 1571 instead of 1517, explained 
in the Preface, p. xxxv.] The Family 
of Kilravock, 187-193, 200 ; The 
Thanes of Cawdor, 139, 140, 10 Aug. 
1521; 149, 1 50 [the death of Lachlan 
must have been before 30 Apr. 1527, 
on which day Hector signs 'with 
my hand at the pen,' as Captain of 
the Clan Chattane] ; History of the 
Earldom of Sutherland, 99, 100, a 



1526; History of the Province of 
Moray, 125, 126, a 1524 ; Pinkerton, 
ii. 286, a 1527. 

29. Acts of Parliaments, ii. 320, 
321, 10 May 1527; Reg. Mag. Sig., 
bk. xxiv., No. 109, 28 July 1531. 
[The lady's Christian name, which is 
omitted in the Act of Parliament, is 
given in the charter. Another case 
of changing a surname occurs half a 
century later. See Acts of Parlia- 
ments, iii. 232, No. 46, 29 Nov. 1581, 
Edward Maxwell becomes Edward 
Baillie of Lamington.] 

30. Leslie, bk. ix. 215, 216, c. 105, 
a 1527; Diurnal of Occurrents, 10, 
last day of Feb. 1527-8 ; Pitscottie, 
*33-i3S> 'Sep. 1525'; Buchanan, ii. 
bk. xiv. 158-159; Pinkerton, ii. 289, 
last of Feb. 1527-8 ; Knox, bk. i. 13- 
19, and Appendix, No. in. 500-515 ; 
Calderwood, i. 73-82 ; 78-80, his Sen- 
tence ; viii. 142, 143. 



i 5 42] JAMES THE FIFTH 231 

The King's Escape. The king, detained against his will by 
his stepfather, the earl of Angus, escaped from Falkland 
to Stirling, ' in the month of June,' I528. 31 

Forfeiture of the Douglases. Sentence of forfeiture 
was passed against Archibald Douglas, earl of Angus, 
George Douglas, his brother, and Archibald Douglas, their 
uncle, by Parliament, 5th September I528. 32 

The Clanquhattane to be Exterminated. The king's 
letters were directed to the sheriffs in the north, and to 
the Earl of Moray, the king's lieutenant there, to pass 
immediately upon the Clanquhattane, in consequence of 
their daily ' rasing of fire,' slaughter, etc., and to invade 
them to their utter destruction by slaughter, burning, 
drowning, and other ways, and to leave no creature 
living of that clan, except priests, women, and children. 
At Edinburgh, loth November I528. 33 

Johnnie Armstrong of Gilnockie, a border chief, and 
about fifty of his followers Armstrongs, Elliots, Littills, 
Irwens, etc. were arrested by order of the king, and tried : 
Armstrong and those who were convicted of theft were 
hanged in the summer of I529. 34 

The Session or College of Justice was begun in the 



31. Acts of Parliaments, ii. 324, 33. Miscellany of the Spalding 

325, 'in the month of June,' 1528; Club, ii., No. v. 83, 84, the king's 
Diurnal of Occurrents, 10, a 1528; letter, dated Edinburgh, 10 Nov. of 
Leslie, bk. ix. 216, 217, c. 105, a, our reign xvj. yeir [1528, the year is 
1528, the king come to xvij. years; printed ' MDLXXXIII.' instead of 1528, 
Buchanan, ii. bk. xiv. 159 ; Pitscot- an error explained in the Preface, p. 
tie, 140-142, 2 July 1527 ; Pitcairn, xxxv]; Diurnal of Occurrents, 13, the 
Criminal Trials, i. 188, ' in July Earl of Moray was made Lieutenant 
1528' ; Pinkerton, ii. 290, 291, July of the Kingdom in March 1528-9. 
1528. 34. Diurnal of Occurrents, 14, 26 

32. Acts of Parliaments, ii. 324- July 1529; Leslie, bk. ix. 221, 222, 

326, 5 Sep. 1528 ; App., Nos. 13, 14, c. 105, before August 1529; Pitscot- 
pp. 401-405, 10 Dec. 1540; 415-420, tie, 145, 146, the king left Edinburgh, 
reduction of the forfeiture ; also p. 2 June, and returned 28 July 1528 ; 
423; Reg. Mag. Sig. , bk. xxviii., Buchanan, ii. bk. xiv. 163, 164, July 
Nos. 147, 148, 10 Dec. 1540; Diur- 1530; Pinkerton, ii. 307, and note 6, 
nal of Occurrents, n, 5 Sep. ; Leslie, 308, collected troops in June 1529 ; 
bk. ix. 216-218, c. 105 ; Buchanan, ii. Pitcairn, Criminal Trials, i. 152-154 ; 
bk. xiv. 160; Pitscottie, 142, 143. 153, note 3, May 1530. 



232 



JAMES THE FIFTH 



presence of King James V. by Gavin Dunbar, archbishop of 
Glasgow, chancellor ; Alexander Mylne, abbot of Cambus- 
kenneth, president ; and fourteen members chosen by the 
king in parliament, with the consent of the three Estates 
of the Kingdom. At Edinburgh, 27th May I532. 35 

Highlanders' Raids in Moray. Hector Mackintoche, 
captain of the clan Chattan, and William, his brother, 
with their accomplices, burned the fortalice of Daviot, 
and the houses at Petty and Ardrossere, after Easter (5th 
April) ; and they harried Dyke and Brodie, killing twenty 
men, women, and children, and carrying off 12,000 worth 
of cattle and goods, 22nd May I534- 36 



35. Acts of Parliaments, ii. 335, 
No. 2; 336, 17 May 1532, 'Con- 
cerning the institution of ane college 
of cunning and wise men for the 
administracioun of Justice'; H.M. 
General Register House, Edinburgh, 
Institution and Statutes of the Court 
of Session signed on each folio by 
the king; Nat. MSS. iii., No. xx., 27 
May 1532, facsimile, transcript, and 
translation of the Statutes of the 
Court of Session ; Diurnal of Occur- 
rents, 14, 15, 24 Apr. 1531 [wrong 
date] ; Leslie, bk. ix. 227-229, c. 105, 
a 1532; Buchanan, ii. bk. xiv. 166, 
a 1532 ; Pinkerton, ii. 313-315 ; Car- 
tulary of Cambuskenneth, Grampian 
Club, between pp. x and xi, there is 
a reduced facsimile of the arms of 
the Lord Chancellor, Gavin Dunbar, 
archbishop of Glasgow, and of the 
Lord Clerk Register, Foulis. [At pp. 
viii and ix, the editor erroneously 
bestows Archbishop Dunbar's arms 
on Abbot Mylne, which is very 
amusingly ridiculed by Mark Napier 
in his ' Eraser's Lennox Reviewed, ' 
142-6. At p. 1 46 Mark Napier alludes 
to ' the Commemorative Window in 
the Parliament House ' (Edinburgh), 
and he might have remarked on the 



error of representing Archbishop 
Gavin Dunbar carrying the Pastoral 
Staff of a bishop ! The features of 
the archbishop were taken from a 
photograph of Sir William Dunbar 
of Mochrum, 7th baronet, a descend- 
ant of the archbishop's eldest half- 
brother.] 

36. Pitcairn, Criminal Trials, i. 
!75. 1 7&i II May 1536, 'committed 
in 1534'; Harl. MS. 2363, a 1534; 
Records of Kinloss, Appendix to 
Preface, 8, 9 [Dyke, Brodie, and 
Forres are within a few miles of 
Kinloss] ; Leslie, bk. ix. 212, 213, c. 
105 ; The Thanes of Cawdor, 149, 
150, 30 Apr. 1 527, Hector Mcintosych, 
capitan of Clancattan, ' with my 
hand at the pen ' ; Rose of Kilravock, 
200, Hector M'Kintosce, captaine of 
Clancatane, 22 Oct. 1527; 187-193, 
particulars of a former raid ; Diurnal 
of Occurrents, 13, the Earl of Moray 
was made Lieutenant in Scotland in 
March 1528-9; Miscellany of the 
Spalding Club, ii. pp. xxxiii-xxxvi, 
77-84 ; History of the Earldom of 
Sutherland, 99, 100, a 1526; Reg. 
Sec. Sig., 4 Apr. 1529, * Respitt to 
Hectour Mackintosche, capitane of 
Clanquhattane.' See also above, 



1542] 



JAMES THE FIFTH 



233 



Burned for Heresy. Mr. Norman Gourlay and David 
Straiton, tried for heresy and convicted, were burned in 
Edinburgh, 2;th August I534. 37 

The Order of the Garter was sent to King James V. 
by his uncle, Henry VIII., king of England ; the Order of 
the Golden Fleece was sent to him by the Emperor 
Charles V. ; and the Order of St. Michael was sent to him 
by Franyois I., king of France. King James V. was 
invested with the Order of the Garter at Holyrood House, 
on the 2ist of February I534-5. 38 

The College of Justice. The Institution of the College 
of Justice was confirmed, ratified, and approved by Pope 
Paul III. ; the Bull is dated in Home, 3ist March I535- 39 

The Papal Power in England. ' An Act, extinguish- 
ing the Authority of the Bishop of Rome,' after several 
readings and amendments, finally passed the House of 
Lords on Friday, the I4th of July, and received the royal 
assent on the i8th of July I536. 40 



Nos. 12, 27, and 33. [Two hundred 
Macintoshes were taken and hanged ; 
William, brother of the chief, was 
beheaded, his head was put on a pole 
at Dyke, and his quarters were sent 
to Aberdeen, Elgin, Forres, and In- 
verness.] 

37. Diurnal of Occurrents, 1 8, 19, 
26 Aug. 1534; Leslie, bk. ix. 231, 
232, c. 105 ; Buchanan, ii. 170, c. 14, 
Aug. J 534 > Records of Kinloss, Ap- 
pendix to Preface, p. 9 ; Pitscottie, 
150-152, at Edinburgh, 1530; Knox, 
i. bk. i. 60, 27 Aug. 1534 ; and Ap- 
pendix v. 519, 520; Calderwood, i. 
106-108, 27 Aug. 1534 ; Pitcairn, 
Criminal Trials, i. 210 [copied from 
Calderwood]. 

38. Nat. MSS. iii., No. xxvu., 
dated 24 May 1 544, letter from King 
Henry VIII. acknowledging the re- 
ceipt of the insignia of the Garter, 
which had belonged to his late 
nephew, King James V. ; Treasurers' 



Accounts, 13 July 1537, payment for, 
3 July 1534 ; Diurnal of Occurrents, 
15, Order of the Golden Fleece, 26 
Apr. 1532 ; 19, the Order of the 
Garter, 21 Feb. 1534-5; Leslie, bk. 
ix. 230, 231, c. 105, the three Orders 
and those of St. Andrew were repre- 
sented with the king's arms over 
the gate of the palace at Linlithgow ; 
Pitscottie, 1 80, the Garter returned ; 
Calderwood, i. 106 ; viii. 145 ; Pink- 
erton, ii. 325, a 1534. 

39. Acts of Parliaments, ii. 371, 
No. 10, 14 Mar. 1540-1. 

40. [This Act (28 Hen. VIII. c. 
10) was passed to supplement the 
Act 25 Hen. VIII. c. 21.] Journals 
of the House of Lords, i. pp. 74, 75, 
77, 81, 83, 93, 94, 96, 98 b , 99% 101 ; 
Statutes of the Realm, iii. 663 ; The 
Statutes at Large, ii. 254 ; Annals of 
England, 296-299, 'The Reforma- 
tion ' ; p. 302, * A further Act passed ' 
; Leslie, 232, 233, bk. ix. c. 105. 



234 



JAMES THE FIFTH 



Went to France. King James Y. sailed from Leith with 
five vessels, about the 24th of July 1536, but he was 
driven back by contrary winds. He re-embarked, and 
sailing with seven vessels, arrived at Dieppe on the loth 
of September 1 536. 41 

Married First. King James V. married, first, Madeleine de 
Valois, eldest daughter of Fra^ois I., king of France, in the 
cathedral of Notre Dame in Paris, ist January I536-7. 42 

Returned to Scotland. King James V., with his wife, 
Queen Madeleine, embarked at Havre, and landed at Leith 
after an absence of eight months and a half, on the iQth 
of May I537. 43 

Death of the Queen. Madeleine, first wife of King 
James V., was buried in the abbey at Holyrood, about 
eight weeks after her arrival in Scotland; she died at 
Holyrood House, 7th July I537- 44 

'Doole Weeds,' or mourning apparel, first came into 
general use in Scotland, on the death of Madeleine, queen 
of King James V., 7th July I537- 45 



41. Diurnal of Occurrents, 21, 
embarked, 24 July 1 536, re-embarked, 
i Sep., arrived at Dieppe, 10 Sep. ; 
Leslie, bk. ix. 233, 234, c. 105, re- 
embarked at Kirkaldie, 31 Aug. ; 
Pitscottie, 153, 154, re-embarked at 
Pittenweem ; Buchanan, ii. bk. xiv. 
173, embarked, 26 July, re-embarked, 
I Sep. ; Chronicle of Aberdeen, 32, 
sailed, 15 Aug. 1536; Pinkerton, ii. 
336, 337, sailed, 30 Aug., arrived at 
Dieppe, 10 Sep. 1536. 

42. Mas Latrie, p. 1525, eldest 
daughter of Franois I. by his first 
wife, Claude, daughter of Louis XII. ; 
Diurnal of Occurrents, 21, ist Jan. 
1 536-7j ' i n the kirk of Sanctgenuefa '; 
Leslie, bk. ix. 235-237, c. 105, I Jan. 
: 536-7; Buchanan, ii. bk. xiv. 174, 
I Jan. 1536-7 ; Pitscottie, 153-159 
(158, marriage) ; Pinkerton, ii. 339, 
340, etc., i Jan. 1536-7. 

43. [Eight months and 19 days ;] 



Reg. Sec. Sigilli, MS., xi., ' xix 
mensis mai MDxxxvij ' on flyleaf ;. 
Diurnal of Occurrents, 22, 'i7th May, 
Whitsonday evin, 1537, landed at 
Leith' ['Whitsonday evin,' a 1537, 
was 19 May] ; Leslie, bk. ix. 238, c. 
105, 19 May; Pitscottie, 159, landed 
at Leith, 28 May ; Buchanan, ii. bk. 
xiv. 174, 28 May ; Calderwood, i. 
112, 26 May; Pinkerton, ii. 341. 

44. Treasurers' Accounts, 7th July 
1537 ; Diurnal of Occurrents, 22, 
died 7 July 1537 ; Buchanan, ii. bk. 
xiv. 174, July 7 ; Chronicle of Aber- 
deen, 32, died 7 July 1537 ; Pitscot- 
tie, 159, '5th July' '40 days after 
the 28th of May.' [That is only 38 
days.] Leslie, bk. ix. 239, c. 105, 
10 July ; Calderwood, i. 112, 'the 
7th or loth of July' ; Pinkerton, ii. 
345, died 7 July 1537. 

45. Buchanan, ii. bk. xiv. 174 ; 
Calderwood, i. 112. 



1542] 



JAMES THE FIFTH 



235 



Conspiracy. Jane, Lady Glammis, sister of Archibald 
Douglas. 6th earl of Angus, widow of John Lyon, 6th Lord 
Glammis, then wife of Archibald Campbell of Skipnish, 
tried and convicted of conspiracy to poison King James V., 
was burned on the Castle Hill in Edinburgh, on the i7th 
of July I537- 46 

Married Secondly. King James V. married, as his second 
wife, Marie de Lorraine, daughter of Claude I., de Guise 
Lorraine, due d'Aumale, and widow of Louis II., d'Orleans, 
due de Longueville, (by proxy), in Paris, in I538. 47 

Marie De Lorraine, second wife of King James V., 
landed in Fife, and the marriage ceremony was celebrated 
at St. Andrews, about the middle of June I538. 48 

Burned for Heresy. Five persons were burned for 
heresy on the Castle Hill in Edinburgh ; and two were 
burned for heresy in Glasgow, in I538-9- 49 

The Queen Crowned. Marie de Lorraine, queen of 
King James V., was crowned in the abbey kirk at Holy- 
rood House, 22nd February I539-4O. 50 

The Scottish Isles. King James V. started on an 
expedition to the Scottish Isles, about the 29th May 1540. 



46. Pitcairn, Criminal Trials, i. 
187-199, 17 July 1537; 202, 203, 
accomplices ; Diurnal of Occurrents, 
22, in July 1537 ; Leslie, bk. ix. c. 
105, this summer time; Pitscottie, 
150; Buchanan, ii. bk. xiv. 175, the 
5th day after the I3th July [i8th 
July]; Calderwood, i. 112, 113; 
Pinkerton, ii. 347-349, 17 July ; 
Tytler, iv., Notes and Illustrations, 
C, 447-451, Conspiracy of Lady 
Glammis. 

47. Mas Latrie, p. 1545 ; Diurnal 
of Occurrents, 22 ; Leslie, bk. ix. 
240, 241,0. 105; Pitscottie, 1 60; 
Buchanan, ii. bk. xiv. 174 ; Calder- 
wood, i. 114; Pinkerton, ii. 351. 

48. Diurnal of Occurrents, 22, 
landed at St. Andrews on Trinity 
Sunday 1538 [i6th June] ; Leslie, bk. 



ix. 241, c. 105, landed at Crail, 10 
June ; Buchanan, ii. bk. xiv. 176, 
arrived at Balcomy, 12 June 1538 ; 
Chronicle of Aberdeen, 33, landed at 
Balcomie, Fyfe, 10 June 1538 ; Pit- 
scottie, 160-162, landed at Fifeness, 
near Balcomy; Calderwood, i. 114, 
landed at Balcomy, 14 June 1538 ; 
Pinkerton, ii. 351-353, landed at 
Balcomie in Fife, 10 June 1538. 

49. Diurnal of Occurrents, 23, the 
last day of Feb. 1540 ; Leslie, bk. ix. 
244, c. 105, a 1539; Buchanan, ii. 
bk. xiv. 176, the beginning of 1539 ; 
Pitscottie, 150; Knox, i. bk. ii. 63, 
note 6, i Mar. 1538-9 ; Calderwood, 
i. 124-133, a 1539; Pinkerton, ii. 
255, 256, a 1538-9 ; Pitcairn, Crim- 
inal Trials, i. 209-216. 

50. Diurnal of Occurrents, 23. 



236 JAMES THE FIFTH [1513 

He carried off the chiefs of some of the principal clans, 
and landed at Dumbarton on his return, in July 1 54O. 51 

The Army of Scotland. Parliament decreed that the 
army of Scotland should fight on foot, and that none, 
except the leaders, were to be mounted ; it also prescribed 
the weapons and armour that every rank should wear: 
Edinburgh, loth December I54O. 52 

Religious Observances, etc. Acts of Parliament relat- 
ing to the Honour of the Holy Sacraments, the Worship of 
the Blessed Virgin Mary, the Pope's Authority, the Reform 
of Kirks and Kirkmen, Heresy, and the Images of the 
Saints, were passed at Edinburgh, J4th March I54O-I. 53 

The College of Justice, instituted in 1532, confirmed 
by Pope Paul III. in 1535, was ratified and approved by 
King James V., ' now come to the age of twenty-five/ with 
the advice of his three Estates of Parliament, at Edinburgh, 
1 4th March I54OI. 54 

Death of the Queen - Dowager. Margaret Tudor, 
daughter of Henry VII., king of England, and widow of 
James IV., king of Scots, was buried in the church of 
the Carthusians at Perth. She died at Methven on St. 
Mwnok's Day, [(?) i8th October] I54I. 55 

The Battle of Hadden-rig. The Scots, under the Earl 
of Huntly, defeated the English, and took their commander, 



51. Leslie, bk. ix. 241, 242, c. 105, of King James V., and grandmother 
a 1539; Buchanan, ii. bk. xiv. 170, of Mary Queen of Scots, and of her 
a 1534; Knox, i. bk. i. 82, note 2; husband Darnley ;] Fleming's Chron- 
Pinkerton, ii. 361-366, and 363, note icle, Advocates' Library MSS. No. 
9, 29 May 1540. 35. 4. 4. foL 3, ' Quene Margaret, 

52. Acts of Parliaments, ii. 362, mother to King James the fyft, 
No. 22, 10 Dec. 1540, to fight on deceissit on Sanct Mwnokis Day in 
foot ; No. 23, description of weapons Methven, jm. vc. xlj yeiris ' ; Chron- 
and armour for the different ranks. icle of Perth, 2, died on St. Mwnokis 

53. Acts of Parliaments, ii. 370, Day, [18 Oct.] 1541 ; Diurnal of Oc- 
371, Nos. i to 9, 14 Mar. 1540-1. currents, 24, died 24 Nov. 1541 ; 

54. Acts of Parliaments, ii. 371, Leslie, bk. ix. 243, 244, c. 105, a 
No. 10, 14 Mar. 1540-1, ratification 1539; Pinkerton, ii. 371, 'June 
of the institution of the College of 1541 '; Annals of England, 271, No. 
Justice. 6, died 18 Oct. 1541. See&lBO above, 

55. [Margaret Tudor was mother James IV., p. 221, No. 54. 



1542] JAMES THE FIFTH 237 

Sir Robert Bowes, and six hundred of his men prisoners 
at Hadden-rig, in Roxburghshire, 24th August 1 542. 56 

The Rout at Solway Moss. The Scots invaded Eng- 
land, but refused to advance when Oliver Sinclair, the 
king's favourite, was appointed commander. They began 
to disperse, and while all was confusion, several hundred 
mounted Englishmen charged, and took many of the 
Scottish leaders prisoners at Solway Moss, on the 24th of 
November I542. 57 

Died. King James the Fifth died at Falkland on Thursday 
the i4th of December I542. 58 

Aged 30 years 8 months and 5 days. 59 

Buried in the abbey at Holyrood, in January I542-3. 60 

His Reign lasted 29 years 3 months and 6 days. 61 

REIGN ENDED I4TH DECEMBER 1542. 



ISSUE 

King James the Fifth had by his first wife, Madeleine de Valois, 
no issue. 62 

56. Diurnal of Occurrents, 24, 25, by contemporary and modern writers 
St. Bartholomew's Day [24 Aug.] to the 25th Nov. 1542; to the I2th, 
1542; Leslie, bk. ix. 253, c. 105, 24 I3th, I4th, I5th, i6th,and 2Oth Dec. 
Aug. 1542 ; Pitscottie, 169, 170, Aug. 1542 ; and to the latter end of Decem- 
1542; Buchanan, ii. bk. xiv. 179; ber 1542. From a critical examina- 
Pinkerton, ii. 378, 24 Aug. 1542. tion of the different accounts, it 

57. Hamilton Papers, i. 307, No. appears that he died at Falkland on 
240, letter from Sir William Mus- Thursday, the I4th of December 
grave to Sir Antony Browne; the 1542.] A list of contemporary and 
English defeated the Scots, 24th Nov. modern statements is subjoined at 
1542, a long account of the rout; pp. 240-243. 

Diurnal of Occurrents, 25, 27th Nov. 59. See above, Nos. 3 and 58. 

1542 [possibly this was the day the 60. Diurnal of Occurrents, 25, 8th 

news was received in Edinburgh]; Jan. 1542-3; Leslie, bk. ix. 259,260, 

Leslie, bk. ix. 257, 258, c. 105 ; Pit- c. 105 ; Buchanan, ii. bk. xiv. 181, 14 

scottie, 175, 176; Buchanan, ii. bk. Jan., in the monastery at Holyrood. 

xiv. 180; Calderwood, i. 148-150; 61. See above, Nos. 4 and 58. 

Pinkerton, ii. 382, 383. 62. [Queen Madeleine died about 

58. [The death of James V., king 6 months after her marriage.] See 
of Scots, has been variously assigned above, p. 234, Nos. 42 and 44. 



238 



JAMES THE FIFTH 



King James the Fifth had by his second wife, Marie de Guise 

Lorraine, two sons, James and Arthur, and a daughter, Mary : 63 

(i.) James, born at St. Andrews, 22nd May 1540, died in 

infancy at Stirling, buried in the abbey at Holyrood, in 

summer, i54i. 64 

(n.) Arthur, born at Falkland in April 1541, died eight days 
after his birth, buried in the abbey at Holyrood. 65 
(in.) Mary, born at Linlithgow on the yth or 8th of Decem- 
ber 1542, Queen of Scots from i4th December 1542 to 24th 
July i567. 66 

King James the Fifth had several illegitimate sons, whose names 
appear in the Eecords. He wrote to Pope Clement VII. asking 
him to declare three of these sons eligible to hold ecclesiastical 
dignities. His letter is dated Stirling Castle, 26th February 
I53I-2. 67 

(iv.) James Stewart, 'Senior,' commendator of the abbeys at 
Kelso and Melrose son of King James V. by Elisabeth Shaw, 
daughter of Alexander Shaw of Sauchie died without issue, 
in I558. 68 



63. Diurnal of Occurrents, 23, 25 ; 
Buchanan, ii. bk. xiv. 176, 181. 

64. Treasurers' Accounts, 22 May 
1540, 25 May 1541 ; Diurnal of Occur- 
rents, 23, born at St. Andrews, 1 539 ; 
Buchanan, ii. 176, bk. xiv., born at 
St. Andrews ; Leslie, 243, bk. ix. c. 
105, born ; 246, died in Stirling ; 
Pitscottie, 162, 'born loth 1539'; 
168, died ; Knox, i. 82, bk. i. note, 
22 May 1540; Calderwood, i. 138; 
Pinkerton, ii. 362, note I, par. 3, 
born 22 May 1540; 363, note 8. 

65. Treasurers' Accounts, 24, 26, 
27, 29 Apr. 1541 ; Diurnal of Occur- 
rents, 23, 24, born at Falkland, 1541, 
buried at Holyrood ; Buchanan, ii. 
179, bk. xiv., both sons died, one at 
St. Andrews, the other at Stirling ; 
Leslie, bk. ix. 246, c. 105, born and 
died 8 days old in 1540; Pitscottie, 
162, born 1540, named Robert Stuart, 
duke of Albany ; 168, died ; Calder- 



wood, i. 140; Pinkerton, ii. 371, 
also note 9, born and died 1541. 

66. Leslie, bk. ix. 259, c. 105, 
born 7 Dec. 1542 ; Pinkerton, ii. 
384, born 7 Dec. 1542 ; Chronicle of 
Aberdeen, 33, born 25 Nov. 1542; 
Pitscottie, 176, messenger from Lin- 
lithgow ; Diurnal of Occurrents, 25, 
born 8 Dec. 1542 ; Knox, i. 91, bk. 
i., 8 Dec. 1542; vi. General Index, 
741-743; Calderwood, i. 151, born 
8 Dec. 1542. See below, Mary, 
Queen of Scots, pp. 246-261. 

67. Theiner, 599, No. 1030, letter 
to Pope Clement VII. ; Reg. Mag. 
Sig., bk. xxv., Nos. 135, 241, 344, 
three named James and one named 
Robert; Peerage of Scotland, 1.52, 53. 

68. Reg. Mag. Sig., bk. xxv., No. 
135, 16 June 1534; No. 241, 28 Oct. 
1534; No. 334, 31 Aug. 1536; Reg. 
Cartarum de Kelso, Preface, pp. xvj, 
liij-lv ; Peerage of Scotland, ii. 52 ; 
Pinkerton, ii. 384. 



JAMES THE FIFTH 



239 



(v.) James Stewart, 'Secundus' [afterwards the Eegent 
Moray] -son of King James V. by Margaret Erskine, daughter 
of John, 4th Lord Erskine born 1533 ; prior of St. Andrews, 
1538; created earl of Moray, 3oth January 1561-2; earl of 
Mar, 7th February 1561; Regent of Scotland, 22nd August 
1567 ; assassinated at Linlithgow, 23rd January i569~7o. 69 
(vi.) James Stewart, ' Tertius,' son of King James V. by 
Christina Barclay. 70 

(vn.) Robert Stewart son of King James V. by Euphemia 
Elphinstone, daughter of Alexander, ist Lord Elphinstone 
born in 1533 ; commendator of Holyrood, while still an infant ; 
married Lady Jane Kennedy, i4th December 1561 ; created 
earl of Orkney by King James VI., 28th October i58r. 71 
(vm.) John Stewart, prior of Coldingham son of King James 
V. by Elisabeth, daughter of Sir John Carmichael married, 
28th December 1561, Jean, daughter of Patrick Hepburn, 3rd 
earl of Both well; died in 1563. His eldest son, Francis, was 
created earl of Bothwell by King James VI., 2gth July I587. 72 
(ix.) Adam Stewart, prior of the Charter-House at Perth, 
son of King James V. by Elisabeth Stewart, daughter of 
John, 3rd earl of Lennox. 73 



69. Reg. Mag. Sig., bk. xxv., No. 
241, 28 Oct. 1534 ; No. 334, 31 Aug. 
1536; Acts of Parliaments, ii. 553, 
No. 10 ; 557, 19 Apr. 1567, ratifica- 
tion of the earldom of Moray ; iii. 
11-14, Nos. i and 2, 20 Dec. 1567; 
Regent of Scotland ; Diurnal of 
Occurrents, 50, last line ; 70, 7 Feb. 
1561-2, Earl of Mar ; 156-158, shot by 
James Hamilton of Bothwellhaugh, 
23rd Jan. 1569-70, buried in St. 
Giles's Kirk, Edinburgh, I4th Feb. 
1569-70; Buchanan, ii. 391-393, bk. 
xix. ; Pitscottie, 213, James, prior 
of St. Andrews, made earl of Moray ; 
Knox, vi. General Index, 744, 745, 
Murray [error for Moray] ; Scottish 
Bishops, 406 ; Peerage of Scotland, 
i. 52 ; ii. 255, 256. 

70. Reg. Mag. Sig., bk. xxv., 
No. 241, 28 Oct. 1534; No. 334, 



31 Aug. 1536; Peerage of Scotland, 
1.52- 

71. Theiner, 6n,No. 1055, 15 Dec. 
1538, letter of King James V. to 
Pope Paul III. , asking him to confer 
the abbey at Holyrood on his illegiti- 
mate son, Robert, then in his fifth 
year; Reg. Mag. Sig., bk. xxv., No. 
241, 28 Oct. 1534 ; No. 334, 31 Aug. 
1536 ; Liber Cartarum S. Crucis, pp. 
xxxv, xxxvj ; Peerage of Scotland, 
i. 52 ; ii. 340-342, Orkney ; Knox, vi. 
General Index, 752. 

72. Reg. Mag. Sig., bk. xxx., No. 
689; bk. xxxvi., No. 539; Diurnal 
of Occurrents, 73, 74 ; Pitscottie, 213, 
i Jan. 1561-2; Peerage of Scotland, 
i. 52, 231, 232; Knox, vi. General 
Index, 752. 

73. Edinburgh Com. Testaments, 
i. 58 ; Peerage of Scotland, i. 53. 



240 JAMES THE FIFTH [1513. 



REFERENCES TO THE DEATH OF JAMES THE FIFTH, 
KING OF SCOTS. 

Contemporary or nearly so. 

25TH NOVEMBER 1542. 

Advocates' Library MS. No. 35, 4. the fyft deceissit on the xxv. day of 
4. fol. 12, Flemyng's Chronicle, or November J m . v c . xlij zeiris( 1542) on 
the Chronicle of Perth, 'King James Sanct Katharenis' Day.' 

I2TH DECEMBER 1542. 

Advocates' Library MS. The Dean day of December anno etc. xlij/ 

of Lismore's MS. fol. 82. 'James [The record of his death is interlined 

the fyfte rengis now in gret felicitie/ in a different ink, but the writing 

'Deit in Fawkland the etc. xij seems to have been contemporary.] 

I3TH DECEMBER 1542. 

Theiner, Vetera Monumenta, 614, ii. 181, 13 Dec. 1542; Knox, i. 92,, 

No. 1064, letter from James Hamil- I3th Dec. 1542. [Possibly they may 

ton, earl of Arran, Governor of Scot- have heard, on the morning of the- 

land, dated 10 May 1543, sent to I4th, that King James V. had died 

Pope Paul III. [written within five Mast night,' and they may have 

months of the death of King James supposed from this that his death 

V.]. * The king died on the Ides of occurred on the night of the I3th of 

[i3th] December 1542' ; Buchanan, December 1542.] 

I4TH DECEMBER 1542. 

Advocates' Library MS. 33. 3. 26. King James V. copied in ' a vault in 

(Sibbaldi Caledonia), at the end of the south-east corner of ye Abby 

the manuscript there is a copy of Church of Halyroodhouse, on the 

the inscription on the coffin plate of 24th of January 1683,' viz. : 

ILLVSTRIS. SCOTORUM. REX. JACOBUS. 

EJUS. NOIS. 5. ETATIS. SUE. ANNO. 31. REGNI. 

VERO. 30. MORTEM. OBJIT. IN. PALACIO. DE. 

FALKLAND. 14. DECEMBRIS. ANNO. D?U. 1542. 

CUJUS. CORPUS. HIC. TRADITV. EST. SEPULTURE. 

Reg. Magni Sigilli. [Nine charters ter of the Great Seal;] Harl. MS. 

recorded in the Register of the Great 2363, penult fol. 55 (Latin), ' In the 

Seal in the reign of Mary Queen of year of grace 1542 and xiiij day of 

Scots, appear to show that King December died James the fifth in 

James V. died on or before (not Fawkland, and he is buried in the 

after) the 1 4th Dec. 1542. See below, monastery of Holy rood in Edinburgh/ 

p. 242, NOTE on the Printed Regis- [This was written by John Smyth, a 



1542] 



JAMES THE FIFTH 



241 



monk of Kinloss, who was born in 
1492, and died 17 Dec. 1557 ; he was 
consequently about 50 years of age 
at the time of the death of King 
James V.] See Records of Kinloss, 
Appendix to Preface, p. 9 ; Cott. 
MS. Caligula, B. V. 192, 196 (French), 
1 4th December 1542, died James 
V., aged 33 years, at the Castle of 
Falkland, which he had ordered to 
be built, in Fifeshire ; Leslie, 259, c. 



105, 14 Dec. 1542 ; Diurnal of Occur- 
rents, 25, 14 Dec. 1542 ; Birrel, 3, 14 
Dec. 1542; Chronicle of Aberdeen, 
33, 14 Dec. 1542. See also the 
Liber Emptorum, lib. viii. fol. 38 b , 
' FAULKLAND. Die Jovis xiiij De- 
cembris ' [1542] * Hodie Dns nr Illus- 
trissimus Rex apud falldand claiisus 
est extremu.' [All the above show 
that King James V. died before the 
1 5th of December 1542.] 



I5TH DECEMBER I $42. 



Hamilton Papers, i. 339, No. 260 ; 
Letter from Sir George Douglas to 
Lord Lisle, dated at Berwick, 17 
Dec. 1542; 'thekynge of Scotes is 
sekened, and toyke his bed the vj 
day of this monthe of Decembre, and 
departyd of Thowrsday the xv at 
xij of the cloke at nyght, and all this 
tyme he dyd raege and crye owt and 
spake but fewe wysse wordes, and 
so departyd,' etc. [Unfortunately, 
in the year 1542, the 1 5th of Decem- 
ber fell on Friday, so that Sir George's 



evidence is untrustworthy : he pro- 
bably meant Thursday, the I4th. 
In any case, according to him, King 
James V. died before 16 Dec. 1542 ;] 
Cott. MS. Caligula, B. viij. 296, 297, 
'Marie, queen of Scotland, only 
daughter of James V. , born 7th Dec. r 
8 days before the death of her father 
at Falkland.' [According to this, 
King James V. died I5th Dec. 1542.]' 
Kalendar of Feme, 'in Falkland,' 15. 
Dec. 1 542. [All the above show King 
James V. died before 16 Dec. 1542.] 



l6TH DECEMBER 1542. 



The Lord High Treasurers' Ac- 
counts, vol. a 1541-1543, 'The ex- 
pensis debursit be the compter fra 
the tyme of the kingis grace decess, 
quhome God assoyle, quhilk wes the 
xvj day of December, anno etc. xlij, 
be speciall command of my lord gover- 
nour, and utherwayis twitcheing the 
office of thesaurarie, and first upoun 
the suffrage done for our said sove- 
rane lord as followis ' : [This is a 
contemporary official record in H.M. 
General Register House, Edinburgh, 



but xvj. may be a mistake for xiv.. 
(An instance of the sort occurred in 
the first proof of page 353 of this 
book, where October I9th appeared, 
in Latin, as ' xvi. Kal. Nov. ' instead 
of xiv. Kal. Nov. ) Possibly the clerk 
inadvertently wrote xvj. instead of 
xiv., or he may have intended the 
xvj. to refer to the date of hi& 
first expenditure on account of the 
funeral expenses of King James V. , 
and not to the date of the king's 
death.] 



THE LATTER END OF DECEMBER 1542. 

Advocates' Library MS. 33. 2. 9. Scotland, ' died in Falkland in the 
George Marjoreybankis, Annals of latter end of December 1542.' 

Q 



242 JAMES THE FIFTH [1513 



Modern, 

I3TH DECEMBER 1542. 

Calderwood, i. 152, and viii. 147, the year 1650]; Tytler, vol. iv. p. 
1 3th Dec. 1542 [Calderwood died in 266, I3th of December 1542. 

I4TH DECEMBER 1542. 

Annals of Scotland (Sir James 14 Dec. 1542; Annals of England, 

Balfour), i. 275, I4th Dec. 1542 ; 307, 14 Dec. 1542 ; Woodward and 

Pinkerton, ii. 384, I4th Dec. 1542; Gates, a 1872, p. 1263, I4th Dec. 

Peerage of Scotland, i. xiij, i4thDec. 1542; Haydn, a 1892, p. 864, I4th 

1542; Chronology of History, 382, 14 Dec. 1540. [Haydn antedates the 

Dec. 1542 ; Bond's Handy Book, 310, death of King James V. 2 years.] 

l6TH DECEMBER 1542. 

Registrum Magni Sigilli Regum sumed that King James V. died 16 

Scotorum (printed precis of), vol. Dec. 1542.] See below, NOTE at the 

1513-1546, published in 1883; and foot of this page; Burke, a 1897, 

vol. 1546-1580, published in 1886. cxxii, 16 Dec. 1542 ; Whitaker's 

[The editors have erroneously as- Almanack, a 1897, 83, 16 Dec. 1542. 

20TH DECEMBER 1542. 

Pitscottie, 177, died at Falkland, on the 2Oth of December 1542. 



NOTE 

[It is very important to determine The editors of the two above-men- 

the exact date of the death, abdica- tioned printed volumes seem to have 

tion, or deposition of a sovereign, begun by assuming (erroneously) 

because generally that date affects that James V., king of Scots, died, 

the beginning of each of the regnal and his daughter, Queen Mary, suc- 

years of his successor. ceeded, on the i6th of December 

In the two printed volumes of the 1542. 

' Registrum Magni Sigilli Regum It is unnecessary to give a list of 
Scotorum,' 1513-1546 and 1546-1580, all the charters in both of these 
published in 1883 and 1886 respec- volumes, of which the confirmation 
tively, the regnal years and dates of is dated on the 1 3th, I4th, 1 5th, 
confirmation of some of the charters or i6th December in each year of 
confirmed during the reign of Mary the reign of Mary Queen of Scots. 
Queen of Scots do not agree with It will be sufficient for the present 
those of the same charters in the purpose to quote a few of the char- 
original Record ('Registrum Magni ters confirmed during her reign; 
Sigilli') in H.M. General Register see the table of charters on the 
House, Edinburgh. opposite page.] 






JAMES THE FIFTH 



243 



A TABLE OF 

NINE CHARTERS CONFIRMED DURING THE REIGN OF 
MARY QUEEN OF SCOTS. 



IN PRINT. 


IN REGISTER. 


DATE OF 
CONFIRMATION. 


REGNAL YEARS. 


Page. 


No. 


Lib. 


No. 


In Print. 


In Register. 


63 


26l 


XXX. 


445 


1 5th Dec. 1548 


6th* 


7th 


124 


548 


XXX. 


629 


1 5th Dec. 1550 


8th* 


9th 


164 


734 


xxxii. 


20 1 


I5th Dec. 1552 


ioth* 


nth 


I 9 6 


876 


xxxi. 


233 


I5th Dec. 1553 


nth* 


1 2th 


218 


973 


xxxii. 


38o 


1 4th Dec. 1554 


1 2th* 


1 3th 


295 


1326 


xxxii. 


288 


1 5th Dec. 1558 


1 6th* 


ist and 1 7th 


296 


1327 


xxxii. 


289 


1 5th Dec. 1558 


1 6th* 


ist and 1 7th 


325 


1435 


xxxi. 


488 


I5th Dec. 1562 


20th* 


2I8t 


409 


1685 


xxxii. 


149 


I4th Dec. 1565 


2 3 rd* 


ist and 24th 


* In a footnote, the alteration is admitted to have been made. 



[The above nine charters seem to 
show that the clerks, who entered 
them in the Register of the Great 
Seal, reckoned that James V., king 
of Scots, died before the i6th of 
December 1542. 

In seven of the above charters the 
clerks appear to have reckoned that 
King James V. died on or before the 
1 5th of December 1542, and in two 
of the charters, that he died on 
or before the I4th of December 
1542. 

In the MSS. of the Duke of 



Hamilton, printed in the Historical 
MSS. Commission, vol. xi. App. vi., 
219, 220, a notarial instrument pur- 
porting to be a will of King James 
V. is dated at 7 A.M. on the i4th of 
December 1542, while the king was 
still alive. 

Finally taking into consideration 
all the foregoing contemporary and 
modern references relating to his 
death James the Fifth, king of 
Scots, appears to have died at Falk 
land, on Thursday the I4th of De- 
cember 1542.] 



244 



JAMES THE FIFTH 



NOTE 

Gavin Douglas, Poet, Bishop of Dunkeld, third son of 
Archibald Douglas, ' Bell the Cat,' 5th earl of Angus, was 
born about 1474. He translated Virgil's ^Eneid into Scot- 
tish verse. He died in 1 522, and was buried in the Hospital 
Church of the Savoy. 74 



74. Virgil's ^Eneis, translated into 
Scottish verse by Gawin Douglas, 



Bishop of Dunkeld. Edinburgh, 
1710. His Life, pp. 2 and 13. 



A TABLE OF REGNAL YEAES 



1st began 9 Sep. 1513, 
ended 8 Sep. 1514. 

2nd began 9 Sep. 1514, 
ended 8 Sep. 1515. 

3rd began 9 Sep. 1515, 
ended 8 Sep. 1516. 

4th began 9 Sep. 1516, 
ended 8 Sep. 1517. 

5th began 9 Sep. 1517, 
ended 8 Sep. 1518. 

6th began 9 Sep. 1518, 
ended 8 Sep. 1519. 

7th began 9 Sep. 1519, 
ended 8 Sep. 1520. 

8th began 9 Sep. 1520, 
ended 8 Sep. 1521. 

9th began 9 Sep. 1521, 
ended 8 Sep. 1522. 

10th began 9 Sep. 1522, 
ended 8 Sep. 1523. 

llth began 9 Sep. 1523, 
ended 8 Sep. 1524. 

12th began 9 Sep. 1524, 
ended 8 Sep. 1525. 



13th began 9 Sep. 1525, 
ended 8 Sep. 1526. 

14th began 9 Sep. 1526, 
ended 8 Sep. 1527. 

15th began 9 Sep. 1527, 
ended 8 Sep. 1528. 

16th began 9 Sep. 1 528, 
ended 8 Sep. 1529. 

17th began 9 Sep. 1529, 
ended 8 Sep. 1530. 

18th began 9 Sep. 1530, 
ended 8 Sep. 1531. 

19th began 9 Sep. 1531, 
ended 8 Sep. 1532. 

20th began 9 Sep. 1532, 
ended 8 Sep. 1533. 

21st began 9 Sep. 1533, 
ended 8 Sep. 1534. 

22nd began 9 Sep. 1534, 
ended 8 Sep. 1535. 

23rd began 9 Sep. 1535, 
ended 8 Sep. 1536. 

24th began 9 Sep. 1536, 
ended 8 Sep. 1 537. 



1542] 



JAMES THE FIFTH 



245 



TABLE OF REGNAL YEARS continued. 



25th began 9 Sep. 1537, 
ended 8 Sep. 1538. 

26th began 9 Sep. 1538, 
ended 8 Sep. 1539. 



27th began 9 Sep. 1539, 
ended 8 Sep. 1540. 



28th began 9 Sep. 1540, 
ended 8 Sep. 1541. 

29th began 9 Sep. 1541, 
ended 8 Sep. 1542. 



30th began 9 Sep. 1542, 
ended 14 Dec. 1542. 

Only 3 months and 6 days of the 3oth year. 



CONTEMPORAEY SOVEREIGNS 



KING OF ENGLAND 

HENRY VIII. 

1509-1547. 



KINGS OF FRANCE 

Valois-Orleans 
Louis XII. 
' le Pere du Peuple ' 
1498-1515. 

Valois-Angouleme 

FRANCOIS I. 

'PeredesLettres' 

1515-1547- 



POPES 

LEOX. 

1513-1521. 

ADRIAN VI. 
1522-1523. 

CLEMENT VII. 

1523-1534. 

Began the year 

sometimes ist January, 

sometimes 25th March. 

PAUL III. 

1534-1549. 

[He had been married 
before he became Pope.] 



246 [1542 



MAEY 

(STEWART) 

QUEEN OF SCOTS 

1542-1567 

Reign began i4th December 1542, 

ended 24th July 1567, 
lasted 24 years 7 months and 1 1 days. 

Mary (Stewart) Queen of Scots. 'Marie Stuart, Reine 
d'Ecosse,' ' Reine de France,' ' Douariere de France.' l 

Only Surviving Child of James V., king of Scots, by his 
second wife, Marie de Lorraine, who was the daughter of 
Claude de Guise Lorraine, due d'Aumale, and the widow 
of Louis II. d'Orleans, due de Longueville. 2 

Born in the palace at Linlithgow, ' a vary wayke chyld,' on 
the 7th or 8th of December I542. 3 

1. Nat. MSS., iii., Nos. XXIV.-LIX.; 3. Autograph letter from Mary 
Acts of Parliaments, ii. 409, 12 Mar. Queen of Scots to Queen Elizabeth, 
1542-3; Diplomata Scotise, LXVIII., preserved in H.M. Record Office, 
charter by Francis and Marie, with London, dated Wynkfield, 8 Dec. 
seal; LXXXVIII.-XC., seals; CLIV. 1584. The letter ends thus : 'Wynk- 
CLV., gold coins; CLXIII.-CLXV., sil- field, ce viij decembre XLii e de ma 
ver coins; Ancient Scottish Seals, i. naissance, etxviij e de prison.' Prince 
14-16, Nos. 58-66; Mas Latrie, p. Alexandre Labanoff, in his Lettres 
1750. [In the Register of the Great de Marie Stuart (Londres, 1844, vi. 
Seal, Queen Mary is styled in 65), assumes from this, that she was 
some of the charters, 'Comitissa born on the 8th Dec. 1542 [but she 
de Carrick ' ; ' Comitissa de Le- might have written in those words of 
venax ' ; ' Scotie princeps et sene- many other days with equal truth] ; 
scalla'; 'principissa et senescalla Leslye, 166, born 7 Dec. 1542; 169, 
Scotie ' : the last two when the char- in the palace of Linlithgow ; Diurnal 
ters relate to Renfrew.] of Occurrents, 25, born 8 Dec. 1542 ; 

2. Buchanan, ii. 182; Mas Latrie, Knox, i. 91, 8 Dec. 1542, in Linlith- 
p. 1750; Pitscottie, 179. See also gow; Calderwood, i. 151, born 8 Dec. 
above, James V., p. 235, No. 47. 1542 ; Buchanan, ii. 181, about five 



1 56;] 



MARY 



247 



REIGN BEGAN I4TH DECEMBER 1542. 

Queen of Scots. Mary became Queen of Scots on the death 
of her father, King James V., I4th December 1542.* 

Aged about seven days when she succeeded her father on 
the I4th December I542. 5 

Arran Chosen Governor. James Hamilton, 2nd earl 
of Arran, chosen Governor, 22nd December 1542, was 
declared ' tutor lawful to the Queen's Grace, and Governor 
of this realm,' by the three Estates of Parliament, at 
Edinburgh, on the I3th of March 1 542-3. 

The Holy Bible. The Lords of the Articles in parlia- 
ment decided that it was lawful for all 'our Sovereign 



days old, 13 Dec. 1542 ; p. 182, born 
about 8 days before her father's death ; 
Marjoreybankis (MS. Adv. Lib. 33. 2. 
9.), born in the town of Linlithgow, 
9 Dec. 1542; Pitscottie, 176, Linlith- 
gow; Chronicle of Aberdeen, 33, born 
25 Nov. 1542. [This is evidently a 
mistake, probably meant for 7 Dec., 
by confusing vii. Id. Dec. (7 Dec.) 
with vii. Cal. Dec. (25 Nov.) in 
translating from a Latin original.] 
Hamilton Papers, i. 340. Register 
of Acts and Decreets, i., fol. 148, 
before the Lords of Council and 
Session at Edinburgh, 9 Dec. 1542. 
In the 'Supplication,' given in by 
Andro, bishop of Galloway, ' and of 
our soverane lordis chapell ryale of 
Striveling,' it is stated, that the 
queen 'is approcheand to ly and 
seiklie ' [expecting her confinement]. 
[It has been erroneously supposed 
from the above that the queen's child 
(afterwards Mary Queen of Scots) 
was not born until on or after 9 Dec. 
1542. But the gth of December 1542 
was the day on which the bishop's 
' Supplication ' came before the Lords 
of Council and Session, and the Sup- 
plication may have been written days 
or even weeks before that date.] 



[In 1542 the clergy seem to have 
reckoned that the day ended at 
sunset ; the laity reckoned that 
it ended at midnight. If Queen 
Mary was born between sunset and 
midnight, it may explain the con- 
fusion of dates. As her name was 
Marie, and Dec. 8 was the Feast 
of the Conception of the Blessed 
Virgin Mary, Queen Mary's birth- 
day was most probably kept in after 
years on that day, whether or not 
the 8th of December 1542 was the 
actual day of her birth. Fortunately 
the date of a sovereign's birth is 
comparatively immaterial; it is the 
exact date of the death or abdication 
of a sovereign that is important.] 

4. Acts of Parliaments, ii. 409, 
411 ; Buchanan, ii. 182; Knox, i. 
95, 'the young Quene.' See also 
above, James V., p. 237, No. 58. 

5. See above, Nos. 3 and 4. 

6. Acts of Parliaments, ii. 411, 
13 Mar. 1542-3; Epist. Reg. Scot., 
ii. 308; Leslye, 169, proclaimed 22 
Dec. 1 542 ; Diurnal of Occurrents, 
25, 10 Jan. 1542-3; Knox, i. 95, note 
4; Pitscottie, 180, 10 Feb. 1543; 
Calderwood, i. 154, 155; Peerage of 
Scotland, i. 699-701. 



248 



MARY 



[1542 



Lady's lieges to have the Holy Writ, both the New Testa- 
ment and the Old, in the vulgar tongue, in English or 
Scots,' 1 5th March 15 42- 3.* 

Crowned. Mary Queen of Scots was crowned in the chapel 
in Stirling Castle, on Sunday, the Qth of September 1 543. 8 

Scotland Invaded by Sea. The Earl of Hertford 
landed at Leith on the 4th May with a large force, and 
completely burned the whole town of Edinburgh, with the 
abbey and palace at Holyrood, 7th May 1544. 

The Battle of Ancrum Moor. The Scots, under Archi- 
bald Douglas, 6th earl of Angus, totally defeated the 
English under Sir Ralph Eure, who was killed, at Ancrum 
Moor in Roxburghshire, 27th February I544-5. 10 

Scotland Invaded by Land. The Earl of Hertford (in 
a second expedition), with 15,000 men, invaded Scotland 
by land and burned Kelso, Melrose, and other towns, 9th 
September I545- 11 

Martin Luther, Monk, Priest, Theologian, and Reformer, 
was born at Eisleben in Saxony. loth November 1483. He 



7. Acts of Parliaments, ii. 415% 
No. 12, 13 Mar. 1542-3, Gavin, arch- 
bishop of Glasgow, in name of the 
prelates dissented, desiring the mat- 
ter should be brought before a Pro- 
vincial Council; 425, 19 Mar. 1542-3, 
proclamation by the Governor, au- 
thorising 'the new testement in Ing- 
liswulgare toung' ; Leslye, 171, 172 ; 
Knox, i. 100, note 8 ; Calderwood, 
i. 156, 157. 

8. Hamilton Papers, ii. 33, ' Sun- 
day before ii Sep.' [9 Sep.]; 38, 
' Sunday before 13 Sep.' [9 Sep.] ; 
Leslye, 174, Sep. 1543 ; Buchanan, ii. 
190, at Stirling, Aug. 21 ; Pitscottie, 
181, Aug. 20 ; Knox, i. 108, n. 3; 109, 
. 3 ; Calderwood, i. 165. 

9. 'The late expedicion in Scot- 
land ' (Lord Hertford's, a 1544), p. 7; 
Buchanan, ii. 194 ; Diurnal of Occur- 
rents, 31, ist, 4th, 7th May 1544; 
Birrel, 4, 5 May 1544; Leslye, 180- 



183 ; Robertson's History of Scot- 
land, i. 116, note*, Henry VIII. 's 
orders to put man, woman, and child 
to fire and sword ; Knox, i. 119-123 ; 
Calderwood, i. 176-178, May 7, Edin- 
burgh ; Annals of England, 309. 

10. [Archibald Douglas, 6th earl 
of Angus, stepfather of the late King 
James V.] Leslye, 187, 188, 27 Feb. 
1544-5 ; Buchanan, ii. 201 ; Pitcairn 
Criminal Trials, i. 232 (18 May 1545), 
27 Feb. ; Birrel, 3, 27 Feb. 1544-5 ; 
Diurnal of Occurrents, 38, the penult 
day of Feb. 1544-5; Knox, i. 122, 
note 2, 17 Feb. 1544-5 [probably a 
clerical error for 27th]; Calderwood, 
i. 181, 182, about the middle of Feb- 
ruary ; Pitscottie, 184-186, 9 Mar. 

I545-6- 

n. Diurnal of Occurrents, 40, 9 
Sep. 1545 ; Leslye, 189 ; Robertson's 
History of Scotland, 119, note, 'The 
other,' etc. ; Annals of England, 3O9 b . 



1567] MARY 249 

translated the Bible into German, 1521-1534, and died at 
Eisleben, i8th February I545-6. 12 

Wishart Burned. Mr. George Wishart, tried for heresy 
and found guilty, was burned at St. Andrews on the ist of 
March I545-6. 13 

Cardinal Beaton Murdered. Norman and John Les- 
lie, John Melvin, and Peter Carmichael, with others 
sixteen in all murdered David Beaton, cardinal-arch- 
bishop of St. Andrews, in the castle at St. Andrews, 29th 
May I546. 14 

Edward VI. succeeded as king of England on the death 
of his father, King Henry VIII., 28th January I546-?. 15 

The Battle of Pinkie was the last battle fought between 
the English and the Scots. The English, under the Duke 
of Somerset (formerly Earl of Hertford), defeated the 
Scots, under Arran the Governor, at Pinkie near Edin- 
burgh, roth September I547. 16 

Went to France. Mary Queen of Scots went to Dumbarton 
on the last day of February 1547-8, and after a stay of five 
months she embarked there, about the 7th of August, and 
landed in France about the I3th of August I548. 17 



12. Woodward and Gates, 890; 1546; Pitscottie, 191, 7 May 1546; 
CasselPs Miniature Cyclopaedia, 438 ; Tytler, iv. 454-469, Notes and Illus- 
Haydn, 60 1. trations F. 

13. Provincial Councils, 28, 29; 15. Notitia,28, 29,28 Jan. ; Chrono- 
Diurnal of Occurrents, 42, 28 Mar. logy of History, 334, 28 Jan. ; Annals 
1546 [error for February 1545-6]; of England, 313, 28 Jan.; Leslye, 
Buchanan, ii. 206-210; Leslye, 191, 193, 26 Jan. [wrong day], 

the beginning of March 1545-6 ; Pit- 16. [The Earl of Hertford had been 

scottie, 188-191, i Mar. 1 545-6; Knox, declared 'Protector,' and created 

i. 144, note i, 149-171, i Mar. 1545-6, Duke of Somerset.] Diurnal of Occur- 

and Appendix, ix. 534-537; Calder- rents, 44, 45, 10 Sep. 1547 ; Leslye, 

wood, i. 184-219, i Mar. 197-200, 10 Sep. 1547; Buchanan, ii. 

14. Acts of Parliaments, ii. 467, 216-220, 10 Sep. ; Chronicle of Aber- 
summons, 30 July 1546 ; pp. 469-474, deen, 34, 10 Sep. 1547; Birrel, 4, 
476, 479, sentence ; Diurnal of Occur- 10 Sep. 1547 ; Knox, i. 210, 213, and 
rents, 42, 29 May 1546; Knox, i. notes, 10 Sep. 1547; Calderwood, i. 
174-177, 29 May 1546; Calderwood, 245-249, 8 Sep. 1547; Annals of Eng- 
i. 221, 29 May 1546; Leslye, 191, land, 316, 10 Sep. 1547; Pitscottie; 
30 May 1546 ; Buchanan, ii. 212, 213, 194, 195, 18 Sep. 1547. 

about 7th May ; Birrel, 4, 3oth June 17. Treasurers' Accounts, ' the last 



250 MARY [1542 

The Queen-Dowager (Marie de Lorraine) left Leith, on 
the 8th of August 1 5 50, and sailed to France. On her way 
back she landed at Portsmouth, and went to Hampton 
Court, on the 22nd of October 1551. After more than a 
year's absence she returned to Scotland about the $oth 
of November 1 5 5 1. 18 

Mary (Tudor), Queen of England. Her accession is 
reckoned from the death of her half-brother, King Edward 
VI, who died 6th July I553. 19 

Resignation of the Governor. James Hamilton, 2nd 
earl of Arran, duke of Chatelherault, heir-presumptive to 
the throne, after having been Governor of the Kingdom for 
upwards of eleven years, resigned the office on the 1 2th of 
April I554. 20 

The Queen-Dowager, Regent. Marie de Guise Lorraine, 
Queen-Dowager of Scotland, was made Regent of the 
Kingdom, on the resignation of Arran, by Parliament, on 
the 1 2th of April I554. 21 

' The Congregation ' first appears in ' Ane Common or 
Godlie Band,' signed at Edinburgh, 3rd December i$$7. 22 
Married (First). Mary Queen of Scots was married to the 



day of February' 1547-8; Diurnal of Buchanan, ii. 232; Knox, i. 242, 

Occurrents, 47, 25 July 1548 ; Leslye, note I ; Peerage of Scotland, i. 699- 

209, 210; Buchanan, ii. 220; Pit- 701. 

scottie, 196, 197, Apr. 1548; Knox, 21. Acts of Parliaments, ii. 600- 

i. 219, note 3 ; Calderwood, i. 257. 603, App. 7, 8, 9, I2th Apr. 1554 [im- 

18. Diurnal of Occurrents, 50, 51 ; perfect]; Diurnal of Occurrents, 266, 
Leslye, 239; Knox, i. 243, note 2. 12 Apr. 1554; Leslye, 249, 250, 12 

19. [Notwithstanding that on the Apr. 1554; Birrel, 4, i2thApr. 1554; 
death of King Edward VI., Lady Pitscottie, 198, 199; Knox, i. 242, 
Jane Grey was proclaimed queen, and note i, 1 2th Apr. 1554; Calderwood, 
enjoyed the honour for thirteen days.] i. 282, spring 1554. 

Notitia, 29 ; Chronology of History, 22. Nat. MSS. Scotland, iii., No. 

334-338, 350, 351; Annals of Eng- XL., 'The Common or Godly Band.' 

land, 321 ; Bond, 286, 287; Knox, i. [The word ' Congregatioune ' occurs 

pp. 242, 243, and 244, note 2. eight times in the document, which 

20. Acts of Parliaments, ii. 600-603, consists of twelve lines. ] Buchanan, 
three documents absolving Arran ii. 244 ; Knox, i. 273, 274, at Edin- 
from all responsibilities incurred burgh, 3rd Dec. 1557 ; also note i \ 
while Governor of the Kingdom ; Calderwood, i. 326, 327. 



1567] MARY 251 

Dauphin, Francois, son of Henri II., king of France (by his 
wife, Catharine de' Medici), in the Cathedral of Notre 
Dame in Paris, 24th April I558. 23 

The Last Burning for Heresy. Walter Myln, a priest, 
in his eighty-second year, tried for heresy and convicted, 
was burned at St. Andrews, 28th April I558. 24 

Queen Elizabeth succeeded to the throne of England, 
on the death of her half-sister, Mary, i7th November 
I558. 25 

Claimed Right to the English Crown. After the death of 
Mary (Tudor), queen of England, Mary Queen of Scots and 
her husband styled themselves 'Fra^ois and Marie, .by 
the grace of God, of Scotland, England, and Ireland, King 
and Queen,' at Paris, i6th January I558-9. 26 

Ecclesiastical Buildings Destroyed. Many ecclesias- 
tical buildings in Perth, Stirling, Linlithgow, Edinburgh, 
etc., were plundered and destroyed by ' the raschall multi- 
tude,' in May and June I559- 27 

Queen of France. Mary Queen of Scots became Queen of 
France on the accession of her husband, Fra^ois II., to 



23. Nat. MSS., iii., No. xxxvni., Apr. 1558; Calderwood, i. 330, 24 

autograph letter from Francois, the Apr. 1558 ; Pitscottie, 199, 28 Apr. 

Dauphin, to the Queen-Dowager ; 24. Buchanan, ii. 242, in Apr. ; 

Acts of Parliaments, ii. 504-519, Knox, i. 308, and Appendix, xiii. 

relating to the marriage; 511, her 550-555; Calderwood, i. 337-343, 28 

marriage contract, dated at the Apr. 1558. 

Chateau du Louvre, in Paris, igth 25. Notitia, 30,31; Chronology of 

Apr. 1558 ; Reg. Magni Sigilli, lib. History, 338 ; Annals of England, 

xxxi., No. 64 ; Printed Precis, vol. i. 334, 335 ; Bond, 288 ; Pitscottie, 201, 

1546-1580, p. 239, No. 1315. The 8 Nov. [wrong date], 'to the great 

first confirmation of a charter by comfort of God 's servants. ' 

them is dated 2 Dec. 1558, and begins 26. Diplomata Scotise, LXVIII., fac- 

' Franciscus et Maria Rex et Regina simile of charter granted by Francis 

Scotorum, delphinus et delphina andMary, dated Paris, 16 Jan. 1558-9; 

Viennensis'; Mas Latrie, p. 1525, Buchanan, ii. 246; Calderwood, 1.437. 

son of ' Henri, roi de France'; mar- 27. Knox, i. 320-324, and notes, 

riage, 24th Apr. 1558 ; Leslye, 264, Perth, ii May 1559; Calderwood, i. 

265, handfastinge, 20 Apr. 1588 [mis- 441, 442; Diurnal of Occurrents, 

print for 1558]; marriage, 24 Apr., 269, Edinburgh, 14 June 1559; Les- 

of which an account is given ; Diur- lye, 271-275 ; Buchanan, ii. 248, 249 ; 

nal of Occurrents, 52, marriage, 25 Pitscottie, 202, 203. 



252 



MARY 



[1542 



the throne of France, at the death of his father, Henri II., 
loth July I559- 28 

Death of the Queen-Regent. Marie de Lorraine, widow 
of King James V., and mother of Mary Queen of Scots, 
died in Edinburgh Castle, loth June i56o. 29 

The Reformation was adopted in Scotland, and 'The 
Confession of Faith ' was ratified, approved, and published 
by Parliament in Edinburgh, i^th August I56o. 30 



28. Mas Latrie, p. 1525, Henri II. 
died in Paris, 10 July 1559; Reg. 
Mag. Sig. , lib. xxxi. , No. 479 ; Printed 
Precis, vol. 1546-1580, p. 311, No. 
1585, ' Franciscus et Maria Rex et 
Regina Francie et Scotie ' confirm a 
charter, 12 Mar. 1559-60. 

29. Diurnal of Occurrents, 59, 276, 
277, 10 June 1560; 282, her body 
was put on board ship at Leith for 
France, 16 Mar. 1560-1 ; Leslye, 289, 
10 June 1560; Buchanan, ii. 269, 10 
June 1560; Pitscottie, 212, 10 June 
1560 ; Knox, ii. 71, 9 June ; note 3, 
corrected to 10 June ; 590-592, Appen- 
dix, iii., buried at Reims; Calder- 
wood, i. 589, 590, died 9th or loth 
of June 1560 ; her body taken on 
board ship, igth October, buried at 
Reims ; viii. 1 58. 

30. Acts of Parliaments, ii. 526- 
534, Edinburgh, 17 Aug. 1560; The 
Confession of Faith contains twenty- 
five Articles. [The Articles are num- 
bered, and the spelling is modernised 
in the following extract.] 

XVII DIE AUGUSTI 

(1560). 

' The Confession of Faith professed 
and believed by the Protestants 
within the Realm of Scotland 
published by them in Parliament,' 
and by the Estates thereof rati- 
fied and approved as wholesome 
and sound doctrine grounded 



upon the infallible truth of God's 
Word.' 

i. Of God. 2. Of the creation of 
man. 3. Of original sin. 4. Of 
the revelation of the promise. 5. The 
continuance, increase, and preserva- 
tion of the Kirk. 6. Of the Incarna- 
tion of Christ Jesus. 7. Why it 
behoved the Mediator to be very 
God and very man. 8. Election. 

9. Christ's death, passion, burial, etc. 

10. Resurrection. 1 1. Ascension. 
1 2. Faith in the Holy Ghost. 1 3. The 
cause of good works. 14. What 
works are reputed good before God. 
15. The perfection of the Law and 
imperfection of man. 1 6. Of the Kirk. 

17. The immortality of the soul. 

1 8. Of the notes by which the true 
Kirk is discerned from the false, and 
who shall be judge of the doctrine. 

19. The authority of the Scriptures. 

20. Of General Councils, of their 
power, authority, and cause of their 
convention. 21. Of the Sacraments. 
22. Of the right administration of 
the Sacraments. 23. To whom Sac- 
raments appertain. 24. Of the Civil 
Magistrate. 25. Of the gifts freely 
given to the Kirk. 

[This is called 'The first Confes- 
sion of Faith ' ; it was drawn up by 
John Knox and others.] Acts of 
Parliaments, iii. 36, The Confession 
of Faith ratified by Parliament, at 
Edinburgh, 15 Dec. 1567; 14-22, it 



1567; 



MARY 



253 



Papal Jurisdiction in Scotland was abolished by the 
three Estates present in parliament at Edinburgh, on the 
24th of August I56o. 31 

Became a Widow. Queen Mary became a widow on the 
death of her (first) husband, Fran9ois II. , king of France, 
who died at Orleans, 5th December i56o. 32 

The First General Assembly of the reformed Kirk of 
Scotland was held in Edinburgh, 2Oth December 1 56o. 33 
Returned to Scotland. Queen Mary, after an absence of 
thirteen years, arrived at Leith on the ipth August, and 
went to Holyrood House on the 2Oth August i56i. 34 

The Battle of Corrichie. James Stewart, earl of 
Moray, in name of the Queen, defeated George Gordon, 



is printed in extenso, with references 
to the Bible in the margin. [The 
twenty-five Articles appear to be 
twenty-six, from the fact that the 
Articles are numbered Cap. I, Cap. 
2, etc., and Cap. 13 is erroneously 
numbered 14. The mistake is con- 
tinued to the end, so that each Article 
after No. 12 ought to have one 
deducted from the number assigned 
to it.] Knox, ii. 93-127, The Con- 
fession of Faith ; Calderwood, ii. 
15-41, The Confession of Faith ; 
Buchanan, ii. 273 ; Leslye, 292. 

['The New Confession of Faith,' 
17 Aug. 1616, is printed in Calder- 
wood, vii. 233-242.] 

31. Acts of Parliaments, ii. 534, 
No. 2, at Edinburgh, 24 Aug. 1560, 
the three Estates present in parlia- 
ment ordain that ' the bishop of 
Rome, callit the paip, shall have no 
jurisdiction or authority in this realm 
in times coming ' ; 535, No. 4, Aboli- 
tion of the Mass. No one to say, or 
to hear, or to be present at Mass. 
First fault, confiscation of goods, and 
punishment of bodies ; 2nd fault, 
banishment ; 3rd fault, death ; iii. 
36, etc. The above Acts ratified and 



confirmed by the three Estates in 
parliament, at Edinburgh, 15 Dec. 
1567. See also below, James VI., p. 
263, No. 9 ; Knox, ii. 124, 125 ; Cal- 
derwood, ii. 38, 39. 

32. Mas Latrie, p. 1525, Frangois 
II. died at Orleans, without issue, 
5 Dec. 1560 ; Buchanan, ii. 274, 5 Dec. 
1560 ; Diurnal of Occurrents, 63, 281, 
6th Dec. 1560 ; Leslye, 293, 1st Dec. 
1560; Pitscottie, 213, 6 Dec. 1560; 
Knox, ii. 132. 

33. Calderwood, ii. 44, 20 Dec. 
1560; viii. 305-311, Table of the 
General Assemblies of the Kirk of 
Scotland from a 1560 to 1618. 

34. [Queen Mary was absent from 
Scotland 13 years and about 12 days.] 
Birrel, 4, landed at Leith, 19 Aug. 
1561 ; Kalendar of Ferae, landed at 
Leith, 19 Aug. 1561 ; Diurnal of 
Occurrents, 66, arrived at Leith, 19 
Aug. 1561 ; 67, 68, her entry into 
Edinburgh ; Knox, ii. 267, arrived, 
19 Aug. 1561 ; Calderwood, ii. 142, 
arrived between 7 and 8 A.M., 20 
Aug. 1561 ; Leslye, 296, 297, landed 
at Leith, 20 Aug. 1561 ; Buchanan, 
ii. 277, 21 Aug. ; Pitscottie, 213, 
arrived at Leith, 21 Aug. 1561. 



254 MARY [1542 

4th earl of Huntly, at Corrichie in Aberdeenshire, 28th 

October I562. 35 

Jean Calvin, Theologian and Reformer, born at Noyon, 

in France, loth July 1509; died at Geneva, 2;th May 

I564. 36 
Her Intended Marriage. Queen Mary's intended marriage 

with Henry Stewart, Lord Darnley, was proclaimed by a 

warrant ordering that after their marriage he should be 

styled King, 28th January IS64-5. 37 
Married Secondly. Queen Mary was married to her 

second husband, Henry Stewart, Lord Darnley eldest 

son of Matthew, 4th earl of Lennox, by his wife. Lady 

Margaret Douglas in the chapel at Holyrood House, on 

the 29th of July I56S- 38 
* Henrie and Marie, be the grace of God King and Queen of 

Scottis/ issued a proclamation against ' the Lords of the 

Congregation,' signed 'Marie R.', 'Henrie R.', at St. 

Andrews, ' of oure regnnes the first and xxiij yeris,' the 

1 3th day of September I565. 39 

35. Birrel, 4, 28 Oct. 1562 ; Bucha- Quen of Scotis. ' In the same volume, 
nan, ii. 296, 297 ; Diurnal of Occur- under the title ' The names of all 
rents, 73, 74, 28 Oct. 1562 ; Robert thois thatar cryit in our kyrk quhan 
Milne (MS. Adv. Lib. W. 3. 18), 74, thai ar mariet.' 'Henry, duk of 
75, 28 Oct. ; Pitscottie, 215, 28 Oct. Albany, erll of rois, and Marie be the 
1562; Knox, ii. 356-358, Oct. 1562: grace of God quen, Soverane of this 
Calderwood, ii. 194-200, Oct. 1562. realme, i-2-, maryt in theChappell ' 

36. Woodward and Gates, 267 ; [first, second, and third time of ask- 
Cassell's Miniature Cyclopaedia, 165, ing, the 3 is scored out by the scribe]. 
'Calvinism. Its doctrines, or five Buchanan, ii. 303, 29th July 1565; 
"points": Particular election, par- Diurnal of Occurrents, 80, 28 [29] 
ticular redemption, moral inability July 1565; Birrel, 5, 29 July 1565; 
in a fallen state, irresistible grace, Knox, ii. 495, 29 July 1565 ; Calder- 
final perseverance.' Haydn, 169. wood, ii. 292, 27 July 1565 [wrong 

37. Nat. MSS., iii., No. XLVIIL, day]; Mas La trie, p. 17 50 [is in error 
' Subscriuit with our hand and gevin dating the marriage 19 July 1565]; 
vnder our signet at halirudhous the Pitscottie, 216, 8 July 1564 [wrong 
xxviij day of Januare of our Regnne day and year]. 

the xxiii yere 1565, MARIE R.'; 39. Nat. MSS., iii., No. XLIX., fac- 

Diurnal of Occurrents, 79. simile ; Knox, ii. 504, 506 [an incor- 

38. ' Cannongait ' Register of Mar- rect copy of the above, dated (in 
riages, 'The 29 day of Julij anno error) 'the tenth of December 1565' 
1565. Henry and Marie, Kyng and instead of 13 Sep. 1565], 



1 5 6 7 ] 



MARY 



255 



Riccio Murdered. Queen Mary's secretary, David 
Riccio, was murdered in her presence in Holyrood House, 
Edinburgh, 9th March I565-6. 40 

Her Son Born. Queen Mary gave birth to a son, her only 
child, who succeeded her as James VI., King of Scots, and 
on the death of Queen Elizabeth was proclaimed ' James I., 
King of England, Scotland, France, and Ireland.' He was 
born in Edinburgh Castle, iQth June i$66. 41 

Darnley Murdered. Henry Stewart, Lord Darnley, 
Earl of Ross, Duke of Albany, King of Scots, was murdered 
at the Kirk-of-Field, near Edinburgh, on the loth of 
February I566-?. 42 

Seized by Bothwell. Queen Mary, when on her way from 



40. Buchanan, ii. 299, 300, birth, 
etc. ; 310-313, death and burial ; 
Diurnal of Occurrents, 89, 90, 9 Mar. 
1565-6; Birrel, 5, 9 Mar. 1565-6; 
Pitcairn, i. 4;8*-486* ; Knox, ii. 
520-522, also Appendix, No. v., 595- 
598 ; Calderwood, ii. 313, 8 Mar. 
1565-6- 

41. Buchanan, ii. 313, 19 June 
1566 ; Birrel, 5, born in Edinburgh 
Castle, 19 June ; 6, baptized, 17 
Dec. 1566 ; Diurnal of Occurrents, 
100, born in Edinburgh Castle, 19 
June 1566 ; 103, 104, baptized at 
Stirling, 17 Dec. 1566 (a full account 
of the ceremony) ; Kalendar of Feme, 
19 June 1566 ; Chronicle of Aberdeen, 
35, born in Edinburgh Castle, 19 June 
1566 ; Knox, ii. 530, born 19 June 
*566; 536, baptized, 17 Dec. 1566; 
Calderwood, ii. 321, 19 June 1566. 

42. Acts of Parliaments, iii. 27, 
No. 19, 2Oth Dec. 1567, 'murdered 
loth Feb. last.' With regard to his 
widow, Mary Queen of Scots, the 
three Estates of Parliament declare 
that ' it is most certain that she was 
privy to the murder of the king, her 
lawful husband'; Nat. MSS., iii., 
No. LIV., furniture destroyed at the 



Kirk-of-Field; Canongate Kirk-Ses- 
sion Records, 10 Feb. ; Pitcairn, i. 
488*- 5 1 3* ; Diurnal of Occurrents, 
105, 106, 2 A.M., 10 Feb., buried at 
Holyrood I4th ; Buchanan, ii. 321- 
323, a year after Riccio's murder ; 
329, ' not the 9th of February, but 
the loth ' ; Pitscottie, 220, 10 Feb. 
1566-7 ; Calderwood, ii. 342-346, 10 
Feb. 1566-7; Birrel, 7, 'about mid- 
night, 9th February ' ; Sir Ludovic 
Stewart (MSS. Adv. Lib. W. 3. 18), 
9 Feb. ; Chronicle of Aberdeen, 35, 
' crwelly mwrdryst, 9th February 
1566' [-7]; Knox, ii. 549, 9 Feb. 
1566-7 [the writers of the last four 
chronicles may have heard on the 
morning of 10 Feb. 1566-7 that ' the 
king was murdered last night,' which 
would account for the gth being given 
as the date of Darnley's death] ; 
Peerage of Scotland, ii. 98, 9 Feb. 
1566 [error for 10 Feb. 1566-7]. [It 
appears quite certain that Darnley 
was murdered in the early morning 
of 10 Feb. 1566-7; in that year the 
9th of February was Quinquagesima 
Sunday, the loth was Monday, the 
nth Fasterns-een or Shrove Tues- 
day, and the I2th Ash Wednesday.] 



256 



MARY 



[1542 



Stirling to Edinburgh, was seized by James Hepburn, 4th 
earl of Bothwell, at Kirkliston, and was taken by him to 
Dunbar Castle, on the 24th of April I56?. 43 

Bothwell's Divorce. James, earl of Bothwell, instituted 
two processes of divorce, to dissolve his marriage with his 
wife, Lady Jane Gordon, to enable him to marry Queen 
Mary : sentence was pronounced in one process on the 3rd 
of May ; in the other, on the 7th of May I56/. 44 

Married Thirdly. Queen Mary was married to her third 
husband, James Hepburn, 4th earl of Bothwell, duke of 
Orkney, Great Admiral of Scotland, in the chapel at 
Holyrood House, on the I5th of May I567. 45 

Surrendered at Carberry. One month after her marriage 
to Bothwell, her third husband, Mary Queen of Scots sur- 
rendered to the Lords Associators at Carberry Hill, near 
Edinburgh, on the I5th of June I567. 46 

Sent to Lochleven . Queen Mary was sent as a prisoner to 
Lochleven Castle, on the i6th of June I567. 47 

Abdicated. Mary Queen of Scots was forced to abdicate in 



43. Acts of Parliaments, iii. 8, 
20 Dec. 1567 carried off the queen 
to Dunbar, 24 Apr. 1567 ; Birrel, 8, 
24 Apr. 1567; Buchanan, ii. 331; 
Knox, ii. 553, 554, note i ; Calder- 
wood, ii. 256, 24 Apr. 1567. 

44. A lost Chapter in the History 
of Mary Queen of Scots recovered, 
16-18, 3 and 7 May 1567, Appendix, 
ii. 89-93, 7 May 1567 ; Diurnal of 
Occurrents, no, 3 May 1567 ; Bu- 
chanan, ii. 331, 332 ; Knox, ii. 553, 
554 ; Calderwood, ii. 355. 

45. Birrel, 9, 15 May 1567, 'by 
Adam Bothuel, abbote of Holyrud- 
hous ' ; Diurnal of Occurrents, in, 
15 May 1567 ; Mas Latrie, 1750, 
15 May 1567; Buchanan, ii. 333; 
Knox, ii. 554, 555, and notes ; Cal- 
derwood, ii. 357, 16 May 1567; Reg. 
Mag. Sig., lib. xxxii., No. 334; 
Pre'cis of the same, printed in vol. 
1546-1580, p. 453, No. 1800 (Latin), 



'The Queen . . . with consent of 
her spouse, James, duke of Orkney, 
earl of Bothuile, lord of Halis, Crey ch- 
toun, Liddisdale, and Great Admiral 
of Scotland,' etc. 

[This confirmation of a charter is 
dated at Edinburgh, i3th June 1567, 
and bears the latest date of those 
recorded, in the Register of the Great 
Seal, during the reign of Mary Queen 
of Scots ; it is the only one in which 
the name of her third husband ap- 
pears after their marriage.] 

46. Diurnal of Occurrents, 114, 115, 
15 June 1567; Birrel, 10, I5th June 
1567; Buchanan, ii. 347; Knox, ii. 
561, note 2 ; Calderwood, ii. 362-365, 
15 June 1567. 

47. Nat. MSS., iii., No. LV., war- 
rant ; Buchanan, ii. 348 ; Diurnal of 
Occurrents, 115, put in the castle, 
17 June ; Birrel, 10, 16 June; Knox, 
ii. 562 ; Calderwood, ii. 366. 



1567] MARY 257 

favour of her only son, James VI., and she nominated her 

half-brother, James Stewart, earl of Moray, as Regent, at 

Lochleven, 24th July 1567. , 48 
Aged 24 years 7 months and about 17 days when she 

abdicated in favour of her son, King James VI., on the 

24th of July I567. 49 
Her Reign lasted 24 years 7 months and 1 1 days. 50 

REIGN ENDED 24TH JULY 1567. 

Escaped from Lochleven. Queen Mary escaped from Loch- 
leven Castle on the 2nd of May 1 568. 51 

Fled to England. Queen Mary, after her adherents had 
been defeated at Langside, on the I3th of May 1568, fled 
to Dumfries, and arrived at Carlisle, ipth May I568. 52 

Prisoner. Mary ' Queen of Scots,' after having been detained 
in England as a prisoner by Queen Elizabeth for upwards, 
of eighteen years, was tried by a commission assembled at 
Fotheringay Castle, Hth October I586. 53 

Beheaded. Mary 'Queen of Scots' was beheaded in the 
hall at Fotheringay Castle, in Northamptonshire, on the 
8th of February I586-7. 54 



48. Acts of Parliaments, iii. n, Calderwood, ii. 403, 404, the day 
No. I, Dec. 20, 1567, the demission before 3 May 1568. 

of the crown ; 13, No. 2, James, earl 52. Diurnal of Occurrents, 129- 
of Moray, nominated Regent ; Diur- 131; Birrel, 15, 13 May 1568; 
nal of Occurrents, 1 1 8, 24 July 1567 ; Buchanan, ii. 362, Langside, 13 
Birrel, ii, the Lords took the Queen's May ; 383, fled to England ; Black- 
Commission to Stirling ; Buchanan? wood's Magazine, ii. 31 (Oct. 1817), 
" 35 r > 2 5 July J $67 ; Knox, ii. 565, Article by John Riddell. 
566 ; Calderwood, ii. 372-375, 24 53. Letter from Mary Queen of 
July 1567. Scots to Queen Elizabeth, in H.M. 

49. See above, Nos. 3 and 48. Record Office. See above, p. 246, 

50. See above, Nos. 4 and 48. No. 3. 

51. Privy Council Register, 3 May [18 years 8 months and 19 days 
1568, Queen Mary had been sent to elapsed from 19 May 1568, when 
Lochleven in virtue of an Act of Par- Queen Mary reached Carlisle, to 
liament, and had now escaped ; 8th Feb. 1586-7, when she was 
Buchanan, ii. 357, the day before beheaded.] 

May 3 ; Diurnal of Occurrents, 129, 54. Kalendar of Ferae, ' The viij 

2 May 1568 ; Birrel, 15, 2 May 1568 ; februar anno 1587 Marie Quein of 



258 MARY [1542 

Aged 44 years 2 months and i day. 55 

Buried in the Cathedral at Peterborough, ist August 1587. 
Her body was exhumed, by order of her son, James I., 
king of England, in July 1612, and was finally buried in 
King Henry VIL's chapel in Westminster Abbey, on the 
/th of October 1612. 



ISSUE 

Queen Mary had by her first husband, the Dauphin, afterwards 

Fran9ois II. , king of France, no issue. 57 

Queen Mary had by her second husband, Henry Stewart, Lord 
Darnley, ' Henry King of Scots,' an only child : 

James, born in Edinburgh Castle, igth June 1566; King of 
Scots as James VI. from 24th July 1567 to 27th March 1625 ; 
and King of England as James L, from the 24th of March 
1602-3 to the 27th of March i625- 58 

Queen Mary had by her third husband, James Hepburn, 4th 
earl of Bothwell, duke of Orkney, Great Admiral of Scotland, 
no issue. 59 

Scotland wes crewalie murderit in 7 Oct. 1612 ; Annals of England, 

england the xxv yeir of hir renge ' ; 358, note z. 

Chronicle of Aberdeen, 58, beheaded 57. Tresor de Chronologic, p. 1525. 

in Fotheringay Castle, 8 Feb. 1586 58. Buchanan, ii. 313, born 19 

[-7]; Mas. Latrie, p. 1525 [erron- June 1566; Birrel, 5, born in Edin- 

eously gives the date 18 Feb. 1587, burgh Castle, 19 June 1566; Diurnal 

and repeats the error at p. 1750]; of Occurrents, 100, born in Edin- 

Pitscottie, 221, 8 Feb. 1587 ; Calder- burgh Castle, 19 June 1566 ; Kalen- 

wood, iv. 608, 609, 8 Feb. i586[-7] ; dar of Feme, born 19 June 1566. 

Annals of England, 357, 358. See above, p. 255, No. 41, and below, 

55. See above, Nos. 3 and 54. James VI., pp. 262-279, 284, 285, 287. 

56. Pitscottie, 221, in Peterbor- 59. Chronology of History, 340, 
ough ; Calderwood, iv. 610, in the note *, quotes Stat. i Jac. I. cap. i, 
cathedral kirk of Peterborough ; vii. where King James is called ' sole heir 
174, * transported to Westminster,' of the blood Royal of this realm.' 



1567] 



MARY 



259 



A TABLE OF REGNAL YEARS 



1st began 14 Dec. 1542, 
ended 13 Dec. 1543. 


13th began 14 Dec. 1554, 
ended 13 Dec. 1555. 


2nd began 14 Dec. 1543, 
ended 13 Dec. 1544. 


14th began 14 Dec. 1555, 
ended 13 Dec. 1556. 


3rd began 14 Dec. 1544, 
ended 13 Dec. 1545. 


15th began 14 Dec. 1556, 
ended 13 Dec. 1557. 


4th began 14 Dec. 1545, 
ended 13 Dec. 1546. 


16th began 14 Dec. IS57, 60 
ended 13 Dec. 1558. 


5th began 14 Dec. 1546, 
ended 13 Dec. 1547. 


17th began 14 Dec. 1558, 
ended 13 Dec. 1559. 


6th began 14 Dec. 1547, 
ended 13 Dec. 1548. 


18th began 14 Dec. 1559, 
ended 13 Dec. 1560. 


7th began 14 Dec. 1548, 
ended 13 Dec. 1549. 


19th began 14 Dec. 1560, 
ended 13 Dec. 1561. 


8th began 14 Dec. 1549, 
ended 13 Dec. 1550. 


20th began 14 Dec. 1561, 
ended 13 Dec. 1562. 


9th began 14 Dec. 1550, 
ended 13 Dec. 1551. 


21st began 14 Dec. 1562, 
ended 13 Dec. 1563. 


10th began 14 Dec. 1551, 
ended 13 Dec. 1552. 


22nd began 14 Dec. 1563, 
ended 13 Dec. 1564. 


llth began 14 Dec. 1552, 
ended 13 Dec. 1553. 


23rd began 14 Dec. I564, 61 
ended 13 Dec. 1565. 


12th began 14 Dec. 1553, 
ended 13 Dec. 1554. 


24th began 14 Dec. 1565, 
ended 13 Dec. 1566. 


25th began 14 Dec. 1566, 
ended 24 July 1567. 


Only 7 months and n days of the 2 5th year. 



60. For the Regnal Years of Queen 
Mary, with those of her first husband, 
Frar^ois II., see next page. 



61. For the Regnal Years of Queen 
Mary, with those of her second hus- 
band, Lord Darnley, see next page. 



260 



MARY 



[1542 



EEGNAL YEARS continued. 
FRANCOIS II. AND MARY 

A Table of Regnal Years from 24th April 1558 to 5th December 1560, 

2 years 7 months and 12 days, 

being the duration of the marriage of Mary ' Queen of Scots ' with her 

first husband, Franois, the Dauphin (who was King of France as 

Frangois II., from loth July 1559 to 5th December 1560). 



1st and 16th began 
ended 

1st and 17th began 
ended 

2nd and 17th began 
ended 

2nd and 18th began 
ended 

3rd and 18th began 
ended 



24 Apr. 1558, 

13 Dec. 1558. 

14 Dec. 1558, 

23 Apr. 1559. 

24 Apr. 1559, 

13 Dec. 1559. 

14 Dec. 1559, 

23 Apr. 1560. 

24 Apr. 1560, 
5 Dec. 1560. 



HENRY AND MARY 

A Table of Regnal Years from 2gih July 1565 to loth February 1566-7, 

i year 6 months and 13 days, 

being the duration of the marriage of Mary * Queen of Scots ' with her 
second husband, Henry Stewart, Lord Darnley. 



1st and 23rd began 29 July 1565, 
ended 13 Dec. 1565. 

1st and 24th began 14 Dec. 1565, 
ended 28 July 1 566. 

2nd and 24th began 29 July 1 566, 
ended 13 Dec. 1566. 

2nd and 25th began 14 Dec. 1566, 
ended 10 Feb. 1566-7. 



1 5 6 7 ] 



MARY 



261 



CONTEMPORARY SOVEREIGNS 



SOVEREIGNS OF ENGLAND KINGS OF FRANCE 



POPES 



HENRY VIII. 
1509-1547. 

EDWARD VI. 
1547-1553. 

JANE 
1553- 

MARY 

1553-1554. 

PHILIP AND MARY 62 

1554-1558. 

ELIZABETH 
1558-1603. 



Valois-AngouUme. 

FRANQOIS I. 

' Pere des Lettres ' 

I5I5-I547. 

HENRI II. 
1547-1559. 

FRANQOIS II. 

[first husband of 

Mary Queen of Scots] 

1559-1560. 

CHARLES IX. 
1560-1574. 



62. Chronology of History, 337, 
Philip and Mary were married on 
the 25th of July 1554, the first day 
of the first and second year of their 
reign. On the 27th of July 1554, 
proclamation was ordered to be made 
of their style, which was, ' Philip 
and Mary, by the grace of God, King 



PAUL III. 

1534-1549. 

[Had been married 

before he became Pope.] 

JULIUS III. 
1550-1555. 

MARCELLUS II. 
1555. 

PAUL IV. 
I555-I559. 

Pius IV. 
1560-1565. 

Pius V. 

' Saint ' 
1566-1572. 

and Queen of England, France, 
Naples, Jerusalem, and Ireland ; 
Defenders of the Faith ; Princes of 
Spain and Sicily ; Archdukes of 
Austria ; Dukes of Milan, Burgundy, 
and Brabant ; Counts of Hapsburg, 
Flanders, and Tyrol ' ; it was com- 
manded to be used in all writings. 



262 



JAMES THE SIXTH 

(STEWART) 

KING OF SCOTS 

1567 1625 

Reign began 24th July 1567, 
ended 27th March 1625, 
lasted 57 years 8 months and 4 days. 

James the Sixth (Stewart). 'King of Scots/ 1567-1625; 

'James VI, King of Scotland,' 1567 1602-3; 'James I, 

King of England, Scotland, France, and Ireland,' 1602-3 

I625. 1 
Only Son of Mary Queen of Scots, by her second husband 

Henry Stewart, Lord Darnley. 2 
Born in Edinburgh Castle, iQth June I566. 3 
Baptized at Stirling, i7th December 1566.* 

1. Acts of Parliaments, iii. 3, 15 Knox, ii. 530, born 19 June 1566 ; 
Dec. 1567 ; Diplomata Scotiae, xci. Calderwood, vi. 100, ' The King him- 
xcin., seals; CLV. CLVI. CLXIX., gold self said he was born on the igth of 
coins ; CLXVI. CLXVII. CLXXI. , silver June. ' t 

coins ; Ancient Scottish Seals, i. 16, 4. Acts of Parliaments, ii. 607, 

17, Nos. 67-69 ; Annals of England, Appendix, No. 14, 6 Oct. 1566, a 

369. taxation of twelve thousand pounds 

2. Buchanan, ii. 456 ; Chronology [Scots] granted to their Majesties for 
of History, 340, * sole heir of the the expenses of the baptism ; Birrel, 
blood Royal of this realm'; Annals 6, I7th Dec. 1566, 'named Charles 
of England, 369, only child. James, James Charles ' ; Diurnal of 

3. Kalendar of Ferae, born 19 June Occurrents, 103, 104, baptized, 17 
1566; Diurnal of Occurrents, 100, Dec. 1566 (particulars of the cere- 
19 June 1566, in the Castell of Edin- mony) ; Knox, ii. 536, 17 Dec. 1566 ; 
burgh ; Birrel, 5, 'borne in the Cas- note i, 15 Nov. 1566; Calderwood, 
tell of Edinburghe,' 19 June 1566; ii. 327. 



1625] 



JAMES THE SIXTH 



263 



REIGN BEGAN 24TH JULY 1567. 

King of Scots. James VI. became King, on the abdication 
of his mother, Mary Queen of Scots, 24th July iffi. 5 

Aged i year i month and 6 days when he succeeded his 
mother. 6 

Crowned in the parish kirk at Stirling, 29th July 1567.* 

The Regent Moray. James Stewart, earl of Moray, 
illegitimate son of King James V., was nominated Regent 
by Queen Mary, 24th July 1567. He accepted the office 
22nd August 1 5 67, and his appointment was confirmed by 
Parliament, 2Oth December 1567.8 

Ratification of the Protestant Doctrine. The Con- 
fession of Faith and Doctrine believed and professed by 
the Protestants of the Realm of Scotland, and the 
abolishing of the Mass and of the authority of the Pope 
in Scotland, as pronounced in Parliament, I7th and 24th 
August 1560, were ratified by Parliament on the 2Oth of 
December 1567^ 

Queen Mary Escaped from Lochleven Castle on the 
2nd of May I568. 10 



5. Acts of Parliaments, iii. 11-14; 
Knox, ii. 365 ; Annals of England, 346. 

6. See above, Nos. 3 and 5. 

7. Acts of Parliaments, iii. n, 
crowned at Stirling, 29 July 1567 ; 
Diurnal of Occurrents, 118, 119, in 
the parish kirk of Stirling, 29 July 
1567; Birrel, 11, 29th July 1567; 
Buchanan, ii. 352, 29 Aug. [error for 
July] ; Pitscottie, 220, at Stirling, 
29 July 1567, anointed; Knox, ii. 
566, 29 July 1567 ; vi. 555 ; Calder- 
wood, ii. 384, at Stirling, 29 July 
1567- 

8. Acts of Parliaments, iii. 13, 
nominated Regent, 24 July 1567; 
office accepted by him, 22 Aug. 1 567 ; 
appointment ratified, 20 Dec. 1567 ; 
Diurnal of Occurrents, 119, 22 Aug. 
1567 ; Birrel, 1 1, 22 Aug. 1567 ; Knox, 



ii. 566, 22 Aug. 1567; Calderwood, 
". 375-377, 24 July ; 385, 22 Aug. 
1567. See also above, James V., 
p. 239, No. 69, James Stewart 
' Secundus' ; and below, p. 264, No. 12. 

9. Acts of Parliaments, iii. 13-22, 
20 Dec. 1567, The Confession of Faith 
printed in full; vol. ii. 526-534, 17 
Aug. 1560, The Confession of Faith ; 
534, 535, The Paip and the Messe, 
24 Aug. 1560. See also above, Mary 
Queen of Scots, p. 252, No. 30, and 
p. 253, No. 31. 

10. Buchanan, ii. 357 ; Birrel, 15, 
2 May 1568 ; Diurnal of Occurrents, 
129, 2 May 1568; Calderwood, ii. 
403, 404, 2 May 1568; Tytler, vi. 
467-469, Proofs and Illustrations, 
No. i, a minute account of Queen 
Mary's escape, in Italian. 



264 JAMES THE SIXTH [1567 

The Battle of Langside. The Regent Moray defeated 
the adherents of Mary, ex- Queen of Scots, at Langside near 
Glasgow, 1 3th May I568. 11 

The Regent Moray Assassinated. James Stewart, 
earl of Moray, Regent of Scotland, when riding through 
Linlithgow, was shot by James Hamilton of Bothwellhaugh, 
23rd January 1569- /o. 12 

The Sea Serpent. 'In this time, there was a mon- 
strous fish seen in Lochfyne, having great eyes in the head 
thereof, and at some times would stand above the water as 
high as the mast of a ship ; and the said [fish] had upon 
the head thereof two crowns, the one above little, the 
downmost crown great,' July I5/O. 13 

The Regent Lennox. Matthew Stewart, 4th earl of 
Lennox, grandfather of the young king, was proclaimed 
Regent on the 27th of January 1 569-70 ; he was elected 
in July, and his election was confirmed by Parliament on 
the 1 3th of October I57O. 14 

An Archbishop Hanged. John Hamilton, archbishop 
of St. Andrews, tried for being privy to the murders of 



ii. Pitcairn, i. pt. 2, 6, ' High Trea- 70 ; Calderwood, ii. 510, 5 1 1, 23 Jan. 

son Battle of Langside,' 13 May 1570. See also above, p. 263, No. 8. 

1568 ; Buchanan, ii. 360-362, May 13 ; 13. Diurnal of Occurrents, 179, 180. 

Diurnal of Occurrents, 129, 130, 14 [In the above extract the spelling 

May 1568 [error for 13]; Birrel, 15, is modernised ;] Amos ix. 3, 'and 

' Gonew Muir besyde a hill called though they be hid from my sight in 

Langsyde,' on Thursday, I3th May the bottom of the sea, thence will I 

1568 [the 1 3th of May was Thursday command the serpent, and he shall 

in 1568]; Calderwood, ii. 414-416, 13 bite them.' [The Book of Amos is 

May 1568 ; Tytler, vi. 469-472, Proofs supposed to have been written 2357 

and Illustrations, No. 2, a contem- years before the alleged appearance 

porary account of the battle fought of the Sea Serpent in Lochfyne. ] 

13 May at Langside, from the original 14. Acts of Parliaments [although 

in the state-paper office. quoted, there are none extant for 

this date] ; Birrel, 18, proclaimed 

12. Birrel, 18, 23 Jan. 1569-70; Regent, 27 Jan. 1569-70; Buchanan, 

Diurnal of Occurrents, 156-158, 23 ii. 407, Viceroy, 12 July ; Diurnal of 

Jan. 1569-70; Chronicle of Aberdeen, Occurrents, 180, elected I7th July 

36, 23 Jan. 1569-70; Buchanan, ii. 1570; 190, 191, confirmed by Parlia- 

390-392, 23 Jan. 1571 [wrong year]; ment, 13 Oct. 1570; Calderwood, ii. 

Pitcairn, i. pt. 2, 103, 23 Jan. 1569- 567, 568, 15 July 1570. 



JAMES THE SIXTH 



265 



King Henry (Darnley) and of the Regent Moray, denied 
the first accusation, but admitted the last. He was found 
guilty, and was hanged at Stirling, 7th April iS/i. 15 

The Regent Lennox Shot. Matthew Stewart, 4th earl 
of Lennox, Regent of Scotland, was shot in a skirmish at 
Stirling, and died of his wound, 4th September I57I. 16 

The Regent Mar. John Erskine, 6th earl of Mar, was 
elected Regent, 5th September, and accepted the office in 
parliament at Stirling, 6th September i57i. 17 

The Regent Mar's Death. John Erskine, 6th earl 
of Mar, Regent of Scotland, died in Stirling Castle, in 
October I572. 18 

The Regent Morton. James Douglas, 4th earl of 
Morton, was elected Regent, and accepted the office in 
parliament at Edinburgh, 24th November I572. 19 

John Knox, Scottish Reformer, born in 1505, died in 
Edinburgh, aged 67, 24th November 1572.2 



15. Buchanan, ii. 416, 417 ; Chron- 
icle of Aberdeen, 37, hanged at Stir- 
ling, 7 Apr. 1571 ; Diurnal of Occur- 
rents, 204, 205, hanged at the market 
cross of Stirling at 6 P.M. on Satur- 
day, 7 Apr. 1571 [7 Apr. fell on 
Saturday in the year 1571] ; Calder- 
wood, iii. 58, 59, 6 Apr. 1571. 

16. Birrel, 19, in the month of 
August 1571, shot through the body ; 
Buchanan, ii. 437, 'died the same 
day of his wounds ' ; Diurnal of 
Occurrents, 247, 248, 4 Sep. 1571 ; 
Chronicle of Aberdeen, 38, slain in 
Stirling, 4 Sep. 1571 ; Calderwood, 
iii. 139-141, early in the morning, 5 
Sep. 1571 ; Tytler, vi. 162, note I ; 
Peerage of Scotland, ii. 97, 98. 

17. Acts of Parliaments, iii. 58, No. 
I , accepted the office, 6 Sep. 1571; pp. 
65, 66, Appendix, elected5th, accepted 
6th Sep. 1571; Diurnal of Occurrents, 
249, 4 Sep. 1571 ; Buchanan, ii. 437 ; 
Birrel, 20, proclaimed Regent ; Cal- 
derwood, iii. 141 ; Peerage of Scot- 
land, ii. 211-213. 



1 8. Acts of Parliaments, iii. 100, 
101, No. 9, the late Earl of Mar, Re- 
gent, died shortly after July 1 572 ; 
Diurnal of Occurrents, 317, died in 
Stirling Castle, 18 Oct. 1572 ; Birrel, 
20, departed out of Scotland [ ? died] 
28 Oct. 1572; Calderwood, iii. 230, 
ended his life, 29 Oct. 1572 ; Tytler, 
vi. 477, Proofs and Illustrations, No. 
v. ; Peerage of Scotland, ii. 212, 29 
Oct. 1572. 

19. Acts of Parliaments, iii. 78, 
Appendix, elected andaccepted office, 
24 Nov. 1572; Birrel, 20, proclaimed 
Regent, 24 Nov. 1572; Diurnal of 
Occurrents, 320, elected 23, pro- 
claimed 24 Nov. 1572; Calderwood, 
iii. 242, 24 Nov. 1572. 

20. Nat. MSS., iii., No. XLV., auto- 
graph letter to Queen Elizabeth, 6 
Aug. 1561 ; Knox, i. xiij-xxij, 
chronological notes ; Diurnal of Oc- 
currents, 320, died in Edinburgh, 24 
Nov. 1572 ; Calderwood, iii. 236, 
died 24 Nov. 1572; 240-242, copy of 
his will. 



266 



JAMES THE SIXTH 



[1567 



Edinburgh Castle, which had long been held for Queen 
Mary by Sir William Kirkaldy of Grange, one of her 
devoted adherents, was surrendered by him, on the 29th 
of May I573- 21 

The Skirmish at Redswire. The Scots, under the- 
laird of Carmichael, defeated the English, under Sir John 
Forster, and took him and three hundred of his men 
prisoners, at Redswire in Roxburghshire, 7th July I575- 22 

The Regent Morton's Resignation. James Douglas,, 
4th earl of Morton, resigned the office of Regent on the 
1 2th of March I577-8. 23 

The King Assumes the Government. In a Convention 
held at Stirling, 8th March 1577-8, it was decided that, on 
account of the unpopularity of the Regent Morton, King 
James VI. should assume the government of the Kingdom. 
This step was ratified by Parliament, at Stirling, on the- 
1 5th of July I578. 24 

The Second Confession of Faith, commonly called 



21. Diurnal of Occurrents, 330-336, 
an account of the siege, surrender of 
the castle ' to the Queen of England,' 
and the prisoners given up to the 
Regent ; Birrel, 20, 21, siege began 2 
May ; castle surrendered, 29 May ; 
Kirkaldy, laird of Grange, hanged, 
3 Aug. 1573 ; Pitcairn, i. pt. 2, pp. 45, 
46, Mr. James Kirkaldye, brother of 
Sir William, hanged, 3 Aug. 1573; 
Chronicle of Aberdeen, 40, 29 May 
1573; Calderwood, in. 281-285, sur- 
render of the castle and an account 
of the prisoners [no date] ; Tytler, 
vi. 477, Proofs and Illustrations, No. 
vi., Grange executed, 3 Aug. 1573. 

22. Macpherson, Geographical Il- 
lustrations, 'Ryd-swyre, Reid-swyre, 
Reid-squair, Redshire : the most ele- 
vated part of the Roman road at the 
head of the Ryd, and a boundary of 
the kingdoms ; whence it was the 
scene of frequent border meetings, 
and sometimes of petty skirmishes ' ; 



Diurnal of Occurrents, 348, 349, 7 
July 1575; Calderwood, iii. 347, at 
Reddinburne, 7 July 1575. 

[This is said to have been the last 
important skirmish between the 
Scots and the English.] 

23. Acts of Parliaments, iii. 116, 
Appendix, at Stirling, 12 Mar. 1577- 
8 ; 99, No. 8, discharge, 15 July 1578; 
Birrel, 21, loMar. 1577-8 ; Chronicle 
of Aberdeen, proclamation of dis- 
charge, at the cross of Aberdeen, 24 
Mar. 1577-8; Calderwood, iii. 395, 
12 Mar. 1577-8. 

24. Acts of Parliaments, iii. 115* 
Appendix, Convention, 8 Mar. 1577- 
8; 94, 95, Nos. i, 2, 15 July 1578, 
ratified by Parliament, at Stirling, 
15 July 1578. [King James VI. was 
12 years old, 19 June 1578.] Birrel,. 
21, loMar. 1578; Chronicle of Aber- 
deen, 50, the king held his first Par- 
liament at Stirling, 15 July 1578; 
Calderwood, iii. 395, 12 Mar. 1577-8. 



1625] 



JAMES THE SIXTH 



267 



' The King's Confession,' ' a touchstone to try and discern 
Papists from Protestants,' was signed by King James VI. 
and his household, at Edinburgh, 28th January I58o-i. 25 

Morton Beheaded. James Douglas, 4th earl of Morton, 
formerly Regent of Scotland, tried and convicted of being 
accessory to the murder of Darnley, was beheaded at the 
cross in Edinburgh, 2nd June I58i. 26 

Edinburgh University was founded by King James VI., 
on the I4th of April I582. 27 

The Raid of Ruthven [the first Gowrie conspiracy]. 
King James VI. was seized and detained by the Earl of 
Gowrie, the Earl of Mar, and the Master of Glammis, in 
Ruthven Castle near Perth, 22nd August I582. 28 

The New Style. Pope Gregory XIII. changed the 
beginning of the year from the 2 5th of March to the ist of 
January, and introduced the Gregorian Calendar, or ' The 
New Style,' by omitting the ten days between the 4th and 
1 5th of October I582. 29 



25. Nat. MSS., iii., No. LXX., fac- 
simile and transcript ; Calderwood, 
iii. 501-506, 'The second Confession 
of Faith,' 28 Jan. 1580-81; 511-515, 
' A short and General Confession ' ; 
viii. 33, Index, 30, 31. 

26. Pitcairn, i. pt. 2, 114, 115, note 
6, his head ; 116, tried, I June 1581 ; 
Sirrel, 22, beheaded at the cross of 
Edinburgh, 2 June 1581 ; Melvill, 

84 ; Calderwood, iii. 395, Morton 
resigns the Regency, 12 Mar. 1577-8; 
481, accused of the foreknowledge of 
Oarnley's murder ; 482, imprisoned 
n Edinburgh Castle, 2 Jan. 1580-1 ; 
557, tried and convicted, I June 1581 ; 
confession, executed, 2 June 1581 ; 
692, his head buried, 10 Dec. 1582 ; 
Tytler, vi. 493-497, Proofs and Illus- 
trations, No. xui. ; Peerage of Scot- 
and, ii. 270, 271. 

27. Original Charter in Edinburgh 
Borough Records [it is not recorded 
n the Register of the Great Seal.] 



28. Acts of Parliaments, iii. 326- 
328, 19 Oct. 1582, cancelled [22 Aug. 
1582, mentioned as the date of the 
Raid of Ruthven]; 330, 331, 7 Dec. 
l $83'> 2 94> No. 7; 296, 297, Nos. 8- 
10; 304, No. 23; Pitcairn, i. pt. 2, pp. 
in, 112, 116-132; Birrel, 22, 23 Aug. 
1582, 'The King's Majestic being in 
the place of Ruthven he was pre- 
sumptuously holden ' ; Calderwood, 
iii. 637-640, Wednesday, 22 Aug. 
1582 [22 Aug. fell on Wednesday in 
that year, and this seems to be the 
date of the Raid of Ruthven] ; Peer- 
age of Scotland, i. 662. 

29. [The New Style, or The Gre- 
gorian Calendar, which was adopted 
in Spain, Portugal, France, Holland, 
and in part of Italy, in 1582, was not 
adopted either in Scotland or in 
England until 1752, nor in Ireland 
until 1782.] Chronology of History, 
34-39. See also below, pp. 303-305. 



268 JAMES THE SIXTH [1567 

Escaped to St. Andrews. King James VI., unable to bear 
the restraint to which, he had been subjected for the last 
ten months, escaped to St. Andrews, 2/th June i$%3. SQ 

The Earl of Gowrie Beheaded. William, ist earl of 
Gowrie, tried and convicted of treason, was beheaded at 
Stirling, 4th May I584. 31 

Queen Mary Beheaded. Mary, ex-Queen of Scots, 
Queen-Dowager of France, mother of King James VL, was 
beheaded at Fotheringay Castle in Northamptonshire, 8th 
February I586-;. 32 

The ' Invincible ' Armada, equipped by Philip II., king 
of Spain, for the conquest of England and Scotland, was 
defeated and dispersed by the English, between the 28th 
July and the /th August I588. 33 

Sailed from Leith. King James VI. left Leith for Denmark, 
on the 22nd October I589. 34 

Married. King James VI. married Anna, second daughter 
of Frederick II., king of Denmark and Norway, at Upslo, 
now Christiania, the capital of Norway, on the 24th of 
November I589. 35 

30. Calderwood, iii. 715, 'went Calderwood, iv. 681, proclamation, 
out of Falkland to St. Andrews, 27th 5 Aug, 1588, preparation for resist- 
June' 1583. ance ; 692-695, overthrow of the 

31. Pitcairn, i. pt. 2, pp. 116-118, Armada; 696, universal Fast for 
tried, 4 May 1584; Birrel, 23, be- three Sabbath days ; Pitscottie, 121, 
headed at Stirling, 4 May 1584; Cal- i Aug. 1588; Annals of England, 
derwood, iv. 34, 2 May 1584; p. 35, 358-360, The Spanish Armada, fire 
declaration; Peerage of Scotland, i. ships, 28 July 1588; Woodward and 
662, 663. Gates, 120, 29 July to 7 Aug. 1588; 

32. Calendar of Feme, 'The viij Haydn, 55, Howard, Drake, and 
februar anno 1587 Marie Quein of Hawkins. 

Scotland was crewalie murderit in 34. Birrel, 25, left Leith for Den- 

england the xxv yeir of Mr renge ' ; mark, 22 Oct. 1589; Chronicle of 

Chronicle of Aberdeen, 58, 8 Feb. Aberdeen, 63, sailed from the Firth, 

158^-7] ; Calderwood, iv. 608, 8 Feb. 24 Oct. 1589; Calderwood, v. 67, 

1586-7 ; Annals of England, 358, 8 22 Oct. 1589 ; 67-94, letters from 

Feb. 1586-7. Denmark, etc. 

33. Melvill, 174-176, General J[u]an 35. Chronicle of Aberdeen, 63, the 
Gomez de Medina, some officers, and king of Denmark's daughter, 'An,' 
250 destitute Spanish men landed at was married (by proxy of George, 
Anstruther in autumn 1588 ; Birrel, Earl Marshal) to James, king of 
24, 25, 'The Invincible Armado ' ; Scotland, at Elsinore, 10 Sep. 1589; 



i62 5 ] 



JAMES THE SIXTH 



269 



Returned to Scotland. King James VI., after an absence of 
six months, landed with his Queen at Leith, ist May I59O. 36 

1 The Bonnie Earl of Moray ' Murdered. James Stewart, 
'The Bonnie Earl of Moray/ was murdered by George 
Gordon, 6th earl of Huntly, at Dunibirsel, on the 7th of 
February I59I-2. 37 

Armorial Bearings. Parliament ordered that 'lyoun 
king-of-arms and his brother heralds are to visit the arms 
of noblemen, barons, and gentlemen used within this realm, 
and to distinguish and discern them with congruent 
differences, and thereafter to matriculate them in their 
books and registers/ at Edinburgh, 5th June I592. 38 

Fraserburgh University was founded by Sir Alexander 
Fraser of Philorth. The Koyal Charter is dated at Edin- 
burgh, ist July I592. 39 

Marischal College, Aberdeen, was founded by George 
Keith, 5th Earl Marshal of Scotland, 2nd April I593. 40 



Birrel, 25, married Anna of Denmark, 
at ' Upslo, in Noruay,' 23 Nov. 1589 ; 
Calderwood, v. 68, married at Upslaw, 
24 Nov. 1589; Pitscottie, 222, a 
1 590 [wrong year]; Annals of Eng- 
land, 370, a 1590 [wrong year]. 

36. [Six months and eight days.] 
Birrel, 25,1 May 1 590 ; queen crowned, 
7 May 1590 [this seems to be a mis- 
take for 17] ; Chronicle of Aberdeen, 
65, Friday, I May 1590 ; Calderwood, 
v. 94, landed at Leith on Friday, i 
May 1590, pp. 95, 96, crowned and 
anointed on Sunday, 17 May 1590 
[May 17 fell on Sunday in 1590, the 
7th fell on Thursday]. 

37. Acts of Parliaments, iv. 15, 
S"o. 3, 21 July 1593 ; Birrel, 26, 7 
Feb. 1591-2, Patrick Dunbar, Sheriff 
of Moray, was killed when trying to 
save the earl, a detailed account ; 
34, two of the murderers executed, 
19 July 1595 ; Chronicle of Aberdeen, 
66 ; Calderwood, v. 144, 145, 7 Feb. 
1591-2 ; Peerage of Scotland, ii. 258. 



[James Stewart, eldest son of Lord 
Doune, married, in 1580, Lady Elisa- 
beth Stewart, elder daughter of the 
late Regent Moray, and thereupon 
assumed the title 'Earl of Moray,' 
and was known as ' The Bonnie Earl 
of Moray. ' His portrait is at Darna- 
way Castle, Elginshire.] 

38. Acts of Parliaments, iii. 531, 
5 June 1592; 554, 555, No. 29 (i)- 
(5), The lyoun king-of-arms and his 
brother heralds are also to inhibit 
all the * common sort of people ' from 
using any signs-armorial under the 
penalty of forfeiture and a fine of 
100. 

39. Reg. Mag. Sig., lib. xxxvii., 
No. 481, I July 1592 ; Printed Precis 
of Register, vol. 1580-1593, p. 723, 
No. 2117 ; Acts of Parliaments, iv. 
147, 148, 16 Dec. 1597 ; Records of 
Marischal College and University 
(Aberdeen), i. 78, 79, ' Note on the 
University of Fraserburgh. ' 

40. Acts of Parliaments, iv. 35, 



270 



JAMES THE SIXTH 



[1567 



The Battle of Glenrinnes. The Lowlanders, who were 
under George Gordon, 6th earl of Huntly, defeated the 
Highlanders, under Archibald Campbell, 7th earl of Argyll, 
at Glenrinnes in Banffshire, 3rd October I594- 41 

Rescue from Carlisle Castle. William Arinestrang of 
Kynmonth (Kinmont Willie), treacherously taken prisoner 
by the English in time of truce, was kept in irons in 
Carlisle Castle. The Laird of Buckcleugh, with eighty 
men, rescued him on the I3th of April I596. 42 

New- Year's Day had hitherto been on the 25th of 
March, but on the i7th of December 1 599, King James VI., 
with the advice of the lords of his Privy Council, ordered 
that the ist of January should be the first day of the 
year, on and after the ist of January i6oo. 43 

The [Second] Gowrie Conspiracy. John, 3rd earl of 
Gowrie, and his brother Alexander, Master of Ruthven, 
conspired to murder King James VI., but they were 



No. 48, 21 July 1593 ; Records of 
Marischal College and University 
(New Spalding Club), i. 39-60, Foun- 
dation Charter ; 60-77, translation 
of the Foundation Charter. 

41. [Called also Glenlivet, Belrin- 
nes, Strathaven.] Birrel, 33, 3 Oct. 
1594, also note h; Pitscottie, 222, 
1 596 [two years wrong]; Calderwood, 
v. 348-353, two accounts of the battle, 
3 Oct. 1594. 

42. Acts of Parliaments, iv. 99, 100, 
25 May 1596; Pitcairn, i. pt. 2, 
pp. 364-366, 25 May 1596 [a copy of 
the entry in the Acts of Parliaments, 
iv. 99, 100] ; Rescue, I3th Apr. 1596 ; 
Sir Walter Scott of Branxholme, laird 
of Buckcleugh ; Birrel, 37, 'the lyk 
of sic ane wassaledge wes nevir done 
since the memorie of man, no not in 
Wallace dayis ' ; Tytler, vii. 517-522, 
Proofs and Illustrations, Nos. 13-15, 
Kinmont Willie. 

43. Register of the Privy Council, 



Acta, vol. 1598-1601, fol. 205, Pro- 
clamation dated at Halyruidhous, 
17 Dec. 1599, ordaining that in future 
the year should begin on Jan. i ; Pit- 
cairn, ii. 102, copy of Proclamation : 
Chronology of History, 34-39, The 
Style ; 43, copy of Proclamation ; 
Bond, p. xvij, copy of Proclamation ; 
6- 1 8 and 46-67 ; Calderwood, v. 771, 
the year to begin on Jan. I instead 
of on Mar. 25. See also below, pp. 

304, 305- 

[In compliance with the Proclama- 
tion, the year 1599, in Scotland, 
ended on the 3 1 st of December instead 
of on the 24th of March following, 
and consequently the year 1599 lost 
all January, all February, and from 
the ist to the 24th of March inclusive ; 
but ' The New Style,' or ' The Gre- 
gorian Calendar,' was not adopted 
either in Scotland or in England 
until the year 1752, nor in Ireland 
until the year 1782.] 



s625] JAMES THE SIXTH 271 

overpowered and slain at Gowrie House in Perth, on the 

5th of August i6oo. 44 
Elizabeth, Queen of England, died at Richmond in 

Surrey, on the 24th of March i6o2-3. 45 
Proclaimed King of England. On the death of Queen 

Elizabeth, James VI., King of Scots, was proclaimed 

as ' James I., King of England, Scotland, France, and 

Ireland,' at Whitehall and at the cross of London, on 

the 24th of March 1602-3 5 an( i at the cross of Edinburgh, 

on the 3ist of March 160^ 
Aged 36 years 9 months and 6 days when he succeeded 

Queen Elizabeth on the throne of England, on the 24th 

of March i6o2-3. 47 
His Reign lasted 35 years and 8 months as King of Scots 

in Scotland, before he succeeded Queen Elizabeth, on 

the 24th of March i6o2-^. 48 
Anointed and Crowned. James the Sixth, King of Scots, 

left Edinburgh 5th April 1603, reached London 7th May, 

and was anointed and crowned as ' James the First, King 

of England, Scotland, France, and Ireland,' in Westminster 

Abbey, on the 25th of July i6o3. 49 

44. Acts of Parliaments, iv. 192- land,' at the cross of Edinburgh, 31 
214, 4 to 15 Nov. 1600 ; Birrel, 49, 50, Mar. 1603 ; Notitia, 33 ; Chronology 
5 Aug. 1600, an account of the fray ; of History, 339, 340 ; Bond, 288, 
5 2, the corpses of Earl of Gowrie and of 407-413; Annals of England, 372. 
his brother were hanged, quartered, 47. See above, Nos. 3 and 44. 
and beheaded at Edinburgh, 19 Nov. 48. See above, Nos. 5 and 46. 
1600 ; Pitcairn, ii. 146-332, 5 Aug. 49. Birrel, 58, 59, left Edinburgh, 
1600; nearly 200 pages relating to 5 Apr. 1603 ; 60, crowned, 25 July 
the conspiracy ; Calderwood, vi. 27- 1603, ' King of England, Scotland, 
45, etc., 5 Aug. 1600; Peerage of France, and Ireland'; Stow, 819-824, 
Scotland, i. 663, 664 ; Annals of Scot- diary of his progress from Edinburgh 
land, iii. 345-394, a discourse of the to London ; Pitscottie, 224, left Edin- 
unnatural and vile conspiracie. burgh, 5 Apr. ; 224-231, diary of his 

45. Notitia, 31, 32 ; Chronology of progress to London ; Calderwood, vi. 
History, 338, 339, 351 ; Bond (4th 221, left Edinburgh, 5th Apr. ; 223, 
edition), 288, 402-408; Annals of reached London, 7 May; 232,anointed 
England, 366. and crowned at Westminster, 25 July 

46. Birrel, 58, 24 Mar. 1602-3 and 1603; Annalsof England, 3/2,crowned 
31 Mar. 1603; Calderwood, vi. 206, 25 July 1603; Chronology of History, 
24 Mar. ; 210, proclaimed 'King of 339, 340, 351, Regnal Years; Bond, 
England, Scotland, France, and Ire- 288, James I. 



272 JAMES THE SIXTH [1567 

Death of the Queen. Anna of Denmark, wife of King 
James VI., anointed and crowned with her husband at 
Westminster, 2 5th July 1603; died on the 2nd of March 
i6i8-i9. 50 

Died. James the Sixth, ' King of Scots,' alias ' James the 
First, King of England, Scotland, France, and Ireland,' died 
at Theobalds in Hertfordshire, on the 27th of March i625. 51 

Aged 58 years 9 months and 9 days. 52 

Buried in King Henry VII.'s chapel in Westminster Abbey, 
7th May 162$. 

His Reign lasted as ' James VI., King of Scots ' in Scotland, 
35 years and 8 months; as 'James I., King of England, 
Scotland, France, and Ireland/ 22 years and 4 days ; as 
'King of Scots' in Scotland and in England, 57 years 
8 months and 4 days. 54 

REIGN ENDED 27TH MARCH 1625. 

ISSUE 

King James the Sixth had by his wife, Anna of Denmark, three 
sons, Henry, Charles, and Robert; and four daughters, Eliza- 
beth, Margaret, Mary, and Sophia : 55 

(l.) Henry-Frederick, duke of Rothesay, born in Stirling 
Castle, i Qth February 1593-4; created Prince of Wales in 
1610 ; died unmarried, in his i9th year, 6th November 1612 ; 

50. Calderwood, vi. 232, anointed 52. See above, Nos. 3 and 51. 
and crowned at Westminster, 25th 

July 1603 ; vii. 351, 3 Mar. 1618-19 ; 53- Calderwood, vii. 634, 7 th May 

Annals of England, 371, died i Mar. l62 5 f Peerage of Scotland, i. 53, in 

1618-19 ; buried at Westminster, 13 Westminster Abbey. 

May 1619 ; Peerage of Scotland, i. 53, ^ gee ab Nog and 

died 2 Mar. ; Burke, cxii, died 2 

Mar. 1618-19. 55. [King James VI. and his Queen, 

51. Kalendar of Feme, died 27 Anna of Denmark, had several other 
Mar. 1625 ; Calderwood, vii. 632, children who died in infancy, but 
died 27 Mar. 1625 ; Annals of Eng- Charles I. and Elizabeth, Queen of 
land, 383, died at Theobalds, 27 Mar. Bohemia, were the only two of their 
1625 ; Notitia, 33 ; Chronology of numerous family who lived to matu- 
History, 340, and notej ; Bond (4th rity.] See below, pp. 273, 274, Nos. 
ed.), 288. 56-62 inclusive. 



1625] 



JAMES THE SIXTH 



273 



buried in the south aisle of King Henry VII. 's chapel in West- 
minster Abbey, 7th December i6i2. 56 

(n.) Elizabeth, born at Dunfermline, igth August 1596 ; 
married to Frederick, Count Palatine, afterwards king of 
Bohemia, at Whitehall, i4th February 1612-13; died in 
London, i3th February 1661-2; buried in the south aisle 
of King Henry VII. 's chapel in Westminster Abbey. She 
had, with other issue, Charles-Lewis, Count Palatine, Prince 
Eupert, Prince Maurice, and a daughter : 57 

Sophia, of whom hereafter. 63 

(in.) Margaret, born in the castle of Dalkeith, 24th December 
1598, died in infancy. 58 

(iv.) Charles, born at Dunfermline, igth November 1600; 
Duke of Albany, 23rd December 1600 ; Duke of York; Duke 
of Cornwall, 1612; created Prince of Wales, 1616; Charles 
I., 'King of England, Scotland, France, and Ireland,' from 
27th March 1625, until he was beheaded at Whitehall, in 
London, 3oth January 



56. [Duke of Rothesay, Earl of 
Car-rick, Baron of Renfrew, and 
Steward of Scotland, Duke of Corn- 
wall ; created Prince of Wales and 
Earl of Chester, 4 June 1610.] Bir- 
rel, 32, born, 19 Feb. 1593-4; p. 33, 
baptized Henry Frederick, 30 Aug. 
1594; Calderwood, v. 293, born in 
Stirling Castle, 19 Feb. 1593-4; vi. 

100, born, 19 Feb. ; vii. 174, died, 7 
Nov. 1612 ; 176, buried, 7 Dec. 1612 ; 
Annals of England, 371, born, 19 Feb. 
T 593-4 died, 5 Nov. 1612 ; Bond, 302, 
303, died unmarried, 6 Nov. 1612; 
Peerage of Scotland, i. 53, died, 6 
Nov. 1612 ; Burke, 1906, died, 6 Nov. 
1612, buried in Westminster Abbey. 

57. Register of the Privy Council, 
v. 313, n., born at Dunfermline, igth 
Aug. *596 ; Chester, Westminster 
Abbey Registers, 156, note, born at 
the palace of Falkland [error for Dun- 
fermline] ; Acts of Parliaments, iv. 

101, 'baptismeof the Princesse to be 
within the abbay of haliruidhous,' 28 



Nov., 'his maiestie and the queue 
his darrest bedfellow sail mak speciall 
chois of gossopis,' etc. ; Birrel, 38, 
born, 19 Aug. 1598, p. 39, baptized, 28 
Nov. 1596 ; Calderwood, v. 438, 439, 

born at Dunfermline, 19 1596; 

vi. 100, born, 19 Aug. ; vii. 176, 
married, 14 Feb. 1612-13 ; Annals of 
England, 371, born, 19 Aug. 1596, 
married, 14 Feb. 1612-13 ; Peerage of 
Scotland, i. 53, xvi. 2 ; Burke, 1906, 
born, 19 Aug. 1596, married, 14 Feb. 
1612-13, died, 13 Feb. i66[i-]2. 

58. Register of the Privy Council, 
v. pp. Ixxxiv, 507, 542, 22nd Mar. 
1598-9, Act for shortening Lent, 'in 
respect of the baptisme of the Prin- 
cesse his Majestie's dochter;' 558; 
vol. vi. 175 ; Calderwood, v. 728, 
* Upon the 24th December (1598) the 
queene was delivered of a man-childe 
[error for maid-child] in the Castell 
of Dalkeith'; Annals of England, 

P- 371- 

59. Diplomata Scotise, xciv. , seal ; 



274 



JAMES THE SIXTH 



(v.) Robert, born at Dunfermline, i8th January 1601-2 ; died 
in infancy at Dunfermline, 27th May i6o2. 60 
(vi.) Mary, born at Greenwich, 8th April 1605 : baptized, 5th 
May 1605 ; died, i6th December 1607 ; buried in the south- 
east corner of the north aisle of King Henry VII. 's chapel in 
Westminster Abbey. 61 

(vii.) Sophia, born at Greenwich, 22nd June; died, 23rd 
June 1606; buried in the north-east corner of the north 
aisle of King Henry VII.'s chapel in Westminster Abbey. 62 
Sophia, youngest daughter of Frederick, king of Bohemia, 
by his wife Elizabeth, eldest daughter of James VI., king 
of Scots; born, i3th October 1630; married, 3oth Sep- 
tember 1658, to Ernest Augustus, duke of Brunswick- 
Luneburg, elector of Hanover; and died, 8th June I7i4. 63 



Birrel, 52, born, 20 Nov. 1600; p. 53, 
baptized, 23 Dec. 1600, created Duke 
of Albany, Marquis of Ormond, and 
Earl of Ross ; Calderwood, vi. 100, 
born at Dunfermline, 19 Nov. 1600; 
Annals of England, 384 ; Chronology 
of History, 340, 352, Regnal years ; 
p. 379, style ; Bond, 288, 303, Prince 
of Wales, etc.; Peerage of Scotland, 
i. 53, xvi. 3. 

60. Register of the Privy Council, 
vi. pp. 336, 382, notes ; Birrel, 55, 
born, 18 Feb. 1601-2; p. 56, baptized, 
2 May 1602, styled Duke of Kin- 
tyre, Marquess of Wigtoun, Earl of 
Carrick, Lord of Annerdail ; Calder- 
wood, vi. 143, born at Dunfermline, 
18 Jan. 1601-2; p. 151, died, 27 May 
1602, buried at Holy rood ; Peerage 
of Scotland, i. 53, xvi. 4, born, 18 
Feb. 1601-2, baptized, 2 May, died, 
27 May 1602, buried at Dunfermline. 

61. Stow, 862 (38), the Lady Mary 
born, 8 Apr. 1605 ; p. 891, died, 16 
Sep. 1607 ; Annals of England, 371, 
died young ; Peerage of Scotland, i. 
53 ; xvi. 5, died, 26 Sep. 1607. 

62. [Princess Sophia is repre- 
sented, on her tomb, lying in a 
cradle.] Stow, 883, the Lady Sophia 



born, 22 June 1606, died next day ; 
Annals of England, 371, died young ; 
Peerage of Scotland, i. 53, xvi. 6; 
Burke, born, 21, died, 23 June 1606. 
63. Annals of England, 542, ai7 14, 
' The Princess Sophia of Hanover 
dies, June 8, by which her son George 
becomes heir to the British throne 
under the Act of Settlement ' ; Bond, 
291, House of Hanover, George the 
First ; Burke, 1906 ; Statutes of the 
Realm, vii. 636, 12 and 13, William 
III. cap. 2, * An Act for the further 
limitation of the Crown, and better 
securing the Rights and Liberties of 
the Subject.' ' The Princess Sophia, 
Electress and Duchess-Dowager of 
Hanover, daughter of the late 
Queen of Bohemia, daughter of 
King James the First, to inherit 
after the King [Wm. III.] and the 
Princess Anne in Default of Issue 
of the said Princess and his Ma- 
jesty respectively and the Heirs of 
her Body, being Protestants, That 
whosoever shall hereafter come to 
the Possession of this Crown shall 
joyn in Communion with the 
Church of England, as by Law 
established.' 



1625] JAMES THE SIXTH 275 

Her eldest son : 

George the First, George-Lewis, born, 28th May 1660 
[great-grandson of James the Sixth, king of Scots]. He 
succeeded as Duke of Brunswick-Luneburg, on the death of 
his father, 23rd January 1697-8, and succeeded to the 
throne of England as 'George I. 1 on the death of Queen 
Anne, ist August 1714. He was styled 'King of Great 
Britain, France, and Ireland, Duke of Brunswick-Lune- 
burg, etc., Defender of the Faith.' 64 

From George I. was lineally descended 
Victoria, By the Grace of GOD Queen of the United 
Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, Defender of the 
Faith, Empress of India; born at Kensington Palace, on 
the 24th of May 1819; succeeded to the throne on the 
death of her uncle, King William IV., upon the 2oth of 
June 1837; crowned in Westminster Abbey, 28th June 
1838; married at St. James's Palace, loth February 1840, 
to H.R.H. Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, K.G., 
who was created Prince Consort, 25th June 1857. His 
Royal Highness died on the i4th of December 1861. 

Her Majesty Queen Victoria was proclaimed Empress of 
India at Delhi, on the ist of January 1877 > celebrated her 
Jubilee as Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain 
and Ireland on the 2oth of June 1887, completed the 6oth 
year of her reign on the 2oth of June 1897, and cele- 
brated her Diamond Jubilee on the 22nd of June 1897. 
Queen Victoria died on the 22nd of January 1901, and was 
succeeded by her eldest son : 

King Edward VII., born on the 9th of November 1841 ; 
married, loth March 1863, H.R.H. Princess Alexandra, 
eldest daughter of Christian IX., king of Denmark. Issue, 
three sons and three daughters. 

George, Prince of Wales, born on the 3rd of June 1865, 
second and only surviving son of King Edward VII. ; 
married, 6th July 1893, Princess Victoria Mary of Teck. 
Issue, five sons and one daughter. 65 

64. Chronology of History, 353, 65. See below, Pedigree, p. 285 ; 

E-egnal years ; 379, style ; Annals of also Almanach de Gotha; Burke; 
England, 542 ; Bond, 291. Lodge ; and Whitaker's Peerage. 



276 



JAMES THE SIXTH 



[1567 



NOTE 

The Scots College in Rome was founded by Pope 
Clement VIII. (Aldobrandini). The Bull of Institution is 
dated 5th December 1600. The first student entered in 
the year i6o2. 66 

66. Letter fromMonsignoreFraser, Rector of the Scots College in Rome. 
A TABLE OF KEGNAL YEARS 

AS KING OF SCOTS 



1st began 24 July 1 567, 
ended 23 July 1 568. 


14th began 24 July 1580, 
ended 23 July 1581. 


2nd began 24 July 1568, 
ended 23 July 1569. 


15th began 24 July 1581, 
ended 23 July 1582. 


3rd began 24 July 1 569, 
ended 23 July 1570. 


16th began 24 July 1582, 
ended 23 July 1583. 


4th began 24 July 1570, 
ended 23 July 1571. 


17th began 24 July 1583, 
ended 23 July 1584. 


5th began 24 July 1571, 
ended 23 July 1572. 


18th began 24 July 1584, 
ended 23 July 1585. 


6th began 24 July 1572, 
ended 23 July 1573. 


19th began 24 July 1585, 
ended 23 July 1586. 


7th began 24 July 1573, 
ended 23 July 1574. 


20th began 24 July 1586, 
ended 23 July 1587. 


8th began 24 July 1574, 
ended 23 July 1575. 


21st began 24 July 1587, 
ended 23 July 1588. 


9th began 24 July 1575, 
ended 23 July 1576. 


22nd began 24 July 1588, 
ended 23 July 1589. 


10th began 24 July 1576, 
ended 23 July 1577. 


23rd began 24 July 1589, 
ended 23 July 1590. 


llth began 24 July 1577, 
ended 23 July 1578. 


24th began 24 July 1590, 
ended 23 July 1591. 


12th began 24 July 1578, 
ended 23 July 1579. 


25th began 24 July 1591, 
ended 23 July 1592. 


13th began 24 July 1579, 
ended 23 July 1580. 


26th began 24 July 1 592, 
ended 23 July 1593. 



1625] 



JAMES THE SIXTH 
A TABLE OF REGNAL YEARS continued. 



277 



27th began 24 July 1 593, 
ended 23 July 1594. 

28th began 24 July 1 594, 
ended 23 July 1595. 

29th began 24 July 1595, 
ended 23 July 1 596. 

30th began 24 July 1596, 
ended 23 July 1597. 

31st began 24 July 1597, 
ended 23 July 1598. 

32nd began 24 July 1 598, 
ended 23 July 1 599. 

33rd began 24 July 1599, 
ended 23 July 1600. 

34th began 24 July 1600, 
ended 23 July 1601. 

35th began 24 July 1601, 
ended 23 July 1602. 

36th began 24 July 1602, 
ended 23 July i6o3. 67 

37th began 24 July 1603, 
ended 23 July 1604. 

38th began 24 July 1604, 
ended 23 July 1605. 

39th began 24 July 1605, 
ended 23 July 1606. 

40th began 24 July 1606, 
ended 23 July 1607. 



41st began 24 July 1607, 
ended 23 July 1608. 

42nd began 24 July 1608, 
ended 23 July 1609. 

Only 8 months and 4 days of the 58th year. 



43rd began 24 July 1609, 
ended 23 July 1610. 

44th began 24 July 1610, 
ended 23 July 1611. 

45th began 24 July 1611, 
ended 23 July 1612. 

46th began 24 July 1612, 
ended 23 July 1613. 

47th began 24 July 1613, 
ended 23 July 1614. 

48th began 24 July 1614, 
ended 23 July 1615. 

49th began 24 July 1615, 
ended 23 July 1616. 

50th began 24 July 1616, 
ended 23 July 1617. 

51st began 24 July 1617, 
ended 23 July 1618. 

52nd began 24 July 1618, 
ended 23 July 1619. 

53rd began 24 July 1619, 
ended 23 July 1620. 

54th began 24 July 1620, 
ended 23 July 1621. 

55th began 24 July 1621, 
ended 23 July 1622. 

56th began 24 July 1622, 
ended 23 July 1623. 



57th began 24 July 1623, 
ended 23 July 1624. 



58th began 24 July 1624, 
ended 27 Mar. 1625. 



67. Succeeded to the throne of England as James I. on the death of Queen 
Elizabeth, 24th March 1602-3. 



278 



JAMES THE SIXTH 



[1567 



A TABLE OF KEGNAL YEARS 
AS 'KING OF ENGLAND, SCOTLAND, FRANCE, AND IRELAND.' 



1st began 24 Mar. 1602-3, 12th began 24 Mar. 1613-14, 
ended 23 Mar. 1603-4. ended 23 Mar. 1614-15. 


2nd began 24 Mar. 1603-4, 13th began 24 Mar. 1614-15, 
ended 23 Mar. 1604-5. ended 23 Mar. 1615-16. 


3rd began 24 Mar. 1604-5, 
ended 23 Mar. 1605-6. 


14th began 24 Mar. 1615-16, 
ended 23 Mar. 1616-17. 


4th began 24 Mar. 1605-6, 
ended 23 Mar. 1606-7. 


15th began 24 Mar. 1616-17, 
ended 23 Mar. 1617-18. 


5th began 24 Mar. 1606-7, 
ended 23 Mar. 1607-8. 


16th began 24 Mar. 1617-18, 
ended 23 Mar. 1618-19. 


6th began 24 Mar. 1607-8, 
ended 23 Mar. 1608-9. 


17th began 24 Mar. 1618-19, 
ended 23 Mar. 1619-20. 


7th began 24 Mar. 1608-9, 
ended 23 Mar. 1609-10. 


18th began 24 Mar. 1619-20, 
ended 23 Mar. 1620-21. 


8th began 24 Mar. 1609-10, 
ended 23 Mar. 1610-11. 


19th began 24 Mar. 1620-21, 
ended 23 Mar. 1621-22. 


9th began 24 Mar. 1610-11, 
ended 23 Mar. 1611-12. 


20th began 24 Mar. 1621-22, 
ended 23 Mar. 1622-23. 


10th began 24 Mar. 1611-12, 
ended 23 Mar. 1612-13. 


21st began 24 Mar. 1622-23, 
ended 23 Mar. 1623-24. 


llth began 24 Mar. 1612-13, 
ended 23 Mar. 1613-14. 


22nd began 24 Mar. 1623-24, 
ended 23 Mar. 1624-25. 


23rd began 24 Mar. 1624-5, 
ended 27 Mar. 1625. 


Only 4 days of the 23rd year. 



i625] 



JAMES THE SIXTH 



279 



CONTEMPORARY SOVEREIGNS 



SOVEREIGNS OF ENGLAND 

ELIZABETH 
15581602-3. 

House of Stewart 

JAMES THE SIXTH, 

King of Scots, 

styled 

' JAMES THE FIRST, 

King of England, 

Scotland, France, 

and Ireland.' 

1602-3 1625. 



KINGS OF FRANCE 

CHARLES IX. 
1560-1574. 

HENRI III. 

(due d'Anjou, 

roi de Pologne) 

1574-1589. 

Bourbon 

HENRI IV. 

(roi de Navarre) 

1589-1610. 

Louis XIII. 
1610-1643. 



POPES 



Pius V. 

'Saint' 

1566-1572. 

GREGORY XIII. 68 

1572-1585. 

[Had been married and 
had a son before he 
became Pope.] 

SlXTUS V. 

1585-1590. 

URBAN VII. 
1590. 

Papal See vacant 2 months, 
1590. 

GREGORY XIV. 
1590-1591. 

INNOCENT IX. 
1591. 

CLEMENT VIII. 69 
1592-1605. 

LEO XI. 
1605. 

PAUL V. 
1605-1621. 

GREGORY XV. 
1621-1623. 

URBAN VIII. 
1623-1644. 

68. See below, pp. 299, 300, 303, 'The New Style.' 

69. Pope Clement VIII. (Aldobrandini) founded the Scots College in Rome 
in 1600. See above, p. 276. 



280 

I. A PEDIGREE OF THE SCOTTISH KINGS, WITH THE DATES OF 
THEIR REIGNS, FROM THE ACCESSION OF KENNETH I. IN 844 
TO THE DEATH OF WILLIAM 'THE LION' IN 1214. (370 YEARS.) 



(i) Kenneth I. ( Brothers, ) 

'Mac Alpin,' i . SO ?*I . f 

844-859. Ulpm the Scot. J 



(2) Donald I. 

859-863. 



(i) Constantine I. 

863-877- 



(2) Aed, 
877-878. 



A daughter, 
m. to Run. 



Donald II. 

889900. 

Malcolm I. 

942954. 



Dungaile. 



Girig, 
878889. 



Constantine II. Eocha, 
ooo 942. 878889. 



Indulf, 

954962. 



Donald. 



(i) Dubh, 
962-967. 



Kenneth III. 

9971005. 

Bodhe. 



Gruoch,t 
m. to Gillacomgan, 
m. 2, to Macbeth. 



Lulach 

'THB 8IMPLB,' 
10571057-8. 



(2) Kenneth II. 

971995. 

Malcolm II. 
10051034. 



Cuilean, 

967971. 



Constantine III. 

995997- 



Olave. 



* Crinan the Thane, 
hereditary lay -abbot 
of Dunkeld, and Sene- 
schal of the Isles, of 
the kin of St. Columba. 
[His father was pro- 
bably Duncan, here- 
ditary lay - abbot of 
Dunkeld, and his 
mother, a daughter 
of one of the Kings 
of the Isles.] 



(i) Bethoc, 

m. to Crinan* 

The Thane. 



(2) Donada, (3) A daug' 

m. to Finlaec, m. to Sigu 

Mormaer of Moray. Earl of Orki 



(i) Duncan I.J 

'THE GRACIOUS, 

10341040. 



(2) Maldred, 

m. dau. of 

Earl Uchtred. 



A daughter, 
mother of 
Moddan. 



(i) Malcolm III. 
'CEANNMOR,' 
1057-8 1093. 



(2) Donald Bane, (3) Melmare, JNo 
I0 93 10 94> ? Earl of surviving 



Athol. 



Macbeth, Thorlinn, 

10401057, Earl of Orkr 
m. Gruoch.f m. Ingibjo: 



Paul and 

Erlend, Ba 

of Orknej 



issue. 



(i) Duncan II. 

1094, 
m. JSthelreda. 



William 

Fitz- 
Duncan. 



William 
' The Boy of 
Egremont. ' 



(9) David I. 

'THB SAINT,' 
11241153. 



(7) Eadgar, (8) Alexander I. (10) Matilda, (n) Mar 

unmarried, ' THE FIERCE,' m. to Henry I., m. to con 

10971106-7. 1 106-7 II2 4- King of England, de Boulog 



(4) Earl Henry, 
Prince of 
Scotland. 

I 

(i) Malcolm IV. 

'THE MAIDEN,' 
11531165. 



I 

(i) Malcolm, 
strangled by 
Donald Bane. 



No 

surviving 



(2) William (3) David, 
'THE LION,' Earl of 

11651214. Huntingdon. 



Matilda, Matilda 

' The Empress m. to Stepl 

Maud.' KingofEngl; 



Henry II. Eustace I 
King of comte d< 

England. Boulogne 



t Shakspere's Lady Macbeth. See above, p. 18. 
J Shakspere's King Duncan. See above, pp. 12-16. 



281 



I. A PEDIGREE OF THE SCOTTISH KINGS, WITH THE DATES OF 
THEIR REIGNS, FROM THE ACCESSION OF MALCOLM II. IN 
1005 TO THE DEATH OF ROBERT I. (BRUS) IN 1329. (324 YEARS.) 



Kenne 

997 

Boc 

Gruc 
m. i 
Gillacc 


tn in. 

1005. 

he. 

ch,f 

stto 
mgan. 


/ Cousins, grandsons \ 
\ of King Malcolm I. / 


Malcolm II. 
10051034. 


* Crinan, ancestor 
of H.M.King 
Edward VII. 
Eleven of Crinan 's 
descendants were 
Kings of Scots 
10341285-6. 




(2) Donada, 
m. to Finlaec, 
Mormaer of 
Moray. 

Macbeth, 
10401057, 
m. Gruoch.f 

1 


(3) A daughter, 
m. to Sigurd, 
Earl of 
Orkney. 

Thorfinn, 
Earl of Orkney, 
m. Ingibjorg. 


(i) Bethoc, 
dau. and heir, 
m. to Crinan * 
The Thane. 
1 






(i) Duncan Li A daughter, (2) Maldred, 
'THE GRACIOUS,' mother of m. dau. of 
10341040. Moddan. Earl Uchtred. 


I 


| | 





t) Dui 

10 

n. ^Etl 

Wil 
Fitz-D 
.m. A] 
Kun 


.can II. 

telreda. 

iam 
uncan, 
icede 
icly. 


1 
(7) Eadgar, 

unmarried, 
10971106-7. 


(8) Alexander I. (9) David I. 

c THE FIERCE, ' ' THE SAINT, ' 
1106-7 1124. 1124 1153. 


Madach, 
Earlfof 
Athol. 

Harald, 
Earl of 
Orkney. 


(i) Malcolm, 
strangled by 
Donald Bane. 


(2) Claricia, 
(3) Hodierna, 
unmarried. 


(4) Earl Henry, 
Prince of 
Scotland. 



Lulacn No (2) Donald Bane, (i) Malcolm III. (3) Melmare, Gospatric, 

'THE SIMPLE,' surviving 10931094, 'CEANNMOR,' ? Earl of istEarlof 
10571057-8. issue. 10941097. 1057-81093. Athol. Dunbar. 



Gospatric 
of Dunbar, 
2nd Earl. 



Gospatric, 

' Comes 

Lodonee,' 

3rd Earl. 



Waltheof, 

4th Earl of 

Dunbar. 



(2) William (5) Margaret, (i) Malcolm IV. (3) David, (4) Ada, 
'THBLION,' m. to due de 'THE MAIDEN,' Earl of m. to comte 
11651214. Bretagne. 11531165. Huntingdon, de Hollande. 



Lexan 
ang oi 
1214 

lexan 
Ling o 

1249 

) Ma 
i. to I 
ing of 

Marg 

'THE 

)FNOI 

285-6- 


ier II., 

Scots, 
-1249. 

Ier III. 

' Scots, 
1285-6. 


Cons 
m.toG 
s. of H< 

Art 

dejur 
of En( 


iance, 
eoffrey, 
mry II. 

nir, 
t King 
jland. 


(i) Margaret, (2) Isabella, (3) Ada, Pat 
m. to Alan of m. to Robert Brus m. to Henry $th E 
Galloway. of Annandale. Hastynges. Dun 

Dervorgulla, Robert Brus Henry Pat 
m. to John of Annandale de 6th 
Balliol. (Competitor). Hastynges. (Crus 

I 1 

John (Balliol) Robert Brus, John Pa1 
1292 1296 m. Countess Hastynges 7th E 
(Competitor). of Carrick. (Competitor). DUB 
1 


ric, 
arlof 
bar. 

ric, 
Earl 
ader). 

ric, 
arlof 
bar. 


rgaret, 
ric II., 
Norway 

aret 

MAID 
IWAY,' 

1290. 


(2) Alexander, 
Prince of 
. Scotland. 




(i) Robert I. (2) Edward (6) Isabella, 
(BRUS), (Brus), 2nd wife of 
Kingof Scots, King of Eric II., King 
13061329. Ireland. of Norway. 


FIRST 
INTER- 
REGNUM, 
12901292. 


SECOND 
INTER- 
REGNUM, 
1296 1306. 


t Shakspere's Lady Macbeth. See above, p. 18. 
J Shakspere'a King Duncan. See above, pp. 12-16. 



282 



III. A PEDIGREE OF THE THIRTEEN COMPET 
3RD OF AUGUST 1291, SHOWING 1 



MALCOLM II. 
King of Scots, 
10051034. 


(i) Bethoc, 
daughter and heir, 
m. to Crinan. 


V 

(2) Donada, (3) A daughter, 
m. to Finlaec, m. to Sigurd, 
Mormaer of Moray. Earl of Orkney. 


(i) DUNCAN I. 

'THB GRACIOUS,' 

10341040. 


(2) Maldred, 
m. Ealdgyth, dau. of 
Earl Uchtred. 


MACBETH, Thorfinn, 
1040 1057, Earl of Orkney, 
m. Gruoch. m. Ingibjorg. 


(i) MALCOLM III. 

'CfiANNMOR,' 
1057-81093. 


(9) DAVID I. 

'THE SAINT,' 
11241153. 

Earl Henry, 
Prince of 
Scotland. 
1 


! 
(i) DUNCAN II. 

m. JSthelreda. 

William Fitz-Duncan, 
m. Alice de 
Kumely. 


1 1 1 
(7) EADGAR, (8) ALEXANDER I. (10) Matild 
unmarried, 'THEFIBRCB,' m. to Henry 
1097 1106-7. 1106-71124, KingofEngla 

No Matilda, 
surviving ' The Empre 
issue. Maud.' 


(2) WILLIAM 
'THE LION,' 
1165 1214. 


(i) MALCOLM IV. 

'THE MAIDEN,' 
11531165. 


(5) Margaret, (6) Matilda, 
m. i, to due de Bretagne. died young, 
2, to Humphrey de Bohun. unmarried. 


ALEXANDER II., 
King of Scots, 
12141249. 


Isabella, 
m. to Robert 
Ros. 
I 


Ada, m. to Patric, Margaret, Aufrica, He 
5th Earl of m. to Eustace m.toWillian Gall 
Dunbar. Vesci. Say. 

Patric, Wiliam Wil iam VII. 
6th Earl of Vesci. Say. Gali 
Dunbar. 

Patric, III. William Aufrica, 
7th Earl of Vesci. m. to Robert 
Dunbar. . Wardone. 

II. Patric Agatha, 
of Dunbar, m. to 

8th Earl, ist Mandeville. 
Earl of March. 

VIII. Roger 
Mandeville. 


ALEXANDER III., 
King of Scots, 
12491285-6. 

Margaret, m. to 
XIII. Eric II. 

King of Norway. 

MARGARET, 
' THE MAID 
OP NORWAY,' 
1285-61290. 


Marjorie, William 
m. to Alan Ros. 
Durward. 

Ermengarde. Robert 
LRos. 
IV. Wil- 
Soules. liam Bos. 



The Roman numerals prefixed to the names show the thirteen Con 
The dates show the order and length of the reigns from the accessior 



I THE SCOTTISH CROWN, AT BERWICK, ON THE 
SCENT FROM MALCOLM II., KING OF SCOTS. 



283 



LULACH 

'THE SIMPLE,' 
10571057-8. 



(n) Mary, 

m. to comte de 

Boulogne. 



(3) Mclmare. 
? Earl of 
Athol. 



Madach, 
Earl of 
Athol. 



(2) DONALD BANE, 
10931094, 
10941097. 



Bethoc, 
m. to Huctred 
of Tynedale. 



Matilda, 
m. to Stephen, 
{ing of England. 


Harald, 
Earl of 
Orkney. 








~ 
orie, 
John 
esay. 

cia, 
Henry 
;eny. 




(3 ^ 

Hunti 

(i) M 
m. to j 
Gallc 


;avid. 
lof 
tigdon. 




fr) 

m. to 
deHo 

Floi 
com 
Holl 


kda, 
comte 
ilande. 

ent, 
tede 
wide. 


Mar] 
m. to 
Lind 

Ali 
m. to 
Pinl 


.rgaret, (2) Isabella, (3) Ada, 
Uan of m. to Robert m. to Henry 
way. Brus. Hastynges. 



ST 
NDM, 


Dervorgulla, 
m. to John 
Balliol. 

XI. John 
Balliol, 


XII. Robert 
Brus of 

Annandale. 

Robert Brus, 
Earl of 
Carrick. 

ROBERT I. 
(BRUS), 
King of Scots, 
13061329. 




(i) Edward. 
(2) Henry. 


)ND 
HUM, 





Hextilda, 

m. to Richard 

Comyn. 



William 
Comyn. 



Richard 
Comyn. 



Henry Guillaume, Henry John Comyn 

Hastvnees. comte de Pinkeny. of Badenoch 

Hollande. ( ' The Red No. i'). 



X. John I. Florent, V. Robert IX. John Comyn, 
Hastynges. comte de Pinkeny. m. Balliol's 
Hollande. sister. 



John Comyn 

('The Red No. 2'), 

stabbed by 

Brus. 



order in which their ' Petitions ' are recorded in the Great Roll of Scotland. 

>lm II., in 1005, to the death of King Robert I. (Brus), 7th June 1329. [324 years.] 



284 

IV. A PEDIGREE OF THE SCOTTISH SOVEREIGNS AND GOVERNORS, 
WITH THE DATES OF THEIR REIGNS, FROM THE ACCESSION OF 
ROBERT I. (BRUS) IN 1306 TO THE DEATH OF JAMES VI. 
(STEWART) IN 1625. (319 YEARS.) 



Robert 
1306- 

(i)Ma 
m. to 1 
HighS 
killed, i 

Robe 

(STE'fl 
1370-1- 


I. (BRUS), 
1329. 


By 2nd marriage. 




rgaret, 
illiam, 
wlof 
land. 

n, 
lostage 
land. 




rjorie, 
Walter, 
;eward, 
3i5-i6. 

:t II. 

fART), 

I3QO. 


1 




(4) Da 

(BB 

born, 
1329 

S 

surv 

iss 


rid II. 
us), 
[323-4, 
1370-1- 

o 

ving 
ue. 


(5) John, (2) Matilda, 
died m. to 
in Thomas 
infancy. Isaac. 


(3) Ms 
m.toW 
S th E 
Suthei 

Jot 
died a 1 
inEng 


Both the 
legitimate 
sons of 
Robert I. 
(Brus), King 
of Scots, 
died 
without 
issue. 


1 
(i) Joanna, (2) Catherine 
m. to John, died un- 
Lord of Lorn. married. 


(i) Rob 
(origi 
Jol 
1390- 

(3) Jai 

1406 
assass 
atP 

{2) Jai 
i43 6 -7 
kille 
Roxt 

(i) Jai 
1460- 
mur< 
near S 

(i) Jar 
1488- 
slai 
Flod 

( 4 ) Ja: 
1513- 
die 
Falk 

(3)1 

1542- 
abdicat 
behead 






alter, 
r Athol 
aded, 
37- 

ties, 
fhen a 
gem 
and. 

jert 
rart, 
ided, 
37- 


ert III. 

nally 
m) 
-1406. 


(4) Alexander, 
Earl of Buchan 
' The Wolf of 
Badenoch.' 


1 1 
(5) David, Seven 
, Earl of married 
Stratherne daughters, 
and Caithness, with issue. 


(3)1 

Duke oi 
Gove 

1388- 

Mu 
Duke ol 
Govern 

behead 


.obert, 
Albany, 
rnor,* 
-1420. 

rdac, 
' Albany, 
or, 1420, 
ed, 1425. 


(6) W 
Earlo 
behe 
14 

Jar 
died v 
hosts 
Engl 

Rol 
Stev 
behe, 
14 


nes I. 

1436-7. 
mated 
srth. 


1 1 1 
(i) David, (2) Robert, Three 
Duke of Eothesay, died married 
died [? starved], in daughters, 
1402-3. infancy. with issue. 


ties II. 
1460, 
dat 
urgh. 


(i) Alexander, 
(elder twin) 
died in 
infancy. 


Six (2) Walter 
married Stewart, 
daughters, beheaded, 
with issue. 1425. 


(3) Alexander 
Stewart, 
beheadedi 
1425- 


ties III. 
-1488, 
lered 
;irling. 


(3) David, 
Earl of 
Moray, 
died, 1457. 


I 1 
(4) John, (2) Alexander, 
Earl of Earl of March, 
Mar, Duke of Albany, 
died, 1479. killed, 1485. 


(5) Mar 
i. Thorn 
Earl of 
2. Lord I 

Jai 
Ham 
ist (Ha 
Earl of 

Jar 
Earl of 
Gove 

1542- 


y, m. to 
as Boyd, 
Arran. 
lamilton. 

les 
ilton, 
milton) 
Arran. 

les, 
Arran, 
rnor, 

-I554- 


(6) MJ 
m. [ 
Willia 
LordC 

Mar 
Crichtc 
to Geoi 
Earl of 

Nor 
Les 
Ma 
of Re 


rgaret 
?] to 
m, 3rd 
richtor 

jaret 
n, m. 3 
"ge, 3* 
Rothes' 

nan 
lie, 
ster 

thes. 


aes IV. 

-1513, 
a at 
Lden. 


(2) James, 
Archbishop of 
St. Andrews, 
died, 1502-3, 


(3) John, John, 
Earl of Duke of Albany, 
Mar, Governor, 
died, 1502-3. 1515 1524. 


cues V. 

-1542, 
dat 
land. 


(i) James, 
born, 1506, 
died in 
infancy. 


(3) Arthur, (6) Alexander, 
born, 1508, and two 
died in daughters, died 
infancy. in infancy. 


lary, (i) James, 
-1567, born, 1540, 
ed, 1567, died in 
id, 1586-7. infancy. 


(2) Arthur, (i) James 
born, 1541, Hamilton, 
died in 3rd Earl 
infancy. of Arran. 


(2) John 
Hamilton, 
ist Marquis 
of Hamilton. 


(4) Claud, 
Queen Mary 
Commander 
at Laugside. 



James VI. \ Proclaimed 'JAMES I., King of England, Scotland, France, and Ireland,' 
1567 1625. / 24th March 1602-3 ; died, 27th March 1625. 

* From 1388 to 1406, in his brother's lifetime. 



285 



A PEDIGREE OF THE SCOTTISH SOVEREIGNS, WITH THE DATES OF 
THEIR REIGNS, FROM THE ACCESSION OF JAMES VI. IN 1567 TO 
THE ACCESSION OF KING EDWARD VII. IN 1901. (334 YEARS.) 



James VI. 
15671625. 


2) Elizabeth, 
Queen of 
Bohemia. 

Sophia, 
Electress of 
Hanover. 
1 


(i) Henry, 
Prince of 
Wales. 


(3) Margaret, 
died in 
infancy. 


( 4 ) Charles I. 

1625 1648-9 
(Beheaded). 

1 


i 
(5) Robert, 
Duke of 
Kintyre. 


(6) Mary, 
(7) Sophia, 
unmarried. 


(i) Charles II. 

(1648-9 1660) 
16601685. 


(a)l 

Princ 
Ora 

Willis 
Ki 
1689- 


Lary, 

ess of 
nge. 

,m III. 

ng> 
-1702. 


1 
(3) James VII. 

16851688 
(Abdicated). 
1 


i 
(4) Henry, 
Duke of 
Gloucester. 


(7) Henrietta, 
Duchess of 
Orleans. 


George I. 

King, 
7141727. 


Sophia, 
Queen of 
Prussia. 


(5) Mary II. 

Queen, 
16891694. 


(6) Anne, 
Queen, 
17021714. 


(10) James, 
Prince of Wales, 
'James VIII. 1 
1 


George II. 
King, 
7271760. 


Sophia, 
Queen of 
Prussia. 


(i) William, 
Duke of 
Gloucester. 


(2) George, (i) Charles, 
died in ' 'Prince Charlie,' 
infancy. ' Charles III.' 


1 
(2) Henry, 
'Cardinal York ' 
'Henry IX.' 


Frederick, 
Prince of 
Wales. 


(2) William, 
Duke of 
Cumberland. 


(3) Anne, 
Princess of 
Orange. 


(4) Amelia, 
(5) Elizabeth, 
unmarried. 


(6) Mary, 
Landgravine of 
Hesse-Cassel. 


! 
(7) Louisa, 
Queen of 
Denmark. 


eorge III.* 

King, 
[7601820. 


(2) Edward, 
Duke of 
York. 


(3) William, 
Duke of 
Gloucester. 


(4) Henry, 
Duke of 
Cumberland. 


(6) Augusta, 
Duchess of 
Brunswick. 


(7) Caroline, 
Queen of 
Denmark. 



4) Edward, (2) Frederick, (i) George IV.* (3) William IV.* ( 7 )Adolphus, (5) Ernest,* 

King, King, Duke of Duke of 

18201830. 18301837. Cambridge. Cumberland. 



Duke of Duke of 

Kent. York. 



I I 

Victoria, = ALBERT, Charlotte, 

8371901, PRINCE CONSORT, Princess of 

ueen and Prince of Saxe- Wales, 



^/ -y j 

ueen and 
impress. 



Prince of Saxe- TT ico, 

CoburgandGotha. died, 1817. 



I 

(i) George, 

Duke of 

Cambridge, 

died, 1904. 



(2) Mary, 
Duchess 
of Teck, 

died, 1897. 



George,* 

Duke of 

Cumberland, 

died, 1878. 



(2) 
ward VII. 

901 
ung and 
Imperor. 



ALEXANDRA, Alfred, 
Princess Duke of 

of Edinburgh, 

Denmark, died, 1900. 



(7) 

Arthur, 
Duke 

of 
Connaught. 



(8) (i) (3) 

Leopold, Victoria, Alice, 

Duke of Princess Royal, Grand 

Albany, Empress Duchess 

died, 1884. Frederic. of Hesse. 



(2) 
George, 

Prince of 
Wales, 
1901. 



Victoria Albert Victor, 

Mary, Duke of 

Princess Clarence, 

of Teck. died, 1892. 



I I I 

(6) (4) (3) 

Alexander, Victoria, Louise, 

born, born, Princess Royal, 

1871, 1868, Duchess 

died, 1871. unmarried. of Fife. 



! 

J 5) , 
Maud, 

Queen 

of 
Norway. 



^ (0 (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) 

Edward Albert Victoria Henry George John (i) Alexandra. Olaf, 

Albert. Frederick. Alexandra. William. Edward. Francis. (2) Maud. Crown Prince. 



Also King of Hanover. 



286 



VI. A TABLE OF THE MARRIAGES OF THE SCOTTISH KINGS, 



NAME 


MARRIED 


YEAR 


DUNCAN I. ' THE GRACIOUS ' 
of Shakspere. 


A cousin of Siward, earl of 
Northumberland. 


*I030 


MACBETH .... 


Gruoch, daughter of Bodhe and 
widow of Gillacomgan, mormaer 
of Moray. (Shakspere's Lady 
Macbeth). 


*IO32 


MALCOLM III. ' CEANNMOB ' 


(i) Ingibjorg, widow (? daughter) of 
Thorfinn, earl of Orkney ; 


*io59 


> 


(2) 'St. Margaret,' daughter of 
Edward ^Etheling. 


*io68 


DUNCAN II. ... 


^Ethelreda, daughter of Gospatric, 
ist earl of Dun bar. 


*io9o 


ALEXANDER I. 'THE FIERCE' 


Sibylla, daughter of Henry I. , king 
of England. 


*IIIO 


DAVID I. ' THE SAINT ' 


Matilda, daughter and heir of 
Waltheof, earl of Huntingdon, 
and widow of Simon de St. Liz. 


*ni4 


WILLIAM THE LION ' . 


Ermengarde, daughter of Richard, 
vicecomes de Bellomonte. 


1186 


ALEXANDER II. . 


(i) Joan, daughter of John, king 
of England ; 


1221 


> 


(2) Marie, daughter of Enguerand 
III. de Coucy. 


1239 


ALEXANDER III. . 


(i) Margaret, daughter of Henry 
III. , king of England ; 


1251 


it 


(2) Yolande, or Joletta, daughter 
of Robert IV., comte de Dreux. 


1285 


JOHN (Balliol) . 


Isabella, daughter of John de 
Warrenne, earl of Surrey. 


1 280- it 


ROBERT I. (Brus) 


(i) Isabella, daughter of Donald, 
loth earl of Mar ; 


*i295 


> 


(2) Elisabeth, daughter of Haymer 
de Burk, earl of Ulster. 


1302 



About. 



t Double Dates explained, p. 292. 



287 



FROM DUNCAN THE FIRST TO JAMES THE SIXTH, 1034-1625. 



NAME 


MARRIED 


TEAR 


DAVID II. (Brus) 


[i) Johanna or Joan, daughter of 
Edward II., king of England ; 


1328 


?> 


(2) Margaret, daughter of Sir 
Malcolm Drummond, and widow 
of Sir John Logie. 


i363-4t 


ROBERT II. (Stewart) . 


(i) Elisabeth, daughter of Sir Adam 
Mure of Rowallan ; 


1347 


i 


(2) Euphemia, daughter of Hugh, 
earl of Ross, and widow of John 
Ranulph, 3rd earl of Moray. 


1355 


ROBERT III. ,, 


Annabella, daughter of Sir John 
Drummond of Stobhall. 


"1367 


JAMES I. ,, . 


Joan, daughter of John Beaufort, 
ist earl of Somerset. 


1423-4* 


JAMES II. . 
JAMES III. 


Marie, daughter of Arnold, due de 
Gueldres. 

Margaret, daughter of Christian or 


1449 
1469 


JAMES IV. ,, 


Christiern I., king of Denmark. 
Margaret Tudor, daughter of Henry 


1*503 




VII. , king of England. 


* o j 


JAMES V. ,, . 


( I ) Madeleine de Valois, daughter of 
Francois I. , king of France ; 


i536-7t 


5> 


(2) Marie, daughter of Claude I. de 
Guise Lorraine, due d'Aumale, 
and widow of Louis II. d'Orleans, 
due de Longueville. 


1538 


MARY 


(i) to Francois the Dauphin ; [1559, 
Frangois'lL, king of France ;] 


IS58 


)> 


(2) to Henry Stewart, Lord Darnley, 
son of Matthew, 4th earl of 
Lennox ; 


1565 


j> j> 


(3) to James Hepburn, 4th earl of 
Bothwell, duke of Orkney . 


1567 


JAMES VI. 


Anna, daughter of Frederick II., 
king of Denmark and Norway. 


1589 



*t About. 



t Double Dates explained, p. 292. 



288 

VII. A PEDIGREE OF THE EANULPHS, EARLS OF MORAY, 131213 
[See above, Preface, p. xv.] 

Thomas Ranulph,* 

m. Elisabeth, dau. of Robert Bruce,* 

Earl of Carrick, sister of 

Robert I.,* King of Scots. 

SIR THOMAS RANULPH,* 

Lord of Man and Annandale, 
CREATED EARL OF MORAY in 1312, 

by his uncle, King Robert I.* 
Guardian of Scotland, 1327-1332. Died 2oth July 1332. 



THOMAS RANULPH, 


(i, 

JOHN RANULPH,* 


'BLACK AGNES OF DUNBAR,' 


Isab. 


2ND EARL OF MORAY, 


3RD EARL OF MORAY, 


COUNTESS OF MARCH AND MORAY.* 


rn. i 


Lord of Man 


Lord of Man and 


m. to Patric,* gih Earl of Dunbar, 


Pati 


and Annandale, 


Annandale, 


2nd Earl of March, Papal 


Dun 


only three weeks 
an Earl. 


m. Euphemia.* dau. 
of Hugh, Earl of Ross. 


Dispensation, i6th Jan. 1323-4. 
Successfully defended 


who 
inC; 


He was 


Killed at the battle of 


Dunbar Castle 


on hi 


killed at the 


Durham, ijth October 


against the English 


to 


battle of Dupplin, 


1346. No surviving issue. 


for five months in 1338. 


Holy 


1 2th August 1332. 


His widow was 2nd wife 


Died in 1368. 


inn 


No surviving issue. 


of King Robert II.* 


No surviving issue. 


Left 



I 

Sir David 
of Dunbar,* 
of Cockburn. 



I I I I 

John. Patric. Sir Gawane. Columba of Dunbar,* 

Bishop of Moray. 1418-1435. 

Effigy on his tomb 

in the Dunbar aisle in the 

Cathedral at Elgin. 



tlj 

Elisabeth of Dili 
married to D 1 
eldest son of jl 
Robert III.* j* 

above, p. 180, Nl4 



Impression of Seal extant. 



289 



III. A PEDIGREE OF THE DUNBARS, EARLS OF MORAY, 1346-1429. 
[See above, Preface, p. xv,] 

IX 

PatricofDunbar,* 

7th Earl of Dunbar 

(see above, pp. 281, 282), 

b. c. 1213, d. at Whittinghame, 24th Aug. 1289, 

buried in the north aisle of the church at Dunbar. 

I 



Patric of Dunbar,* 
8th Earl of Dunbar, 

ist Earl of March, 
b. 1242 (Competitor, 1291), 
d. loth October 1308, set. 66. 



John. 

Male 

line 

extinct. 



L 



PATRIC OF DUNBAR,* 
9th Earl of Dunbar, 
2nd Earl of March, 
4TH EARL OF MORAY, 

(1) 1303, the Lady Ermigarda ; 

(2) 1323-4, 'Black Agnes,'* 
elder dau. of Sir Thomas Ranulph,* 

ist Earl of Moray. Died 1368, 
set. 84. No surviving issue. 



m. 



Sir Alexander of Dunbar,* 
Impressions of seal, a 1288, 
in B.M. and in Record Office. 
Witness at Dunbar, a 1318. 

(Raine, app. 78, No. 432.) 

XI 

Sir Patric of Dunbar,* 

present at the battles of 

Durham, i7th Oct. 1346, and 

Poitiers, igth Sept. 1356, 

m. Isabella,* younger dau. 

of Sir Thomas Ranulph,* 

ist Earl of Moray. 
Died in Candia, on his way 
to the Holy Land, in 1356-7. 



George of Dunbar,* ' Patrike 

oth Earl of Dunbar, off Dunbarr * m. to James 

3rd Earl of March, lorde of Douglas, 

Lord of Man and of bele. ' Lord of Dalkeith, 

Innandale. Charter Ancestor of died before 

confirmed by King William igth Dec. 1392 ; 

avid II.,* 2$th July Dunbar, buried at 

368, d. 1416, set. 82. the Poet. Neubotle. 



I 

XII 

JOHN OF DUNBAR,* 

5TH EARL OP MORAY, 
m. Marjorie,* dau. of King Robert II.,* 

Papal Dispensation, nth July 1370, 
CREATED EARL AND COUNTESS OP MORAY, 
in Parliament at Scone, 9th March 1371-2. 
He died at York, 1391. The Countess was 
m. 2ndly to Alexander Keith of Grandown. 



(2) 

3eorge of Dunbar,* 
th Earl of Dunbar, 
th Earl of March. 

Attainted, 
th January 1434-5. 



THOMAS OF DUNBAR,* 

6TH EARL OP MoRAY,f 
nephew of King Robert III.* 
Taken prisoner at Homildon, 

i4th September 1402. 



I 

XIII 

Alexander of Dunbar, 
m. Mauld, daughter and 

heir of James Fraser,* 
of Frendraught. Died 
before 2oth Feb. 1420-1. 



Euffame.f 

Indenture 

at Fynletter, 

for her proposed 

marriage to 

Alexander Comyne, 

28th May 1408. 



THOMAS OF DUNBAR, 

7TH EARL OP MORAY, f 

Hostage for 

James I.,* 

King of Scots, 

died in 1427. 

No issue. 



XIV 

JAMES OF DUNBAR,* 

STH EARL OF MORAY. 

Hostage for James I.,* King of Scots, 

m. Isabella, dau. of Sir Walter Innes * 

of that Ilk. Also Janet, dau. of Alexander 

of Seton,* ist Earl of Huntly. 
Murdered at Frendraught, loth Aug. 1429. 



* Impression of Seal extant, 
t There does not appear to be any evidence 
to prove whether the 7th Earl was or was not 



the same person as the 6th Earl. Euffame 
may have been daughter of John of Dunbar, 
5th Earl of Moray. 



290 



IX. THE USE OF THE TABLES AND CALENDARS 
EXPLAINED 

The foregoing Tables of Regnal Years ; the following explanation 
of ' Double Dates ' ; the Table of Easter Day ; the Tables of Ash 
Wednesday and of the Principal Moveable Feasts before and after 
Easter ; the Alphabetical Table of the Popes and Antipopes ; and 
the Alphabetical, Church, and Latin Calendars; are provided to 
enable any person to translate the dates in old documents or 
chronicles into our present computation. 

Some documents were dated by a Regnal year; for instance, 
King Alexander II. granted a charter 1 to the monks at Pluscarden, 
dated yth April, in the 22nd year of his reign. On referring to 
the Table of his Regnal Years (see above, p. 93), the year will be 
found to be 1236. 

Some documents were dated by a Saint's day; for instance 
* St. Andrew's Day.' On referring to the Alphabetical Calendar 
(see below, p. 330), this will be found to be the 3oth of November. 

Some documents were dated by an Octave ; for instance, an 
Inquisition dated ' die Dominica in octabis Sancte Trinitatis anno 
regni Eegis Edwardi sextodecimo' (on Sunday the Octave of Holy 
Trinity in the 1 6th year of the reign of King Edward). Easter 
Day fell on the 28th of March in 1288 (16 Edward I.), Trinity 
Sunday was on the 23rd of May, and the Sunday following (3oth 
May) was the Octave of the feast. 

* In Octabis ' seems to be erroneously accepted as meaning on any 
day during the Octave, but a careful examination of the Records 
proves that it was on the day of the Octave and not on any day during 
the Octave, Nicolas, Hardy, Bond, etc., etc., notwithstanding. 2 

Some documents were dated by a Moveable Feast ; for instance, 
the ' Letter,' written in Norman French, which was presented by 
the ' Competitors ' for the Scottish Crown to Edward I., king of 
England, the chosen arbitrator. The Letter is dated ' at Norham 
the Wednesday after the Ascension in the year of Grace 1291. ' 3 

1. Nat. MSS. of Scotland, Part i. xxvi, by John A. C. Vincent. See 
p. 26, No. XLVIII. See also above, also below, p. 338, note. 

p. 90, No. 19, and p. 93, 22nd year. 3. Nat. MSS. of Scotland, Part i. 

2. See 'The Record Society,' vol. p. 37, No. LXXI.; Cal. Doc. Scot., 
xxvii. a 1893, ' Lancashire Lay Sub- ii. 120, No. 492. See also above, 
sidies,' vol. i. Introduction, pp. xxiii- The First Interregnum, p. in, No. 4. 



291 



THE USE OF THE TABLES AND CALENDARS 
EXPLAINED continued. 

The exact date of this 'Letter,' according to our present com- 
putation, may be ascertained by referring 

(1) To the Alphabetical Calendar (see below, p. 330), where 

it appears that Ascension Day is a moveable feast ; 

(2) To the Table of Easter Day (see below, p. 311), where it ap- 

pears that in the year 1291 Easter Day on which the 
moveable feasts depend fell on the 22nd of April ; and 

(3) To the Table of Moveable Feasts after Easter (see below, 

p. 324), where it appears that when Easter Day falls on 
the 2 2nd of April, Ascension Day falls on Thursday 
the 3ist of May; consequently the date of the Letter, 
'Wednesday after the Ascension in the year of Grace 
1 29 1, 'was according to our present computation the 
6th of June 1291. 

Some documents were dated by Calends or Kalends, Nones, or 
Ides; for instance, 'xix. Cal. Jan/ On referring to the Latin 
Calendar (see below, p. 357), this will be found to be the i4th of 
December. 

Some documents were dated by the Regnal Year of a Pope ; for 
instance, the Bull of Pope Honorius III., ' given at the Lateran by 
the hand of Ranerius, the Vice-Chancellor of the Holy Roman 
Church, on the eleventh of the Kalends of December, the seventh 
Indiction, in the year of the Incarnation of our Lord, twelve 
hundred and eighteen, and of the Pontificate of our lord Pope 
Honorious III., the third year.' 4 



NOTE 

For an explanation of the Indictions, the Epact, the Golden 
Number or Prime, the Dominical or Sunday Letter, etc., see The 
Chronology of History by Sir Harris Nicolas ; and Monthly Star 
Maps, MCM. (1900), by Walter B. Blaikie. 

4. Nat. MSS., i. 25, No. XLVII. Alexander II., p. 88, No. 10 ; and 
Honorious III. was consecrated on below, An Alphabetical Table of the 
the 24th of July 1216. See also above, Popes and Antipopes, p. 327. 



292 



X. DOUBLE DATES EXPLAINED 

Events in Scottish history which happened in any year before 
1600, on any day from the ist of January to the 24th of March 
inclusive, are often incorrectly assigned to a particular year. The 
cause of this is explained in the following remarks : 

In Scotland, before the ist of January 1600, letters, deeds, 
royal charters, etc., were usually dated by the civil computation, 
in which the year began on the 25th of March (The Annunciation) ; 
although Papal Bulls and occasionally other documents were dated 
by the historical computation, in which the year began on the 
ist of January. 

Both computations assign each day, from the 25th of March to 
the 3 ist of December inclusive, to the same year; but they assign 
each day, from the ist of January to the 24th of March inclusive, 
to a different year. 

As the use of two computations proved inconvenient, King 
James VI., with advice of the Lords of his Privy Council, issued a 
Proclamation, dated Haliruidhous, i;th December 1599. This 
Proclamation ordained that, in and after 1600, the year should 
begin on the ist of January, instead of on the 25th of March. 
[But the Proclamation did not introduce the New Style, as it 
did not deduct the ten extra days that the Julian method of com- 
puting the year had erroneously accumulated. The New Style 
was first adopted in Scotland and in England, in compliance with 
an Act of Parliament, on the i4th of September I752. 1 ] 

Accordingly, the year 1599, which had begun on the 25th of 
March, ended on the 3 ist of December, and consequently lost all 
January, all February, and from the ist to the 24th of March 
inclusive, and only lasted 9 months and 7 days. 

This change gave rise to the necessity of using a double date 
when referring to events that had taken place before the year 
1752 on any day from the ist of January to the 24th of March in- 
clusive, in order to show the year according to both computations. 

When a double date is given, the first year shows the first or 

i. See below, pp. 299, 303-305, 317. 



DOUBLE DATES EXPLAINED 293 

old computation, that is, the civil or legal year as it was reckoned 
in Scotland before 1752 ; the last year shows the last, present, or 
historical computation as it is reckoned now (1906). 

THE EARLIEST EXAMPLE OF A DOUBLE DATE IN THIS BOOK. 

Malcolm II. became king of Scots on the death of Kenneth III. 
in 1005. The exact date of his accession is unknown, but the 
nearest approach to reconciling the statements in the different 
chronicles is to suppose that it took place on the 25th of March 
the first day of 1005. This makes the first regnal year of 
Malcolm II. begin on the 25th of March 1005, and end on the 24th 
of March 1005-6 (see above, p. 4, note 23). Another example: 

THE DEATH OF ALEXANDER III., IQTH MARCH 1285-6. 

Any person reading that Alexander III., king of Scots, was 
killed by a fall from his horse on the i9th of March 1285, would 
not know by which computation his death was assigned to that 
year, and consequently could not tell how many years had elapsed 
since the event. 

But if the double date were given, as it sometimes is, and 
always ought to be, thus : iQth March 1285-6, three facts relating 
to the death of Alexander III. would be shown, viz. : 

1. That 1285 was the year of his death according to the 
ancient Scottish computation, as it was reckoned in the time of 
Alexander III., and as it appears in the old chronicles ; 

2. That 1286 was the year of his death according to the histori- 
cal computation as it is reckoned now (1906) ; and 

3. That the 6ooth anniversary of his death (according to the New 
Style) occurred on the i9th of March 1886. Another example : 

THE BIRTH OF DAVID II., $TH MARCH 1323-4. 
David II., king of Scots, reckoned that he was born on the 5th 
of March 1323, whereas we reckon that he was born on the 5th of 
March 1324. Both dates are correct, and really mean the same 
day; because from his point of view the year 1323 began on the 
25th of March, and ended on the 24th of March following; where- 
as from our point of view the year 1323 began on the ist of 
January, and ended on the 3ist of December following. Accord- 
ing to the old computation, David II. was born on the 346th day 
of the year 1323. According to the present computation, he was 



294 DOUBLE DATES EXPLAINED 

born on the 64th day of the year 1324. Therefore, to show both 
computations, in speaking or writing now of the date of his birth, 
the date ought to be described thus : 5th March 1323-4. Another 
example : 

3 1ST DECEMBER 1459, NEXT DAY, 1ST JANUARY 1459. 

Suppose a charter dated 3ist December 1459, confirmed next 
day by the king; the king's confirmation would be dated ist 
January 1459, which would appear to us to be a year before the 
charter was granted. Therefore, in speaking or writing now of 
the date of the king's confirmation, it ought to be described thus : 
ist January 1459-60. Another example: 

24TH MARCH 1594, NEXT DAY, 25TH MARCH 1595. 

Suppose a charter dated 24th March 1594, confirmed next day 
by the king; the king's confirmation would be dated 25th March 
1595, which would appear to us to be, not one day, but a year and 
one day after the charter was granted. Therefore, in speaking or 
writing now of the date of the charter, it ought to be described 
thus: 24th March 1594-5; the date of the king's confirmation, 
25th March 1595, would be the same in both computations. 
Another example : 

THE ACCESSION OF JAMES VI. TO THE THRONE OF ENGLAND, 
24TH MARCH 1602-3. 

King James the Sixth of Scotland succeeded to the throne of 
England, as James I., upon the death of Queen Elizabeth on the 
24th of March 1602-3, which in Scotland was reckoned the 83rd 
day of 1603; but in England it was the 365^, or last, day of 
1602. Therefore, in speaking or writing now of the date of the 
accession of King James to the throne of England, the date ought 
to be described thus : 24th March 1602-3. 

DISADVANTAGE OF OMITTING THE DOUBLE DATE. 

If only one year be given it is impossible to know which com- 
putation is used, or whether the event is correctly assigned to the 
particular year ; and if only the historical year be given, it does 
not correspond with the year shown in contemporary authorities, 
which makes it liable to create confusion. 

Double dates are unnecessary for events that occurred in Great 
Britain on or after the 25th of March 1751. 



295 



XI. THE PRINCIPAL MOVEABLE FEASTS AND 
FASTS IN CHRONOLOGICAL ORDER 

[See also below, the Tables, pp. 308-324.] 

In Scotland, before the Reformation, the days seem to have 
been reckoned from sunset to sunset, not from midnight to mid- 
night, as at present (1906). 'And the evening and the morning 
were the first day ' (Genesis i. 5), not the morning and the evening. 
Feasts. All Sundays are Feasts. 
Fasts. All Fridays are Fasts, except those that fall on Christmas 

Day. 

The moveable Feasts and Fasts depend upon Easter Day. 
Advent Sunday, or, more correctly, ' The First Sunday in Advent ' 

is on St. Andrew's Day (the 3oth day of November) when that day 

falls on Sunday ; but when St. Andrew's Day falls on a week 

day, Advent Sunday is the nearest Sunday to it, whether before 

or after ; so that Advent Sunday is never more than three days 

from St. Andrew's Day. 1 
Septuagesima Sunday is the third Sunday before Lent, and the 

ninth Sunday before Easter. 
Sexagesima Sunday is the second Sunday before Lent, and the 

eighth Sunday before Easter. 
Quinquagesima Sunday is the Sunday next before Lent, and the 

seventh Sunday before Easter. It is called Quinquagesima 

(5oth) from its being fifty days before Easter. 
Fasterns-een, Shrove Tuesday, or Mardi Gras, is the day next 

before Ash Wednesday, and the last day of the Carnival; it 

is the seventh Tuesday before Easter. Lent begins on the 

evening of Fasterns-een. 

I. Advent is generally supposed which is omitted from the present 

to be the beginning of the ecclesi- Books of Common Prayer, viz. : 

astical year in Western Christendom. ' Note, that the Supputation of the 

In the ' Annexed ' Book of Common year of our Lord in the Church of 

Prayer, signed by Convocation on England beginneth the 25 day of 

the 20th of December 1661, and March.' [This Note seems to have 

attached to ' the Act of Uniformity,' been superseded on the ist of January 

there is the following note at the 1752, on the adoption of the New 

end of the Table of Moveable Feasts, Style, by Act of Parliament. ] 



296 PRINCIPAL MOVEABLE FEASTS AND FASTS 

The following lines are still (1906) in use in the north-east of 
Scotland, viz. : 

' First comes Cannilmas,- and syne 3 the new meen, 4 
The first Tysday 5 efter that, that 's Fasterns-een ; 
That meen oot, 6 and anither at its hicht, 7 
The first Sunday efter that, that '* Paice 8 richt.' 

Shrove Tuesday. See above, * Fasterns-een.' 

Lent 9 is a Fast of forty days. It begins on the evening of 
Fasterns-een, or Shrove Tuesday, and extends to Easter Even, 
that is, to the Saturday evening next before Easter. Sundays 
being 'Feasts,' are not included in counting the forty days' 
Lenten Fast. 

Ash Wednesday is the day after Fasterns-een, or Shrove Tuesday, 
and is the seventh Wednesday before Easter. 

Quadragesima. Lent, the forty fast days before Easter. 

Quadragesima Sunday is the first Sunday in Lent, and the sixth 
Sunday before Easter. 

Palm Sunday, on which day the triumphal entry of our LORD 
into Jerusalem is commemorated, is the sixth Sunday in Lent, 
and the Sunday next before Easter. 

Maundy Thursday, on which day the institution of the Blessed 
Sacrament used to be commemorated, is the Thursday next 
before Easter. 10 

Good Friday, on which day the Crucifixion of our LORD n is com- 
memorated, is the Friday next before Easter. 

Easter Even is the Saturday next before Easter. 



2. Candlemas : the 2nd of Feb- 10. As Maundy or Skire Thursday 
ruary, the Presentation of Christ in is in Lent and a Fast day, the com- 
the Temple, or the Purification of memoration of the Institution of the 
the Blessed Virgin Mary. Blessed Sacrament was transferred, 

3. then. in the year 1264, to the Thursday next 

4. moon. after Trinity Sunday. See 'Corpus 

5. Tuesday. Christi,' on the opposite page. 

6. out. ii. The Crucifixion of our LORD 

7. height. is supposed to have taken place on 

8. Pasch, or Easter Day. Friday the ;th of April Anno Domini 
Q. ' Lent,' the Anglo-Saxon for 29, that is, Anno Christi 33, when he 

'Spring,' is 'Quadragesima' in Latin, was 32 years, 3 months, and 13 days 

and ' Careme ' in French. old. See below, p. 300. 






PRINCIPAL MOVEABLE FEASTS AND FASTS 297 

Easter, Pasch, Paice, Easter Day, or Easter Sunday, on which 
day the .Resurrection of our LORD 12 is commemorated, is 
the first Sunday after the first full moon that falls upon, or next 
after the 2ist of March. If the full moon falls on Sunday, 
Easter Day is the Sunday after. The earliest date on which 
Easter Day can fall is the 22nd of March, the latest date on 
which Easter Day can fall is the 25th of April; therefore there 
are thirty-five different dates on which Easter Day may fall. 13 

Ascension Day, or Holy Thursday, on which day the Ascension of 
our LORD is commemorated, is the sixth Thursday, or the 
thirty-ninth day after Easter. 

Pentecost, Whit-Sunday, or Whitsun-Day, on which day the 
descent of the HOLY GHOST is commemorated, is the seventh 
Sunday, or the forty-ninth day after Easter. 

Trinity Sunday, or the First Sunday after Pentecost, the Feast in 
honour of the Holy Trinity, is the eighth Sunday after Easter ; 
its observance was decreed at the Synod of Aries in the year 

I260. 14 

Corpus Christi (the Body of Christ). This Feast, on which day 
the institution of the Blessed Sacrament is commemorated, was 
transferred from Maundy Thursday a fast day and is now 
held on the Thursday next after Trinity Sunday ; it was author- 
ised and promulgated by Pope Urban IV. in the year 1264. 

12. The Resurrection of our LORD Book of Common Prayer. See 
is supposed to hare taken place on Walter B. Blaikie's Monthly Star 
Sunday the gth of April, Anno Domini Maps, MOM. (1900), p. v b .] 

29, that is, Anno Christi 33. See [The word ' Easter ' in the Author- 
below, p. 301. In mediaeval calendars ised Version of the Bible (Acts, 
the Resurrection of our LORD was chapter xii. verse 4) is 'Passover' in 
commemorated on the 27th of March. the Revised Version.] 

13. See below, Table of Easter 14. In the Scottish Episcopal 
Day, pp. 308-320. [There is an Church and in the English Church 
error in the Sealed Book of Common the Sundays between Trinity and 
Prayer (1661). In the Rule for the Advent are reckoned from Trinity 
reckoning of Easter the words Sunday. In the Roman Church the 
* upon, or ' are omitted. Conse- Sundays between Trinity and Advent 
quently no provision was made for are reckoned from Pentecost.* 

the occurrence of Easter Day on the The ancient Scottish Church is 
22nd of March. The error was cor- styled Scoticana ecclesia and Sco- 
rected in the 1751 edition of the ciana ecclesia in Papal Bulls. t 



* Hook, A Church Dictionary, zoth edi- t Nat. MSS., Part i. No. XLVII. ; Part ii. 

tion, 1867, p. 773. No. LXIII. 



298 



XII. SOME NOTES ON ERAS, CALENDARS, EASTER, 
THE OLD AND NEW STYLES, ETC. 

The following notes were made while examining for this book 
the different statements relating to Eras, Calendars, Easter, the 
Old and New Styles, etc., and they are inserted here in case they 
may be of use to any person who may wish to investigate these 
matters l : 

Eras, Calendars, etc. Among the most interesting are the Era 
of the World, or the Mundane Era ; the Era of Rome ; the Julian 
Era; the Julian Calendar; the Actian Era; the Augustan Era; 
Anno Christi ; Anno Domini ; the Christian Era ; the Era of the 
Incarnation of the WORD, or the Dionysian Era ; the Old Style ; 
and the New Style, or the Gregorian Calendar. Their dates seem 
to be as follows, viz. : 

The Era of the World, or the Mundane Era, that is, the Era of 
the Creation of the World, begins in the year B.C. 4004 according 
to Archbishop Ussher, and according to the date in the margin of 
the Authorised Version of the Holy Bible ; but there are upwards 
of one hundred different dates given for the Mundane Era ! 

The Era of Borne, A.U.C., Anno Urbis Conditce, or Ab Urbe 
Condita (the year the city was built), began in B.C. 753. 

The Julian Era began on the ist of January B.C. 45. 

The Julian Calendar. Caius Julius Caesar, the Dictator, better 
known as 'Julius Caesar,' reformed the Roman Calendar, and 
instituted the 'Julian Calendar' on the ist of January B.C. 45.2 

The Actian Era (in Rome) began on the ist of January B.C. 30,, 
and was instituted by the Roman Senate to commemorate the 
battle of Actium. 

The Battle of Actium was fought on or about the 2nd of 
September B.C. 31, near the mouth of the Gulf of Arta, at the 
south of Albania. It was the sea-fight in which Octavianus 
defeated Antony and Cleopatra. By this victory Octavianus 

i. Some of the works specially ticulars relating to a number of 

consulted for this purpose are marked different eras, see The Chronology of 

with an asterisk in the Bibliography. History (ed. 1843), pp. 1-25. 

See below, pp. 389-401. For par- 2. See below, p. 303, the Old Style. 



THE OLD AND NEW STYLES, ETC. 299 

became master, and eventually first emperor of the Roman world. 
His name was originally Caius Octavius, but in the year B.C. 44, 
when he inherited by will the property of his mother's uncle, 
Caius Julius Caesar, he called himself 'Caius Julius Caesar 
Octavianus.' 

The title ' Augustus ' was conferred, by the Roman Senate, in 
the year B.C. 27, on the Emperor Octavianus, who is the 'Caesar 
Augustus ' mentioned in the second chapter of the Gospel accord- 
ing to St. Luke (ii. i). He was born on the 23rd of September 
B.C. 63, and died on the 29th of August A.D. 14, in his yyth year, 
having been emperor upwards of forty years. 

The Augustan Era began in the year B.C. 27, and was instituted 
to commemorate the date on which the title ' Augustus ' was con- 
ferred by the Roman Senate upon the Emperor Octavianus. The 
day on which the era began is variously stated as the 6th, i3th, 
t6th, or 1 7th of January, or the i4th of February B.C. 27. 

Anno Christ! begins on the 25th of December B.C. 5, on which 
day the Birth of our LORD is reckoned to have taken place. 

The Christian Era (Anno Domini) begins on the ist of January 
A.D. i. (See next paragraph.) 

Anno Domini (which is the Christian Era now in use) begins on 
the ist of January A.D. i, four years and seven days after the 
date on which the Birth of our LORD is reckoned to have taken 
place, and three years and about nine months after the death of 
' Herod the King.' 

The Era of the Incarnation of the WORD began on the 25th of 
March B.C. i. (See next paragraph.) 

The Dionysian Era began on the 25th of March B.C. i. Dionysius 
Exiguus began his era, which he called ' The Era of the Incarnation 
of the WORD,' on that day, supposing it to be nine months before 
the Birth of our LORD, whereas it appears to have been three 
years and three months after that event. 8 

The Old Style. ' The Julian Calendar ' became ' The Old Style ' 
on the 1 5th of October i582. 4 

The New Style. ' The Gregorian Calendar ' became ' The New 
Style' on the isth of October I582. 5 

In Great Britain ' The Old Style ' ended on the 2nd September 
1752, 'The New Style' began on the i4th September 1752. 

3. See below, pp. 301, 306. 5. Instituted by Pope Gregory 

4. See below, p. 303. XIII. See below, pp. 303-306. 



300 ERAS, CALENDARS, EASTER, 

The Gregorian Calendar, commonly called ' The New Style,' was 
instituted by Pope Gregory XIII. on the i5th of October 1582, 
but * The New Style ' was not adopted in Scotland or in England 
until the year 1752, nor in Ireland until i782. 6 



THE CHRONOLOGY IN THE GOSPELS 

Chronology in the Gospels. The chronology of the events 
recorded in the Gospels is corroborated by the independent testi- 
mony of contemporary Roman history ; but if * Anno Domini ' is 
to be understood in its usual signification, there are errors of date 
(i) in the Christian Era (Anno Domini) now in use, (2) in the 
dates printed in the margins of the Gospels in reference Bibles of 
the Authorised Version, and (3) in the Era of Dionysius Exiguus. 

The Birth of our LORD is reckoned to have taken place on or 
about the 25th of December B.C. 5. In the Authorised Version, 
in the margin of St. Matthew's Gospel (ii. i), the Birth of our 
LORD is dated ' the Fourth Year before the Common Account 
called Anno DOMINI.' In the margin of St. Luke's Gospel (ii. 
1 1 ) the Birth of our LORD is dated * Before the Account called 
Anno DOMINI the Fifth Year.' We read in the second chapter 
of the Gospel according to St. Matthew (verse i), 'Now when 
Jesus was born in Bethlehem of Judea in the days of Herod 
the king' ; and (verse 16), 'Then Herod . . . sent forth, and slew 
all the children that were in Bethlehem.' These two verses, with 
their contexts, prove that our LORD was born before the death 
of Herod the king (' Herod the Great '), who died between the 
1 3th and 2Qth of March B.C. 4, that is, about three months after 
the Birth of our LORD, or three years and about nine months 
before the beginning of the Christian Era (Anno Domini). 7 

The Circumcision of our LORD is reckoned to have taken 
place on the ist of January B.C. 4, the eighth day after His birth. 
In the margin of St. Luke's Gospel (ii. 21) the Circumcision of our 
LORD is dated, ' Before the Account called Anno DOMINI the 
Fourth Year.' 

The Crucifixion of our LORD is reckoned to have taken place 
on Friday the yth of April Anno Domini 29, that is, Anno Christi 
33, in the 33rd year of His age, when He was thirty-two years three 

6. See below, pp. 303-306. gin), ' The Third Year before the 

7. St. Matthew ii. 19 (in the mar- Account called Anno Domini.' 



THE OLD AND NEW STYLES, ETC. 301 

months and thirteen days old. In the margin of St. Matthew's 
Gospel (ii. i) our LORD's birth is dated 'the Fourth Year before 
the Common Account called Anno DOMINI.' In the margin of 
St. Luke's Gospel (ii. i) our LORD's birth is dated 'Before the 
Account called Anno DOMINI the Fifth Year.' Notwithstanding 
this, in the margins of all the four Gospels the Crucifixion of our 
LORD is dated 'Anno Domini 33,' which, according to the usual 
meaning of 'Anno Domini,' would make His age thirty-six years 
and some months, instead of thirty-two years and some months, at 
the time of His death. 

From the above, it seems that ' Anno Domini ' in the headings 
of the margins in reference Bibles of the Authorised Version ought 
to be altered to 'Anno Christi,' or that the dates ought to be 
altered to four years earlier. The year of our LORD's death may 
be written either A.D. 29 or A.c. 33. 

The Resurrection of our LORD is supposed to have taken place 
'when the sabbath was past,' 'upon the first day of the week,' 8 
that is, on Sunday the gth of April Anno Domini 29, Anno 
Christi 33. 

THE OBSERVANCE OF EASTER 

The Early Christians must have known the exact dates of the 
principal events in our LORD's history; but as time went on, 
during the first centuries of the Christian Era, there were great 
diversities of opinion and frequent disputes as to the particular 
time when Easter ought to be observed, in commemoration of the 
Resurrection of our LORD. 

The First General Council of the Church was held at Nice 
(Nicsea, the metropolis of Bithynia, a province of Asia Minor) in 
the year A.D. 325. This council decreed that all Churches should 
keep Easter on the same Sunday, but no regular system was 
adopted for upwards of two hundred years after that time. 

Dionysius Exiguus, a Scythian by birth, who lived about five 
hundred years after the death of our LORD, became a monk in 
the Western Church, and about A.D. 533 invented a cycle of years 
which gradually came into general use. 

Dionysius fixed the beginning of his cycle four years too late. 

8. [Not on the Sabbath (or Satur- See St. Matthew xxviii. i ; St. Mark 
day), which was and is the seventh xvi. I, 2 ; St. Luke xxiii. 56, xxiv. i ; 
day of the week.] St. John xx. I. 



302 ERAS, CALENDARS, EASTER, 

He seems to have mistaken B.C. 27 in which year the title 
4 Augustus ' was conferred by the Roman Senate upon the Emperor 
Octavianus for B.C. 31, in which year Octavianus became Emperor, 
after the battle of Actium. 

Dionysius called his era 'The Era of the Incarnation of the 
WORD,' and adopted the Julian year, instituted by Julius 
Csesar in the year B.C. 45, which began on the ist of January. 
Dionysius did not begin his era on the ist of January like the 
Romans, nor on the 25th of December, to commemorate the Birth 
of our LORD; he began his era on the 25th of March B.C. i, 
which he supposed to be nine months before the Birth of Christ, 
but it seems to have been three years and three months after that 
event, so that the chronology of Dionysius Exiguus appears to be 
exactly four years too late. 

In England, from 1583 to 1752 inclusive, Easter was observed 
according to the Old Style, but in most of the Western Churches 
during that period Easter was observed according to the New 
Style, consequently in those one hundred and seventy years Easter 
was never once observed by the whole of Western Christendom 
on the same day. 9 

The Scottish Episcopal Church observed Easter according to 
the New Style for the first time on the 22nd of April 1753. 

9. [There are apparently several Sunday, and would never be more 

ways in which a day for the observ- than three days from the supposed 

ance of Easter might easily have been anniversary of the Resurrection ; 

settled without reference to the or 

moon ; for instance : (3) By observing Easter on the 

(1) By observing Easter on the 9th second Sunday in April, which 
of April, the supposed anniversary would be either on, or within a few 
of the Resurrection of our Lord, days of, the supposed anniversary 
whether that day should fall on a of the Resurrection. 

Sunday or not, in the same way in In either of the last two ways 

which the 25th of December is Easter Day would fall on the 9th of 

observed as Christmas Day for the April fourteen or fifteen times in 

anniversary of His Birth ; or each century, whereas by the present 

(2) By observing Easter on the arrangement Easter Day may fall on 
9th of April when that day should thirty-five different days. Easter , 
fall on a Sunday, or on the nearest Day only twice fell upon the 9th 
Sunday to it, whether before or after, of April in the nineteenth century ; 
in the same way in which Advent (in 1871 and in 1882), and will only , 
Sunday falls with regard to St. twice fall on the 9th of April in the ' 
Andrew's Day. By this arrange- twentieth century (in 1939 and in ! 
ment Easter would always fall on a 1950). See the Table of Easter Day.] j 



THE OLD AND NEW STYLES, ETC. 303 

The Western Churches observed Easter according to the New 
Style on the i5th of April 1906. 

The Eastern Churches (Greek and Russian) observed Easter 
according to the Old Style on the 22nd of April 1906. 



THE OLD STYLE 

The Old Style. The Julian Calendar was instituted by Julius 
Caesar when he reformed the Roman Calendar in the year B.C. 45. 

Thirty-seven years after the death of Julius Caesar the Julian 
Calendar was amended, after which it continued in use until the 
year 1582, when it was again amended by Pope Gregory XIII. 

The Julian Calendar, which began on the ist of January B.C. 45, 
became the Old Style on the institution of 'The Gregorian 
Calendar,' or New Style, on the i5th of October 1582. 



THE NEW STYLE 

The New Style, or the Gregorian Calendar, was instituted 
by Pope Gregory XIII. in the year 1582, by reckoning the day 
next after the 4th of October as the i5th of October 1582, the 
ten intermediate days being omitted ; and after that date, in the 
New Style, the year began on the ist of January instead of on 
the 25th of March. The New Style was adopted in most of the 
countries of Europe soon after its institution. 

The beginning of the year was altered and re-altered, from time 
to time, by some of the Popes, before the institution of the New 
Style in 1582, and there are many instances of the same Pope 
beginning the year sometimes on the ist of January, sometimes 
at the Annunciation, at Easter, or at Christmas. For instance, 
Adrian IV. (1154-1159), the only English Pope, 10 in dating his 

10. [Adrian IV., Nicolas Break- (1906) in the crypt of St. Peter's in 

spear, an Englishman, born before Rome.] See Foedera, a 1154 ; L' Art 

noo, was elected Pope on the 3rd of de verifier les Dates (ed. 1818), vol. 

December 1 1 54, and was consecrated iii. 347, 349; Gams, Pontifices 

in St. Peter's on the Sunday follow- Romani, a 1154; Tresor de Chrono- 

ing, when he adopted Hadrianus as logic, pp. 1100-1102; Chronology of 

his name. He died at Anagni on History (ed. 1843), p. 200. See also 

the ist of September 1159, and his below, An Alphabetical Table of the 

sarcophagus of red granite is now Popes and Antipopes, p. 325. 



304 ERAS, CALENDARS, EASTER, 



Bulls, began the year sometimes on the ist of January, sometimes 
on the 25th of March, and sometimes he followed the era of Pisa r 
which began one year earlier than ' Anno Domini.' 

In France, before 1563, there was no general rule as to when 
the year began. In different parts of the kingdom the ist of 
January, the Annunciation, Easter, or Christmas was counted as 
New-year's Day, until 1563, in which year King Charles IX. issued 
an edict fixing the ist of January as the beginning of the year; but 
this did not introduce the New Style, as the edict was published 
about twenty years before the Gregorian Calendar or New Style was 
instituted by Pope Gregory XIII. on the i5th of October 1582. 

In Scotland, on the i7th of December 1599, King James VI.,, 
with advice of the Lords of his Privy Council, ordained that on 
and after the ist of January 1600 the year should begin on the 
ist of January instead of on the 25th of March n ; this alteration 
came into general use in Scotland on the ist of January 1600, but 
it did not introduce the New Style or Gregorian Calendar, which 
was not adopted in Scotland until the year I752. 12 

One effect of King James's order was to make the days of 
January and February and the first 24 days of March (in Scotland) 
appear to be one year in advance of the corresponding days in 
England, but the order did not introduce the New Style. 13 

In England, in and before 1751, the year began on the 25th of 
March, and ended on the 24th of March. 

In Great Britain the New Style was adopted in 1752 by Act of 

' %* Our authority for the state- 
ment ... is the following passage 
from the Encyclopaedia Britannica, 
ninth edition, vol. iv. p. 677 : 

"In Scotland the new style was 
adopted from the beginning of 1600 
according to an Act of the Privy 
Council in December 1599. This 
fact is of importance with reference 
to the date of legal deeds executed 
in Scotland between that period and 



11. Registrum Secreti Concilii : 
Acta, vol. a 1598-1601, pp. 205, 
206; The Chronology of History 
(ed. 1843), P- 43 note* ; Bond, Pre- 
face, xvii, note *. 

12. In the Times of the nth June 
1897, the third leading article, 
'BULGARIA AND THE REFORMED 
CALENDAR,' contained the following 
misstatement : 

' Presbyterian Scotland, notwith- 
standing her horror of popery, had 
the good sense to adopt the Gregorian 
Calendar in 1600.' 

A letter of remonstrance appeared 
in the Times on the I5th June 1897, 
page 12, under ' Old and New Style,' 
which elicited what follows : 



[The ninth edition of the Encyclo- 
paedia Britannica is in error, as is 
also Chambers' s Encylopcedia, vol. ii. 
p. 641.] 

13. See also above, ' Double Dates 
Explained,' p. 292, paragraph 4. 



THE OLD AND NEW STYLES, ETC. 305 

Parliament, because the Julian Calendar or Old Style, hitherto in 
use, had become eleven days short of the true date, and the error 
was still increasing at the rate of about nine minutes in each year, 
or about one day in one hundred and sixty years. 

An Act of Parliament, 14 instituting the New Style, was passed 
in May 1751, which ordered, among other things, that 

On and after the ist of January 1752, the year shall begin on 
the ist of January [instead of on the 25th of March]. 

The day next after the 2nd of September 1752 shall be reckoned 
as the i4th of September 1752, omitting the eleven inter- 
mediate days ; 

The year 1900 shall not be reckoned as a leap year; 

Easter Day and the other moveable feasts shall be reckoned 
according to the calendar, tables, and rules annexed to the 
Act and attached to the Book of Common Prayer. 

By this Act, the year 1751 lost all January, all February, and 
from the ist to the 24th March inclusive (as had happened 150 
years earlier in Scotland); and in 1752 the month of September 
lost from the 3rd to the i3th inclusive. Or to put it differently, 
no documents in Great Britain could be correctly dated on any 
day of January or February 1751 ; nor on any of the first twenty- 
four days of March in 1751 ; nor on any day from the 3rd to the 
1 3th of September, inclusive, in 1752, because none of those dates 
ever existed in Great Britain. 

The New Style did not take full effect in Great Britain until 
Thursday the i4th of September 1752 after the eleven surplus 
days had been deducted from the Calendar consequently Easter 
was observed, according to the Old Style, on the 2gth of March in 
the year 1752. 

In Ireland, the New Style was not adopted until 1782. 

[As there is no general agreement about the exact dates of 
the chief events in the Gospel history, the foregoing remarks relat- 
ing to the observance of Easter, on pages 300-303, and the Table 
of Eras, Events, and Anniversaries, on page 306, must necessarily 
be regarded only as searches after truth. 16 ] 

14. Stat. 24 George IT. c. 23, 22nd bridge, 1864; Handy-Book of Rules 
May 1751. and Tables, by John J. Bond, 1889, 

15. See A Chronological Synopsis of pp. 322, 323; and Was Christ born 
the Four Gospels, by Karl Wieseler, at Bethlehem ? by Professor W. M. 
translated by Rev. E. Venables, Cam- Ramsay, Aberdeen, 1898, etc., etc. 

U 



306 



XIII. A TABLE OF ERAS, EVENTS, AND 
ANNIVERSARIES 



YEARS. l 



A.U.C. 



750 



751 



752 



753 



754 



755 



A.C. 



B.C. j A.D 



DAYB. 



Mar. 25 
Apr. 21 
Sep. 2 
Dec. 25 
Jan. I 
Jan. 17 
Mar. 
Apr. 21 
Dec. 25 
Jan. i 
Mar. 25 
Apr. 21 
Dec. 25 
Jan. I 
Mar. 25 
Apr. 21 
Dec. 25 
Jan. I 
Mar. 25 
Apr. 21 
Dec. 25 
Dec. 25 
Jan. i 
Jan. 17 
Mar. 25 
Apr. 21 
Sep. 2 
Dec. 25 
Jan. i 
Mar. 25 



ERAS, EVENTS, AND ANNIVERSARIES. 



4 years before the Era of the Incarnation. 2 

75oth Anniversary of the Foundation of Rome. 3 

27th Anniversary of the Battle of Actium. 4 

The Birth of our LORD. < Anno Christi ' begins. 5 

27th Anniversary of the Actian Era. 6 

24th Anniversary of the Augustan Era. 7 

Death of ' Herod the King ' between the 1 3th and 29t] 

75ist Anniversary of the Foundation of Rome. 

Anno Christi, the second year began. 

B.C., the fourth year began. 

2 years before the Era of the Incarn ation of the WOR 

752nd Anniversary of the Foundation of Rome. 

Anno Christi, the third year began. 

B.C., the third year began. 

i year before the Era of the Incarnation of the WOE 

753rd Anniversary of the Foundation of Rome. 

Anno Christi, the fourth year began. 

B.C., the second year began. 

The Era of the Incarnation of the WORD began. 

754th Anniversary of the Foundation of Rome. 

Anno Christi, the fifth year began. 

The Dionysian date of the Birth of our LORD. 10 

Anno Domini begins in the Gregorian Calendar. u 

28th Anniversary of the Augustan Era. 

ist Anniversary of the Era of the Incarnation. 

755th Anniversary of the Foundation of Rome, j 

32nd Anniversary of the Battle of Actium. 

Anno Christi, the sixth year began. 

Anno Domini, the second year began. 

Second Anniversary of the Era of the Incarnatio 



Ste the opposite page for the notes. 



307 



NOTES TO THE FOREGOING TABLE 

(1) Years. A.U.C., Anno Urbis Conditae, or Ab Urbe Condita (the year 

of Rome) ; E.I., Era of the Incarnation of the WORD ; A.C., Anno 
Christ! ; B.C., Before Christ ; A.D., Anno Domini. B.C. is counted 
backwards, and A.D. is counted forwards from the first of January 
Anno Domini i. (See above, pp. 298-303.) 

(2) Dionysius Exiguus intended to begin ' The Era of the Incarnation of 

the WORD ' nine months before the Birth of our LORD ; to have 
done that he ought to have placed the beginning of the era at this 
date. (See above, pp. 299, 301, 302.) 

(3) The Foundation of Rome, A.U.C. i, or B.C. 753. (See above, 

p. 298.) 

(4) The Battle of Actium was fought on or about the 2nd of September 

B.C. 31. (See above, p. 298.) 

(5) The Birth of our LORD. The Era 'Anno Christi' begins on the 

25th of December B.C. 5, on which day the Birth of our LORD is 
reckoned to have taken place. (See above, p. 300.) 

(6) The Actian Era (in Rome) began on the ist of January B.C. 30. (See 

above, p. 298.) 

(7) The Augustan Era began on or about the I7th of January B.C. 27. 

(See above, p. 299.) 

(8) 'Herod the King' (Herod the Great) died between the i3th and 

the 29th of March B.C. 4, about three months after the Birth of our 
LORD. (See above, the Birth of our LORD, p. 300.) 

(9) Dionysius Exiguus began his era, which he called ' The Era of the 

Incarnation of the WORD, 5 at this date, supposing it to be nine 
months before the Birth of our LORD ; but it seems to have been 
three years and three months after that event. (See above, pp. 299, 
301, 302.) 

(10) Dionysius Exiguus appears to have thought that the Birth of our 

LORD took place on the 25th of December B.C. i ; which was 
exactly four years after the usually accepted date. (See above, pp. 
299, 301, 302.) 

(11) The Christian Era, 'Anno Domini,' begins on the ist of January 

A.D. i. Dionysius Exiguus seems to be responsible for having, 
about A.D. 533, selected the year in which to begin the Christian 
Era, and Pope Gregory XIII. is responsible for having, in 1582, 
selected the ist of January as the day on which to begin the year. 
(See above, p. 299.) 



308 



XIV. A TABLE OF EASTER DAY 

A Table of Easter Day for a thousand years from 
the year 1001 to the year 2000 inclusive, 
according to the Old Style before 1753, and 
according to the New Style after 1582. 

The moveable Feasts and Fasts depend upon Easter Day. 

The earliest date on which Easter Day can fall is the 
22nd of March; the latest date on which Easter Day can 
fall is the 25th of April; therefore there are thirty-five 
different dates on which Easter Day may fall. (See above, 
pp. 297, 301-303-) 

(1001 to 1045) 



YEARS. 


EASTER DAY. 


YEARS. 


EASTER DAY. 


YEARS. 


EASTER DAY. 


1001 


April 13 


1016 


April i 


1031 


April ii 


1002 


April 5 


1017 


April 21 


1032 


April 2 


1003 


March 28 


1018 


April 6 


i33 


April 22 


1004 


April 1 6 


1019 


March 29 


1034 


April 14 


1005 


April i 


1020 


April 17 


io35 


March 30 


I006 


April 21 


IO2I 


April 2 


1036 


April 1 8 


1007 


April 6 


IO22 


March 25 


1037 


April 10 


I008 


March 28 


1023 


April 14 


1038 


March 26 


lOOQ 


April 17 


1024 


April 5 


1039 


April 15 


IOIO 


April 9 


IO25 


April 1 8 


1040 


April 6 


IOII 


March 25 


IO26 


April 10 


1041 


March 22 


1012 


April 13 


1027 


March 26 


1042 


April 1 1 


1013 


April 5 


1028 


April 14 


1043 


April 3 


1014 


April 25 


1029 


April 6 


1044 


April 22 


1015 


April 10 


1030 


March 29 


1045 


April 7 



A TABLE OF EASTER DAY 309 

(1046 to 1135) 



YEARS. 


EASTER DAY. 


YEARS. 


EASTER DAY. 


YEARS. 


EASTER DAY. 


1046 


March 30 


1076 


March 27 


1106 


March 25 


1047 


April 19 


1077 


April 1 6 


1107 


April 14 


1048 


April 3 


1078 


April 8 


1108 


April 5 


1049 


March 26 


1079 


March 24 


1109 


April 25 


1050 


April 15 


IO8O 


April 12 


IIIO 


April 10 


1051 


March 31 


1081 


April 4 


mi 


April 2 


1052 


April 19 


1082 


April 24 


III2 


April 21 


1053 
1054 


April ii 
April 3 


1083 
1084 


April 9 
March 31 


1113 

1114 


April 6 
March 29 


I55 


April 1 6 


1085 


April 20 


riI 5 


April 1 8 


1056 


April 7 


1086 


April 5 


1116 


April 2 


I0 57 


March 30 


1087 


March 28 


1117 


March 25 


1058 
I0 59 


April 19 
April 4 


1088 
1089 


April 1 6 
April i 


1118 
1119 


April 14 
March 30 


1060 


March 26 


1090 


April 21 


1120 


April 1 8 


1061 
1062 


April 15 
March 31 


1091 
1092 


April 13 
March 28 


II2I 
1122 


April 10 
March 26 


1063 


April 20 


1093 


April 17 


II2 3 


April 15 


1064 


April ii 


1094 


April 9 


1124 


April 6 


1065 


March 27 


1095 


March 25 


1125 


March 29 


1066 


April 1 6 


1096 


April 13 


1126 


April ii 


1067 
1068 


April 8 
March 23 


1097 
1098 


April 5 
March 28 


1127 
1128 


April 3 
April 22 


1069 


April 12 


1099 


April 10 


1129 


April 14 


1070 


April 4 


1 100 


April i 


II3O 


March 30 


1071 


April 24 


IIOI 


April 21 


II 3 I 


April 19 


1072 


April 8 


IIO2 


April 6 


1132 


April 10 


1073 


March 31 


1103 


March 29 


H33 


March 26 


1074 


April 20 


IIO4 


April 17 


U34 


April 15 


I0 75 


April 5 


1105 


April 9 


H35 


April 7 



310 A TABLE OF EASTER DAY 

(1136 to 1225) 



YEARS. 


EASTER DAY. 


YEARS. 


EASTKR DAY. 


YEARS. 


EASTER DAY. 


1136 


March 22 


1166 


April 24 


1196 


April 21 


H37 


April ii 


1167 


April 9 


II 9 7 


April 6 


1138 


April 3 


1168 


March 31 


1198 


March 29 


JI 39 


April 23 


1169 


April 20 


II 99 


April 1 8 


1140 


April 7 


1170 


April 5 


1200 


April 9 


1141 


March 30 


1171 


March 28 


1201 


March 25 


1142 


April 19 


1172 


April 1 6 


1202 


April 14 


U43 

1144 


April 4 
March 26 


H73 
1174 


April 8 
March 24 


1203 
1204 


April 6 
April 25 


H45 


April 15 


"75 


April 13 


1205 


April 10 


1146 


March 31 


1176 


April 4 


1206 


April 2 


1147 


April 20 


1177 


April 24 


1207 


April 22 


1148 


April ii 


1178 


April 9 


1208 


April 6 


1149 


April 3 


1179 


April i 


1209 


March 29 


1150 


April 1 6 


1180 


April 20 


1210 


April 1 8 


II 5 I 


April 8 


1181 


April 5 


I2II 


April 3 


1152 


March 30 


1182 


March 28 


1212 


March 25 


H53 


April 19 


1183 


April 17 


I2I 3 


April 14 


ii54 


April 4 


1184 


April i 


1214 


March 30 


"55 


March 27 


1185 


April 21 


1215 


April 19 


1156 


April 15 


1186 


April 13 


1216 


April 10 


H57 


March 31 


1187 


March 29 


1217 


March 26 


1158 


April 20 


1188 


April 17 


1218 


April 15 


H59 


April 12 


1189 


April 9 


1219 


April 7 


1160 


March 27 


1190 


March 25 


I22O 


March 29 


1161 


April I6 1 


1191 


April 14 


1221 


April ii 


1162 
1163 


April 8 
March 24 


1192 
IJ 93 


April 5 
March 28 


1222 
1223 


April 3 
April 23 


1164 


April 12 


1194 


April 10 


1224 


April 14 


1165 


April 4 


H95 


April 2 


I22 5 


March 30 



1161, Mas Latrie, error April 6. 



A TABLE OF EASTER DAY 
(1226 to 1315) 



311 



TEARS. 


EASTEH DAY. 


YEARS. 


EASTKB DAY. 


YEARS. 


EASTER DAY. 


1226 


April 19 


1256 


April 1 6 


1286 


April 14 


1227 
1228 


April ii 
March 26 


1257 
1258 


April 8 
March 24 


1287 
1288 


April 6 
March 28 


1229 


April 15 1259 


April 13 


1289 


April 10 


1230 


April 7 j 1260 April 4 


1290 


April 2 


I2 3 I 


March 23 1261 April 24 


1291 


April 22 


1232 


April ii 


1262 April 9 


1292 


April 6 


1233 


April 3 


1263 


April i 


1293 


March 29 


1234 


April 23 


1264 


April 20 


1294 


April 1 8 


I2 35 


April 8 


1265 


April 5 


J 295 


April 3 


1236 


March 30 


1266 


March 28 


1296 


March 25 


1237 


April 19 


1267 


April 17 


1297 


April 14 


1238 
1239 


April 4 
March 27 


1268 
1269 


April 8 
March 24 


1298 
1299 


April 6 
April 19 


1240 


April 15 


1270 April 13 


1300 i April 10 


1241 


March 31 1271 


April 5 


1301 


April 2 


1242 


April 20 1272 


April 24 


1302 


April 22 


I2 43 


April 12 i 1273 


April 9 


1303 


April 7 


1244 


April 3 1274 


April i 


i34 


March 29 


1245 


April 16 J! 1275 


April 14 


!35 


April 1 8 


1246 


Aprils 1276 


April 5 


1306 


April 3 


1247 


March 31 ;j 1277 


March 28 


1307 


March 26 


1248 


April 19 1278 


April 17 


1308 ; April 14 


1249 


April 4 1279 


April 2 


1309 


March 30 


1250 


March 27 1280 


April 21 


1310 April 19 




1 




1251 


April 16 I' 1281 


April 13 


1311 i April ii 


1252 


March 31 1282 


March 29 


1312 i March 26 


I2 53 


April 20 1283 


April 1 8 


1313 April 15 


I2 54 


April 12 1284 


April 9 


1314 April 7 


!255 


March 28 1285 


March 25 


1315 March 23 2 



2 1315, Mas Latrie, error March 28. 



312 A TABLE OF EASTER DAY 

(1316 to 1405) 



YEARS. 


EASTER DAY. 


YEARS. 


EASTER DAY. 


YEAKS. 


EASTER DAY. 


1316 


April ii 


1346 1 


April 1 6 


1376 


April 13 


1317 


April 3 


1347 


April i 


1377 


March 29 


1318 


April 23 


1348 


April 20 1378 


April 1 8 


i3 J 9 


April 8 


J 349 


April 12 


1379 


April 10 


1320 


March 30 


i35o 


March 28 


I 3 80 


March 25 


1321 


April 19 


i35i 


April 17 


I 3 8l 


April 14 


1322 
J 3 2 3 


April ii 
March 27 


1352 
J353 


April 8 
March 24 


1382 
1383 


April 6 
March 22 


i3 2 4 


April 15 


1354 


April 13 


1384 


April 10 


1325 


April 7 


1355 


April 5 


1385 


April 2 














1326 


March 23 


1356 


April 24 3 


I 3 86 


April 22 


1327 April 12 


1357 


April 9 i 1387 


April 7 


1328 


April 3 


: 1358 


April i 


I 3 88 


March 29 


1329 


April 23 


1359 


April 21 


1389 


April 1 8 


1330 


April 8 


1360 


April 5 1390 


April 3 


I33 1 


March 31 


1361 


March 28 i 1391 


March 26 


1332 


April 19 


i 1362 


April 17 |i 1392 


April 14 


1333 


April 4 


1363 


April 2 1393 April 6 


1334 


March 27 


1364 


March 24 


1394 | April 19 


1335 


April 1 6 


1365 


April 13 


1395 


April ii 


1336 


March 31 


1366 


April 5 1396 


April 2 


1337 


April 20 


1367 


April 1 8 1397 


April 22 


1338 


April 12 


i 3 68 


April 9 1! 1398 


April 7 


1339 


March 28 


1369 


April i | 1399 


March 30 


1340 April 1 6 


1370 


April 14 


1400 


April 1 8 


i34i 


April 8 


J 37 J 


April 6 


1401 


April 3 


1342 


March 31 


i, J 37 2 


March 28 1402 


March 26 


1343 


April 13 


! 1373 


April 17 i 1403 


April 15 


1344 


April 4 


J374 


April 2 1404 


March 30 


1345 


March 27 


: 

i J 375 

i 


April 22 


1405 


April 19 



3 1356, Mas Latrie, error March 24. 






A TABLE OF EASTER DAY 



313 



(1406 to 1495) 



YEARS. 


EASTER DAY. 


YEARS. 


EASTER DAY. 


YEARS. 


EASTER DAY. 


1406 


April ii 


1436 


April 8 


1466 


April 6 


1407 


March 27 


1437 


March 31 


1467 March 29 


1408 


April 15 


1438 


April 13 


1468 April 17 


1409 
1410 


April 7 
March 23 


1439 
1440 


April 5 
March 27 


1469 April 2 
1470 April 22 


1411 


April 12 


1441 


April 1 6 


1471 


April 14 


1412 


April 3 


1442 


April i 


1472 ! March 29 


1413 


April 23 


1443 


April 21 1473 


April 1 8 


1414 


April 8 


1444 


April 12 1474 April 10 


1415 


March 31 


1445 March 28 


1475 ! March 26 








1 


1416 


April 19 


1446 April 17 


1476 April 14 


1417 
1418 


April ii 
March 27 


1447 April 9 
1448 March 24 


1477 April 6 
1478 March 22 


1419 


April 1 6 


1449 April 13 1479 April n 


1420 


April 7 


145 


April 5 


1480 April 2 


1421 


March 23 


M5 1 


April 25 


1481 


April 22 


1422 


April 12 


MS 2 


April 9 


1482 


April 7 


1423 


April 4 


1453 


April i | 1483 


March 30 


1424 


April 23 


1454 


April 21 


1484 


April 1 8 


1425 


April 8 


1455 April 6 


1485 


April 3 


1426 


March 31 


1456 March 28 


1486 


March 26 


1427 


April 20 


1457 A P ril J 7 


1487 


April 15 


1428 


April 4 


1458 i April 2 


1488 


April 6 


1429 


March 27 


1459 March 25 1489 


April 19 


143 


April 1 6 


1460 ' April 13 L 1490 April n 


I43 1 


April i 


1461 i April 5 1491 April 3 


i43 2 


April 20 


1462 April 1 8 ! 1492 April 22 


1433 April 12 
1434 March 28 


1463 i April 10 1493 April 7 
1464 April i 1494 March 30 


J 435 


April 17 


1465 April 14 ii 1495 


April 19 




1 II 





314 A TABLE OF EASTER DAY 

(1496 to 1582) 



YEARS. 


EASTER DAY. 


YEARS. 


EASTER DAY. 


YEARS. 


EASTER DAY. 


1496 
1497 


April 3 
March 26 


1526 
1527 


April i 
April 21 


1556 
1557 


April 5 
April 1 8 


1498 


April 15 


1528 


April 12 


1558 


April 10 


1499 


March 31 


1529 


March 28 


1559 


March 26 5 


1500 


April 19 


1530 


April 17 


1560 


April 14 


1501 


April ii 


I53I 


April 9 


1561 


April 6 


1502 


March 27 


1532 


March 31 


1562 


March 29 


1503 


April 1 6 


1533 


April 13 


1563 


April ii 


I54 


April 7 


1534 


April 5 


1564 


April 2 


1505 


March 23 


1535 


March 28 


1565 


April 22 


1506 


April 12 


I53 6 


April 1 6 


1566 


April 14 


I 57 


April 4 


1537 


April i 


1567 


March 30 


1508 


April 23 


1538 


April 21 


1568 


April 1 8 


i ^09 


April 8 


1539 


April 6 


X 5 6 9 


April 10 


1510 


March 31 




March 28 


i57o 


March 26 


1511 


April 20 


1541 


April 17 


i57i 


April 15 


1512 
1513 


April ii 
March 27 


1542 
1543 


April 9 
March 25 


1572 
1573 


April 6 
March 22 


i5 J 4 


April 1 6 


1544 


April 13 


1574 


April ii 


I5i5 


April 8 


1545 


April 5 


1575 


April 3 


1516 


March 23 


1546 


April 25 


1576 


April 22 


1517 


April 12 


1547 


April 10 


1577 


April 7 


1518 


April 4 


1548 


April i 


1578 


March 30 


1519 


April 24 


1549 ! April 21 


1579 


April 19 


1520 


April 8 


i55o 


April 6 4 


1580 


April 3 


1521 


March 31 


1551 


March 29 


1581 


March 26 


1522 


April 20 


1552 April 17 


1582 


April 15 


1523 


April 5 


1553 


April 2 








March 27 


J 554 


March 25 






1525 


April 1 6 




April 14 







4 1550, L'Art de verifier les Dates (Paris, 1783), error April 9. 

5 1559, Mas Latrie, error March 1. 



A TABLE OF EASTER DAY 
(1583 to 1640) 



315 



OLD STYLE. 


YEARS. 


NEW STYLE. 


OLD STYLE. 


YEARS. 


NEW STYLE. 


EASTER DAY. 


EASTER DAY. 


EASTER DAY. 


EASTER DAY. 








March 24 


1611 


April 3 








April 12 


1612 


April 22 


March 31 


1583 


April 10 


April 4 


1613 


April 7 


April 19 


1584 


April i 


April 24 


1614 


March 30 


April ii 


1585 


April 21 


April 9 


1615 


April 19 


April 3 


1586 


April 6 


March 31 


1616 


April 3 


April 1 6 


1587 


March 29 


April 20 


1617 


March 26 


April 7 
March 30 


1588 
1589 


April 17 
April 2 


April 5 
March 28 


1618 
1619 


April 15 
March 31 


April 19 


1590 


April 22 April 16 


1620 


April 19 


April 4 


I 59 I 


April 14 April i 


1621 


April ii 


March 26 


I 59 2 


March 29 April 21 


1622 


March 27 


April 15 


J 593 


April 1 8 \ April 13 1623 


April 1 6 


March 31 


X 594 


April 10 March 28 


1624 


April 7 


April 20 


!595 


March 26 April 17 


1625 


March 30 


April ii 


1596 


April 14 


April 9 


1626 


April 12 


March 27 


1597 


April 6 


March 25 


1627 


April 4 


April 1 6 


1598 


March 22 


April 13 


1628 


April 23 


April 8 
March 23 


J 599 
1600 


April ii 
April 2 


April 5 7 
March 28 


1629 
1630 


April 15 
March 31 


April 12 


1 60 1 


April 22 


April 10 


1631 


April 20 


April 4 
April 24 


1602 
1603 


April 7 
March 30 


April i 
April 21 


1632 
l6 33 


April ii 
March 27 


April 8 


1604 


April 1 8 


April 6 


1634 


April 1 6 


March 31 


1605 


April 10 


March 29 8 


1635 


April 8 


April 20 


1606 


March 26 (3 


April 17 


1636 


March 23 


April 5 


1607 


April 15 


April 9 


1637 


April 12 


March 27 


1608 


April 6 


March 25 


1638 


April 4 


April 1 6 


1609 


April 19 


April 14 1639 


April 24 


April 8 


1610 


April ii April 5 1640 


April 8 



6 1606, Mas Latrie, error April 26. 7 1629, Mas Latrie, error April 6. 
8 1635, Mas Latrie, error March 19. 



316 A TABLE OF EASTER DAY 

(1641 to 1700) 



OLD STYLE. 


YEARS. 


NEW STYLE. 


OLD STYLE. 


YEARS. 


NEW STYLE. 


EASTER DAY. 


EASTER DAY. 


EASTER DAY. 


EASTER DAY. 


April 25 


1641 


March 31 


April 23 


1671 


March 29 


April 10 


1642 


April 20 


April 7 


1672 


April 17 


April 2 
April 21 


1643 
1644 


April 5 
March 27 


March 30 
April 19 


1673 
1674 


April 2 
March 25 


April 6 


1645 


April 1 6 


April 4 


1675 


April 14 


March 29 


1646 


April i 


March 26 


1676 1 April 5 


April 1 8 


1647 


April 21 


April 15 


1677 j April 18 


April 2 


1648 


April 12 


March 31 


1678 


April 10 


March 25 


1649 


April 4 


April 20 


1679 


April 2 


April 14 


1650 


April 17 April n 


1680 


April 21 


March 30 


1651 


April 9 


April 3 


1681 


April 6 


April 1 8 


1652 


March 31 April 16 


1682 


March 29 


April 10 


1653 


April 13 April 8 


1683 


April 1 8 


March 26 


1654 


April 5 March 30 


1684 


April 2 


April 15 


1655 


March 28 April 19 


1685 


April 22 9 


April 6 
March 29 


l6 5 6 

l6 57 


April 1 6 April 4 
April i March 27 


1686 
1687 


April 14 
March 30 


April ii 


1658 


April 2 1 April 1 5 


1688 


April 1 8 


April 3 


1659 


April 13 March 31 


1689 


April 10 


April 22 


1660 


March 28 April 20 


1690 


March 26 


April 14 


1661 


April 17 


April 12 


1691 


April 15 


March 30 


1662 


April 9 


March 27 


1692 


April 6 


April 19 


1663 


March 25 


April 1 6 


1693 


March 22 


April 10 


1664 


April 13 


April 8 


1694 


April ii 


March 26 


1665 


April 5 


March 24 


1695 


April 3 


April 15 


1666 


April 25 


April 12 


1696 


April 22 


April 7 


1667 


April 10 


April 4 


1697 


April 7 


March 22 


1668 


April i 


April 24 


1698 


March 30 


April ii 


1669 


April 21 


April 9 


1699 


April 19 


April 3 


1670 


April 6 


March 31 


1700 


April ii 



9 1685, Mas Latrie, error March 22. 






A TABLE OF EASTER DAY 

(1701 to 1752) 



317 



OLD STYLE. 


YEARS. 


NEW STYLE. 


OLD STYLE. 


YEARS. 


NEW STYLE. 


EASTER DAY. 


EASTER DAY. 


EASTER DAY. 


EASTER DAY. 


April 20 


I7OI 


March 27 


April 1 8 


J73 1 


March 25 


April 5 


1702 


April 1 6 April 9 


1732 


April 13 


March 28 1703 


April 8 March 25 


1733 A P ril 5 


April 1 6 


1704 


March 23 10 ! April 14 


1734 


April 25 


April 8 


!75 


April 12 


April 6 


1735 


April 10 


March 24 


1706 


April 4 April 25 


1736 


April i 


April 13 


1707 


April 24 April 10 


1737 April 21 


April 4 


1708 


April 8 i April 2 


1738 


April 6 


April 24 


1709 


March 31 April 22 


J 739 


March 29 


April 9 


1710 


April 20 i April 6 


1740 


April 17 


April i 
April 20 


1711 
1712 


April 5 March 29 
March 27 April 18 


1741 
1742 


April 2 
March 25 


April 5 


i7 J 3 


April 1 6 April 3 


J743 


April 14 


March 28 


1714 


April i | March 25 


1744 


April 5 


April 17 


1715 


April 21 April 14 


1745 


April 1 8 


April i 
April 21 


1716 
1717 


April 12 March 30 
March 28 | April 19 


1746 
1747 


April 10 
April 2 


April 13 


1718 


April 17 April 10 


1748 


April 14 


March 29 


1719 


April 9 March 26 


1749 


April 6 


April 17 


1720 


March 31 April 15 


!75 


March 29 


April 9 
March 25 


1721 
1722 


April 13 
April 5 


April 7 
March 29 


I75 1 

1752 


April 1 1 
April 2 


April 14 


1723 


March 28 






April 5 
March 28 


1724 
1725 


April 1 6 
April i 


In Great Britain 

' The Old Style ' 


April 10 
April 2 
April 21 
April 6 
March 29 


1726 
1727 
1728 
1729 
1730 


April 21 
April 13 
March 28 
April 17 
April 9 


ended on the 
2nd of September 1752. 
'The New Style' 
began on the 
1 4th of September 1752. 



1704, Mas Latrie, error March 28. 



318 A TABLE OF EASTER DAY 

(1753 to 1840) 



NEW STYLE. 


YEARS. 


EASTER DAY. 


YEARS. 


EASTER DAY. 


YEARS. 


EASTER DAY. 






I78l 


April 15 


1811 


April 14 




1782 


March 31 


1812 


March 29 


J 753 


April 22 


1783 


April 20 


1813 


April 1 8 


1754 
i?55 


April 14 
March 30 


1784 
1785 


April ii 
March 27 


1814 
1815 


April 10 
March 26 


J 75 6 


April 1 8 


1786 


April 1 6 


1816 


April 14 


1757 
1758 


April 10 
March 26 


1787 
1788 


April 8 
March 23 


1817 
1818 


April 6 
March 22 


J 759 


April 15 


1789 


April 12 


1819 


April ii 


1760 


April 6 


1790 


April 4 12 


1820 


April 2 


1761 


March 22 


1791 


April 24 


1821 


April 22 14 


1762 


April ii 


1792 


April 8 


1822 


April 7 


1763 


April 3 


1793 


March 31 


1823 


March 30 


1764 


April 22 


1794 


April 20 13 


1824 


April 1 8 


1765 


April 7 


1795 


April 5 


1825 


April 3 


1766 


March 30 


1796 


March 27 


1826 


March 26 


1767 


April 19 


1797 


April 1 6 


1827 


April 15 


1768 


April 3 


I 79 8 


April 8 


1828 


April 6 


1769 


March 26 


1799 


March 24 


1829 


April 19 


1770 


April 15 


1800 


April 13 


1830 


April ii 


1771 


March 31 


1801 


April 5 


1831 


April 3 


1772 


April 19 


1802 


April 1 8 


1832 


April 22 


J 773 


April ii 


1803 


April 10 


1833 


April 7 


1774 


April 3 n 


1804 


April i 


1834 


March 30 


1775 


April 1 6 


1805 


April 14 1835 


April 19 


1776 


April 7 


1806 


April 6 


1836 


April 3 


1777 


March 30 


1807 


March 29 


1837 


March 26 15 


1778 


April 19 


1808 


April 17 


1838 


April 15 


1779 
1780 


April 4 
March 26 


1809 
1810 


April 2 
April 22 


1839 
1840 


March 31 
April 19 



11 1774, Mas Latrie, error April 5. 1S 1794, Mas Latrie, error April 25 

12 1790, Mas Latrie, error March 4. 14 1821, J. J. Bond, error March 22. i 

15 1837, Mas Latrie, error April 26. 



A TABLE OF EASTER DAY 319 

(1841 to 1930) 







NE 


W STYLE. 






YEARS. 


EASTER DAY. 


YKARS. 


EASTER DAY. 


YEARS. 


EASTER DAY. 


1841 


April ii 


1871 


April 9 


1901 


April 7 


1842 


March 27 


1872 


March 31 


1902 


March 30 


1843 


April 1 6 


1873 


April 13 


1903 


April 12 


1844 
1845 


April 7 
March 23 16 


1874 
1875 


April 5 
March 28 


1904 

J 95 


April 3 
April 23 


1846 


April 12 


1876 


April 1 6 


1906 


April 15 


1847 


April 4 


I8 77 


April i 


1907 


March 31 


1848 


April 23 


1878 


April 21 


1908 


April 19 


1849 


April 8 


1879 


April 13 


1909 


April ii 


1850 


March 31 


1880 


March 28 


1910 


March 27 


1851 


April 20 


1881 


April 17 


1911 


April 1 6 


1852 


April ii 


1882 


April 9 17 


1912 


April 7 


1853 


March 27 


1883 


March 25 


1913 


March 23 


1854 


April 1 6 


1884 


April 13 


1914 


April 12 


1855 


April 8 


1885 


April 5 


1915 


April 4 


1856 


March 23 


1886 


April 25 


1916 


April 23 


1857 


April 12 


1887 


April 10 


1917 


April 8 


1858 


April 4 


1888 


April i 


1918 


March 31 


1859 


April 24 


1889 


April 21 


1919 


April 20 


i860 


April 8 


1890 


April 6 


1920 


April 4 


1861 


March 31 


1891 


March 29 


1921 


March 27 


1862 


April 20 


1892 


April 17 


1922 


April 1 6 


1863 


April 5 


1893 


April 2 


1923 


April i 


1864 


March 27 


1894 


March 25 


1924 


April 20 


1865 


April 1 6 


1895 


April 14 


1925 


April 12 


1866 


April i 


1896 


April 5 


1926 


April 4 


1867 


April 21 


1897 


April 1 8 


1927 


April 17 


1868 


April 12 


1898 


April 10 


1928 


April 8 


1869 


March 28 


1899 


April 2 


1929 


March 31 


1870 


April 17 


1900 


April 15 


1930 


April 20 



16 1845, Mas Latrie, error April 23. 

17 1882, Mas Latrie, error April 4. 



320 A TABLE OF EASTER DAY 

(1931 to 2000) 



NEW STYLE. 


YEARS. 


EASTER DAY. 


YEARS. 


EASTER DAY. 


YEARS. 


EASTER DAY. 


1931 
1932 


April 5 
March 27 


1956 

1957 


April i 
April 21 


1981 
1982 


April 19 
April ii 


J 933 


April 1 6 


1958 


April 6 


1983 April 3 


*934 


April i 


1959 


March 29 


1984 


April 22 


1935 


April 21 


1960 


April 17 


1985 


April 7 


1936 


April 12 


1961 


April 2 


1986 


March 30 


X 937 


March 28 


1962 


April 22 


1987 


April 19 


1938 
T 939 


April 17 
April 9 


1963 
1964 


April 14 
March 29 


1988 
1989 


April 3 
March 26 


1940 


March 24 


1965 


April 1 8 


1990 


April 15 


1941 
1942 


April 13 
April 5 


1966 
1967 


April 10 
March 26 


1991 

1992 


March 31 
April 19 


1943 


April 25 


1968 


April 14 


1993 


April ii 


1944 


April 9 


1969 


April 6 


1994 


April 3 


1945 


April i 


1970 


March 29 


1995 


April 1 6 


1946 


April 21 


1971 


April ii 


1996 


April 7 


1947 


April 6 


1972 


April 2 


1997 


March 30 


1948 


March 28 


1973 


April 22 


1998 


April 12 


1949 


April 17 


1974 


April 14 


1999 


April 4 


i95o 


April 9 


1975 


March 30 


2OOO 


April 23 


I 95 I 


March 25 


1976 


April 1 8 






J 95 2 


April 13 


1977 


April 10 






1953 


April 5 


1978 


March 26 






1954 


April 1 8 


I 9 79 


April 15 






1955 


April 10 


1980 


April 6 







NOTE 



The foregoing table of Easter Day 
has been compared with the tables of 
Easter Day in The Chronology of 
History (ed. 1843, PP- 58-78), also 
with those in L'Art de verifier les 



Dates (Paris, 1818, i. pp. 174-241), 
and the figures have been found to 
correspond, with the exception of a 
misprint in the French book (p. 200), 
where the year 1395 is printed ' 1495-' 



i 

i 



321 



XV. A TABLE SHOWING SOME ERRORS IN DATING 
EASTER DAY 

From the year 1001 to the year 2000. 

There appears to be one error in 'L'Art de verifier les Dates,' 
3rd edition, tome i. (Paris, 1750-1783) ; one error in 'The Chron- 
ology of History,' by Sir Harris Nicolas, ist edition (London, 
1833) ; one error in * Handy-Book of Rules and Tables/ by John 
James Bond (London, 1869); and there are fifteen errors in 
'Tresor de Chronologic,' by M. le comte de Mas Latrie (Paris, 
1889). 

The eighteen errors are noted in the subjoined table. 



YEARS. 


EASTER DAY. 


ERRORS. 


BOOKS. 


PAGES. 


1161 


o.s. April 1 6 


April 6 


Mas Latrie 


134 


^S 


,, March 23 


March 28 


Mas Latrie 


140 


J 356 


April 24 


March 24 


Mas Latrie 


142 


1361 


March 28 


March 2 l 


Nicolas 


61 


i55o 


April 6 


April 9 2 


L'Artd. v.l. Dates 


3 1 


J559 


March 26 


March I 


Mas Latrie 


148 


1606 


N.S. March 26 


April 26 


Mas Latrie 


1 5 Q 


1629 


O.S. April 5 


April 6 


Mas Latrie 


i5 


l6 35 


March 29 


March Ip 


Mas Latrie 


150 


1685 


N S. April 22 


March 22 


Mas Latrie 


152 


1704 


March 23 


March 28 


Mas Latrie 


i54 


1774 


April 3 


April 5 


Mas Latrie 


156 


1790 


April 4 


March 4 


Mas Latrie 


156 


J794 


April 20 


April 25 


Mas Latrie 


156 


1821 


April 22 


March 3 22 


John J. Bond 


140 


1837 


March 26 


April 26 


Mas Latrie 


158 


1845 


March 23 


April 23 


Mas Latrie 


158 


1882 


April 9 


April 4 


Mas Latrie 


1 60 



1 This error is corrected in the 
2nd edition, London, 1843. 

2 This error is corrected in the 8vo 



edition, Paris, 1818, tome i. p. 211. 

3 This error is corrected in the 
4th edition, London, 1889, p. 448. 



322 



XVI. A TABLE showing the thirty-five possible 
dates of ASH WEDNESDAY and of the Principal 
Moveable Feasts before Easter in Common Years. 



SEPTUAOESIMA 
SUNDAY. 


SKXAGESIMA 
SUNDAY. 


QUINQUA- 
OE8IMA 

SUNDAY. 


ASH 
WEDNESDAY. 


PALM 

SUNDAY. 


EASTER DAY 
[SUNDAY]. 


Jan. 1 8 


Jan. 25 


Feb. i 


Feb. 4 


Mar. 15 


Mar. 22 


19 


26 


2 


5 


16 


23 


20 


27 


3 


6 


17 


24 


21 


28 


4 


7 


18 


25 


22 


2 9 


5 


8 


19 


26 


23 


30 


6 


9 


20 


27 


24 


3 1 


7 


10 


21 


28 


25 


Feb. i 


8 


ii 


22 


29 


26 


2 


9 


12 


23 


30 


27 


3 


10 


13 


24 


3i 


28 


4 


ii 


H 


25 


Apr. i 


29 


5 


12 


15 


26 


2 


30 


6 


13 


16 


27 


3 


31 


7 


H 


17 


28 


4 


Feb. i 


8 


15 


18 


29 


5 


2 


9 


16 


19 


30 


6 


3 


10 


17 


20 


31 


7 


4 


ii 


18 


21 


Apr. i 


8 


I 


12 
13 


19 

20 


22 
23 


2 

3 


9 

10 


7 


14 


21 


24 


4 


ii 


8 


15 


22 


25 


5 


12 


9 


16 


23 


26 


6 


13 


10 


17 


24 


27 


7 


14 


ii 


18 


25 


28 


8 


15 


12 


19 


26 


Mar. i 


9 


16 


13 


20 


27 


2 


10 


17 


14 


21 


28 


3 


ii 


18 


15 


22 


Mar. i 


4 


12 


19 


16 


23 


2 


5 


13 


20 


i? 


24 


3 


6 


U 


21 


18 


25 


4 


7 


15 


22 


19 


26 


5 


8 


16 


23 


20 


27 


6 


9 


17 


24 


21 


28 


7 


10 


18 


25 



323 



XVII. A TABLE showing the thirty-five possible 
dates of ASH WEDNESDAY and of the Principal 
Moveable Feasts before Easter in Leap Years. 



SEPTUAGESIMA 
SUNDAY. 


SEXAGESIMA 
SUNDAY. 


QUINQUA- 
GESIMA 

SUNDAY. 


ASH 

WEDNESDAY. 


PALM 
SUNDAY. 


EASTER DAT 
[SUNDAY]. 


Jan. 19 


Jan. 26 


Feb. 2 


Feb. 5 


Mar. 1 5 


Mar. 22 


20 


27 


3 


6 


16 


23 


21 


28 


4 


7 


17 


24 


22 


29 


5 


8 


18 


25 


23 


30 


6 


9 


19 


26 


24 


31 


7 


10 


20 


27 


25 


Feb. i 


8 


ii 


21 


28 


26 


2 


9 


12 


22 


29 


27 


3 


10 


13 


23 


30 


28 


4 


ii 


14 


24 


3i 


29 


5 


12 


15 


25 


Apr. i 


30 


6 


13 


16 


26 


2 


31 


7 


14 


17 


27 


3 


Feb. i 


8 


15 


18 


28 


4 


2 


9 


16 


19 


29 


5 


3 


10 


i7 


20 


30 


6 


4 


ii 


18 


21 


31 


7 


5 


12 


19 


22 


Apr. i 


8 


6 


13 


20 


23 


2 


9 


7 


14 


21 


24 


3 


10 


8 


15 


22 


25 


4 


ii 


9 


16 


23 


26 


5 


12 


10 


17 


24 


27 


6 


13 


ii 


18 


25 


28 


7 


14 


12 


19 


26 


29 


8 


IS 


13 


20 


27 


Mar. i 


9 


16 


14 


21 


28 


2 


10 


17 


15 


22 


29 


3 


ii 


18 


16 


23 


Mar. i 


4 


12 


19 


i7 


24 


2 


5 


13 


20 


18 


25 


3 


6 


H 


21 


19 


26 


4 


7 


15 


22 


20 


27 


5 


8 


16 


2 3 


21 


28 


6 


9 


17 


24 


22 


29 


7 


10 


18 


25 



324 



XVIII. A TABLE showing the dates of the Principal 
Moveable Feasts after Easter. 



EASTER DAT 
[SUNDAY]. 


ASCENSION 
DAY 
[THURSDAY]. 


PENTECOST 

OR 

WHIT-SUNDAY. 


TRINITY 

SUNDAY. 


CORPUS 
CHRISTI 
[THURSDAY]. 


ADVENT 
SUNDAY. 


Mar. 22 


Apr. 30 


May 10 


May 17 


May 21 


Nov. 29 


23 


May i 


ii 


18 


22 


30 


24 


2 


12 


19 


23 


Dec. i 


25 


3 


13 


20 


24 


2 


26 


4 


14 


21 


25 


3 


27 


5 


15 


22 


26 


Nov. 27 


28 


6 


16 


23 


27 


28 


29 


7 


17 


24 


28 


29 


30 
31 


8 
9 


18 
19 


3 


29 
30 


30 
Dec. i 


Apr. i 


10 


20 


27 


31 


2 


2 


ii 


21 


28 


June i 


3 


3 


12 


22 


29 


2 


Nov. 27 


4 


13 


23 


30 


3 


28 


5 


H 


24 


31 


4 


29 


6 


15 


25 


June i 


5 


30 


7 


16 


26 


2 


6 


Dec. i 


8 


17 


27 


3 


7 


2 


9 


18 


28 


4 


8 


3 


10 


19 


29 


5 


9 


Nov. 27 


ii 


20 


30 


6 


10 


28 


12 


21 


31 


7 


ii 


29 


13 


22 


June i 


8 


12 


30 


14 


23 


2 


9 


13 


Dec. i 


15 


2 4 


3 


10 


14 


2 


16 


2 5 


4 


ii 


15 


3 


17 


26 


5 


12 


16 


Nov. 27 


18 


27 


6 


13 


17 


28 


19 


28 


7 


14 


18 


29 


20 


29 


8 


15 


19 


30 


21 


30 


9 


16 


20 


Dec. i 


22 


31 


10 


17 


21 


2 


2 3 


June i 


ii 


18 


22 


3 


24 


2 


12 


19 


23 


Nov. 27 


25 


3 


13 


20 


24 


28 



325 



. AN ALPHABETICAL TABLE OF THE POPES 
AND ANTIPOPES from 1005 to 1625, with the dates 
when their Begnal Years began and ended. 



Regnal Years. Some Popes reckoned their Regnal Years from the date of 
their election, some from the date of their enthronement, some from 
the date of their coronation, and some from the date of their con- 
secration. 

ialics. The names of the Antipopes are printed in italics. 

.uthorities. The names of the authorities will be found in the List of 
Authors, etc. See below, No. xxv. p. 389. 

ABBREVIATIONS. 

A. L'Art de verifier les Dates. E. Eubel. G. Gams. M. Mas Latrie. 
N. Nicolas. S. Saint, ab. abdicated, con. consecrated, cr. crowned. 
d. died. dep. deposed, el. elected, en. enthroned, ex. expelled. 



NAMES. 


REGNAL YEARS. 


AUTHORITIES. 


BEGAN. 


ENDED. 


FOR THE 
BEGINNING. 


FOR THE 
ENDING. 


drian IV. 


el. 3 Dec. 1154 


d. i Sep. 1159 


A. M. N. 


A. G. M. 


irian V. 


el. ii July 1276 


d. 16 Aug. 1276 


A. E. M. N. 


A. M. N. 


Irian VI. 


el. 9 Jan. 1522 


d. 14 Sep. 1523 


A. G. M. 


A. G. M. 


Ibert. 


1 100 


IIOO 


A.M. 


A.M. 


exander II. 


el. i Oct. 1061 d. 21 Apr. 1073 


G.M. 


A. G. M. N. 


exander III. 


el. 7 Sep. 1159 


d. 30 Aug. 1181 


A. G. M. N. 


A. G. M. N. 


-exander IV. 


con. 20 Dec. 1254 


d. 25 May 1261 


E.M. 


A. E. G. M. N. 


- exander V. 


el. 26 June 1409 


d. 3 May 1410 


A. E. G. M. N. 


A. E. G. M. N. 


exander VI. 


cr. 26 Aug. 1492 


d. 1 8 Aug. 1502 


A. E. M. N. 


A. M. 


adetus II. 


con. 23 Feb. 1130 


d. 25 Jan. 1138 


A.M. 


A.M. 


^astasius IV. 


el. 9 July 1153 


d. 2 Dec. 1154 


A. M. N. 


A. M. N. 


I ledict VIII. 


con. 22 June 1012 


d. in Apr. 1024 


G.M. 


G.M. 


I ledict IX. 


eon. in Jan. 1033 


ab. 17 July 1048 


G.M. 


A. M. N. 


1 ledict X. 


el. 5 Apr. 1058 


ab. in Jan. 1059 


G.M. 


A. G. M. N. 


I ledict XL 


el. 22 Oct. 1303 


d. in July 1304 


A. E. G. M. N. 


A. E. G. M. N. 


E ledict XII. 


cr. 8 Jan. 1335 


d. 25 Apr. 1342 


A. M. N. 


A. E. G. M. N. 



326 AN ALPHABETICAL TABLE OF THE 
POPES AND ANTIPOPES 

From 1005 to 1625. 



NAMES. 


KEGNAL YEARS. 


AUTHORITIES. 


BEGAN. 


ENDED. 


FOR THE 
BEGINNING. 


FOB THK 
ENDING. 


Benedict XIII. 1 


con. ii Oct. 1394 


dep. 26 July 1417 


A. E. M. N. 


A. M. N. 


Boniface VIII. 


con. 2 Jan. 1295 


d. II Oct. 1303 


A. M. N. 


A. E. G. M. N 


Boniface IX. 


cr. 9 Nov. 1389 


d. i Oct. 1404 


A. E M. N. 


A. E. G. M. N 


Calixtus II. 


el. 2 Feb. 1119 


d. in Dec. 1124 


G.M. 


A. G. M. N. 


Calixtus III. 


el. in Sep. 1168 


ab. 29 Aug. 1178 


A.M. 


A. M. N. 


Calixtus III. 


cr. 20 Apr. 1455 


d. 8 Aug. 1458 


A E. M. N. 


A. M. N. 


Celestine II. 


el. 26 Sep. 1 143 


d. 9 Mar. 1 144 


A. G. M. N. 


A. M. N. 


Celestine III. 


con. 14 Apr. 1191 


d. 8 Jan. 1198 


A. M. N. 


A. G. M. N. 


Celestine IV. 


el. in Oct. 1241 


d. in Nov. 1241 


A. E. G. M. N. 


A. E. G. M. N 


Celestine V. 


el. 5 July 1294 


ab. 13 Dec. 1294 


A. E. G. M. N. 


A. E. G. M. K 


Clement II. 


con. 25 Dec. 1046 


d. 9 Oct. 1047 


A. G. M. N. 


A. G. M. N. 


Clement III. 


el. 25 June 1080 


d. in Sep. 1 100 


A.M. 


A.M. 


Clement III. 


con. 20 Dec. 1187 


d. 27 Mar. 1191 


A. M. N. 


A. M. N. 


Clement IV. 


con. 15 Feb. 1265 


d. 29 Nov. 1268 


E.M. 


A. E. G. M. * 


Clement V. 


cr. 14 Nov. 1305 


d. 20 Apr. 1314 


A. E. M. N. 


A. M. N. 


Clement VI. 


cr. 19 May 1342 


d. 6 Dec. 1352 


A. E. M. N. 


A. E. G. M. 1 


Clement VII. 


cr. 31 Oct. 1378 


d. 1 6 Sep. 1394 


A. E. M. N. 


A. E. G. M. I 


Clement VIII. 


el. in Nov. 1424 


ab. 26 July 1429 


A. M. N. 


A. M. N. 


Clement VII. 


cr. 25 Nov. 1523 


d. 26 Sep. 1534 


A. M. N. 


A. M. N. 


Clement VIII. 


cr. 7 Feb. 1592 


d. in Mar. 1605 


A. M. N. 


A. M. N. 


Damasus II. 


con. 17 July 1048 


d. in Aug. 1048 


A. G. M. N. 


A.G.M.N. 


Eugenius III. 


el. 15 Feb. 1145 


d. in July 1153 


G.M. 


A. G. M. N. 


Eugenius IV. 


cr. ii Mar. 1431 


d. 23 Feb. 1447 


A.E.M.N. 


A. E. G. M. I 


Felix V. 


cr. 24 July 1440 


ab. 9 Apr. 1449 


A. E.M. 


A.M. 


Gelasius II. 


el. 25 Jan. 1118 


d. 29 Jan. 1 1 19! A. M. N. 


A. G. M. N. 


Gregory VI. 


el. in May 1044 


dep. 25 Dec. 1046 A. M. N. 


A. M. N. 


Gregory VII. S 


con. 30 June 1073 


d. 25 May 1085 


A.M. 


A. G. M. N. i 


Gregory VIII. 


el. 9 Mar. 1118 


ex. in Apr. 1121 


A.M. 


A.M. 


Gregory VIII. 


el. in Oct. 1187 


d. 17 Dec. 1187 


A. G. M. N. 


A.G.M.N.J 


Gregory IX. 


con. 21 Mar. 1227 


d. 22 Aug. 1241 


E.M. 


E.M. 


Gregory X. 


con. 27 Mar. 1272 


d. 10 Jan. 1276 


A. E. M. A. E. M. N. 


Gregory XI. 


con. 5 Jan. 1371 


d. 27 Mar. 1378 


A. E. M. N. A. E. G. M. 


Gregory XII. 


el. 30 Nov. 1406 


dep. 5 June 1409 A. E. M. N. A. M. N. 



1 See above, pp. 181, 186, No. 21, and p. 194. 



AN ALPHABETICAL TABLE OF THE 327 
POPES AND ANTIPOPES 
From 1005 to 1625. 



NAMES. 


REGNAL YEARS. 


AUTHORITIES. 


BEGAN. 


ENDED. 


FOR THE 
BEGINNING. 


FOR THE 
ENDING. 


Gregory XIII. 


cr. 25 May 1572 


d. 10 Apr. 1585 


A. M. N. 


A. G. M. N. 


Gregory XIV. 


el. 5 Dec. 1590 d. 15 Oct. 1591 


A. G. M. N. 


A. G. M. N. 


Gregory XV. 


el. 9 Feb. 1621 


d. 8 July 1623 A. G. M. 


A. G. M. N. 


Honorius II. 


el. 28 Oct. 1061 


dep. 27 Oct. 1062 


A.M. 


A.M. 


Honorius II. 


con. 21 Dec. 1124 


d. in Feb. 1130 


A. M. N. 


A. G. M. N. 


Honorius III. 


con. 24 July 1216 


d. 18 Mar. 1227 


A. E. M. N. 


A. E. G. M. N. 


Honorius IV. 


con. 20 May 1285 


d. 3 Apr. 1287 


E.M. 


A. E. G. M. N. 


Innocent II. 


el. 14 Feb. 1130 Id. 24 Sep. 1143 


A. G. M. 


A. G. M. N. 


Innocent III. 


el. 29 Sep. 1178 


d. in exile 1180 


A.M. 


A. M. N. 


|[nnocent III, 


con. 22 Feb. 1198 


d. 16 July 1216 


A. E. M. N. 


A. E. G. M. N. 


fnnocent IV. 


con. 28 June 1243 


d. 7 Dec. 1254 


A. E. M. N. 


A. E. M. N. 


Innocent V. 


cr. in Feb. 1276 


d. 22 June 1276 


A. E. M. 


A. E. G. M. N. 


^nnocent VI. 


cr. 30 Dec. 1352 


d. 12 Sep. 1362 


A. M. N. 


A. E. G. M. N. 


[nnocent VII. 


con. in Nov. 1404 


d. 6 Nov. 1406 


A. E. M. N. 


A. E. G. M. N. 


nnocent VIII. 


cr. 12 Sep. 1484 


d. 25 July 1492 


A. E. M. N. 


A. E. G. M. N. 


'nnocent IX. 


el. 29 Oct. 1591 


d. 30 Dec. 1591 


A. G. M. N. 


A. G. M. N. 


rohn XVIII. 


con. 25 Dec. 1003 


ab. in May 1009 


G. M. 


A. M. N. 


ohn XIX. 


con. in July 1024 


d. in Jan. 1033 


G. M. 


G.M. 


Tohn XX* 




! A. iii. p. 323. 


A. iii. p. 370. 


ohn XXI. 


cr. 20 Sep. 1276 


d. in May 1277 A. E. M. N. 


A. E. G. M. N. 


ohn XXII. 


cr. 5 Sep. 1316 : d. 4 Dec. 1334 


A. E. M. N. 


A. E. G. M. N. 


[ohn XXIII. 


con. 25 May 1410 dep. 29 May 1415 


A. E. M. N. 


A. E. M. N. 


[ulius II. 


con. i Nov. 1503 d. in Feb. 1513 


A. G. M. N. 


A. G. M. N. 


ulius III. 


cr. 22 Feb. 1550 d. 23 Mar. 1555 


A. M. N. 


A. G. M. 


Leo IX. S. 


con. 12 Feb. 1049 


d. 19 Apr. 1054 


A. G. M. N. 


A. G. M. N. 


,eoX. 


el. ii Mar. 1513 


d. i Dec. 1521 


A. M. N. 


A. G. M. N. 


*o XI. 


el. i Apr. 1605 


d. 27 Apr. 1605 


A. G. M. N. 


A. G. M. N. 


Aicius II. 


con. 12 Mar. 1144 


d. in Feb. 1 145 


A. G. M. N. 


A. G. M. N. 


-ucius III. 


el. i Sep. 1181 


d. in Nov. 1185 


A. G. M. N. 


A. G. M. N. 


[arcellus II. 


cr. 1 1 Apr. 1555 d. 30 Apr. 1555' A.M. N. 


A. G. M. N. 


lartin IV. 


con. 23 Mar. 1281 d. 28 Mar. 1285 A. E. M. N. 


A. E. G. M. N. 


[artin V. 


con. 21 Nov. 1417 d. 20 Feb. 1431 


A. E. M. N. 


A. E. M. N. 


icolas II. 


con. 24 Jan. 1059 d. 27 July 1061 


G.M. 


G.M. 



See also above, p. xvi, note I, and Mas Latrie, p. 1067, No. CXLI. 



328 AN ALPHABETICAL TABLE OF THE 
POPES AND ANTIPOPES 

From 1005 to 1625. 



NAMES. 


REGNAL YEARS. 


AUTHORITIES. 


BEGAN. 


ENDED. 


FOB THE 
BEGINNING. 


FOB THE 
ENDING. 


Nicolas III. 


con. 26 Dec. 1277 


d. 22 Aug. 1280 


A. E. M. N. 


A. E. G. M. N. 


Nicolas IV. 


con. 22 Feb. 1288 


d. 4 Apr. 1292 


A. E. M. N. 


A. E. G. M. N. 


Nicolas V. 


el. 12 May 1328 


ab. 6 Sep. 1330 


A. E. M. 


A. E. M. 


Nicolas V. 


cr. 19 Mar. 1447 


d. 24 Mar. 1455 


E.M. 


A. E. G. M. N. 


Pascal II. 


el. 13 Aug. 1099 


d. 21 Jan. 1118 


A. G. M. N. 


A. G. M. N. 


Pascal III. 


el. 20 Apr. 1164 


d. 20 Sep. 1168 


A. M. N. 


A. M. N. 


Paul II. 


cr. 1 6 Sep. 1464 


d. 28 July 1471 


A. E. M. N. 


A. G. M. N. 


Paul III. 


cr. 7 Nov. 1534 


d. 10 Nov. 1549 


A. M. N. 


A. G. M. N. 


Paul IV. 


cr. 26 May 1555 


d. 1 8 Aug. 1559 


A. M. N. 


A. G. M. N. 


Paul V. 


en. 29 May 1605 


d. 28 Jan. 1621 


A. M. N. 


A. G. M. N. 


Pius II. 


cr. 3 Sep. 1458 


d. 15 Aug. 1464 


A. E. M. N. 


A. G. M. N. 


Pius III. 


el. 22 Sep. 1503 d. 1 8 Oct. 1503 A. E. G. M. N. 


A. E. G. M. N. 


Pius IV. 


cr. 6 Jan. 1560 


d. 9 Dec. 1565 A.M.N. 


A. G. M. N. 


Pius V. S. 


cr. 17 Jan. 1566 


d. i May 1572 A. G. M. N. 


A. G. M. N. 


Sergius IV. 


con. in July 1009 


d. in June 1012 


M. 


G.M. 


Sixtus IV. 


cr. 25 Aug. 1471 


d. 12 Aug. 1484 


A. E. M. N. 


E. G. M. 


Sixtus V. 


cr. i May 1585 


d. 27 Aug. 1590 


A. G. M. N. 


A. G. M. N. 


Stephen IX. 


el. 2 Aug. 1057 


d. 29 Mar. 1058 


A. G. M. N. 


A. G. M. N. 


Silvester HI. 


1044 


1044 


A.M. 


A.M. 


Silvester IV. 


el. in 1106 fled in 1106 


A.M. 


A.M. 


Theodoric. 


1 100 j i 100 


A.M. 


A.M. 


i 






Urban II. 


el. 12 Mar. 1088 d. 29 July 1099 


A. G. M. N. 


A. G. M. N. 


Urban III. 


el. 25 Nov. 1185 d. in Oct. 1187 


A. G. M. N. 


A. G. M. N. 


Urban IV. 


con. 4 Sep. 1261 d. 2 Oct. 1264 


A. E. M. N. 


A. E. G. M. N. 


Urban V. 


cr. 6 Nov. 1362 d. 19 Dec. 1370 


A. E. M. N. 


A. E. G. M. N. 


Urban VI. 


cr. 1 8 Apr. 1378 


d. iSOct. 1389 


A. E. M. N. 


A. M. N. 


Urban VII. 


el. 15 Sep. 1590 


d. 27 Sep. 1590 


A. G. M. N. 


A. G. M. N. 


Urban VIII. 


cr. 29 Sep. 1623 


d. 29 July 1644 A. M. N. 


A. G. M. N. 


Vicedominus. 


el. 5 Sep. 1276 


d. 6 Sep. 1276 Haydn. 


E.i.p.8;G.4S2 


Victor II. 


con. 13 Apr. 1055 


d. 28 July 1057 A. G.M. N. 


A. G. M. N. 


Victor III. 


el. 24 May 1086 


d. i6Sep. 1087 i A.G. M. N. 


A. G. M. N. 


Victor IV. 


el. in Mar. 1138 


ab. 1138 A.M. 


A.M. 


Victor V. 


el. 7 Sep. 1159 


d. in Apr. 1164 A.M. 


A. M. N. 



I 

L 



329 



XX. AN ALPHABETICAL CALENDAR 

of Scottish and other Saints' Days, etc., and of the Principal 
Feasts and Fasts, moveable, and immoveable. 



ABDON and Sennen, MM. . July 30 

Acca, Bp. C. Feb. 19 
Achileus, Nereus and, brs. 

MM May 12 

Adalhard, Ab. . . . Jan. 2 

Adaman, Mk. . . Jan. 31 

Adamnan, Ab. Hn. . . Sep. 23 

Adauctus, Felix and, MM. . Aug. 30 

Adelburga, V. Abs. . . Oct. 12 
Adhelm (Aldhelm), Bp. C. 

dep May 25 

Ado, Bp. C. Dec. 16 

Adrian, Bp. M. . Mar. 4 

Adrian, Sol. M. . . . Sep. 8 
Advent Sunday, moveable. 
Ad Vincula (St. Peter's 

Chains) .... Aug. i 
Aedan (Modoc), Bp. Ferns, C. Jan. 31 

Aethelbert, K. C. . . Feb. 24 

Agabus, Prophet, nat. . . Feb. 13 
Agapitus, Felicissimus and, 

MM Aug. 6 

Agapitus, youth, M. nat. . Aug. 18 

Agatha, V. M. nat. . . Feb. 5 

Agathos, Sol. M. nat. . . Dec. 7 

Agilus (Ayle, Yle), Ab. . Aug. 30 

Agnes, V. M., aged 12 . Jan. 21 
Agnes ' the second,' V. M. 

(her Octave) . . . Jan. 28 

Aidan, Bp. Lindisfarne, C. . Aug. 31 



Ailred (or Aired), Ab. C. . Jan. 12 
Alban, 1 Protomartyr of Eng- 
land, nat June 22 

Alban, Protomartyr of Eng- 
land, dep. . . . May 16 
Alban, Protomartyr, tr. .Aug. 2 
Albert 'the Great,' Bp. d. . Nov. 15 
Alburga, V. ... Oct. 12 

Aldhelm, Bp. C. dep. . . May. 25 
Alexander, Eventius, Theo- 

dolus, MM. . . . May 3 

Alexis, C July 17 

j Alfred, K. dep. . . . Oct. 28 
j Alfstan, Bp. C. . . . Apr. 6 

Alice Aug. 24 

Allocus (Mochallocus), Bp. C. Dec. 23 
All Angels, St. Michael and Sep. 29 
All Hallows. . . . Nov. i 
All Saints .... Nov. I 
All Souls .... Nov. 2 
Alphege, Abp. Cant. M. nat. Apr. 19 
Alphege, Abp. Cant. M. 

ord Nov. 16 

Alphege, Abp. Cant. M. 

tr June 8 

Alric, Ht. C. Aug. 2 

Amandus, Vedastus and, Bps. Feb. 6 
Amandus, Remigius, Ger- 

manus, Bps. . . . Oct. i 
Amatus, Pr. Ab. . . . Sep. 13 



1 [St. Alban's Day is on the 22nd 
of June in all Calendars both ancient 
and modern, except in those derived 
from the ' Annexed ' Book of Common 
Prayer (signed by Convocation on 
the aoth of December 1661), in which 
St. Alban's Day is on the I7th of 



June. There does not appear to be 
any evidence to show whether the 
alteration was intentional or acci- 
dental, but it is supposed that, in 
copying or printing from a list of 
Saints intended to be inserted in the 
Calendar, xxii. was mistaken for xvii.] 



330 AN ALPHABETICAL CALENDAR OF 



Ambrose, Bp. C. Dr. ord. . Dec. 7 
Ambrose, Bp. C. Dr. dep. . Apr. 4 
Anaclet (Cletus), P. M. nat. Apr. 26 
Anaclet (Cletus), P. M. . July 13 
Ananias, 2 Ds. M. nat. . . Jan. 25 
Ananias, Azarias, Misael . Dec. 16 
Anastasia, Basilissa and, MM. Apr. 15 
Anastasius I., Pope . . Apr. 27 
Anastasius, M. . . . Aug. 21 
Anatolia and Audax, MM. . July 9 
Andermas (St. Andrew's Day) Nov. 30 
Andrew, Ap. M., Patron 

Saint of Scotland, nat. . Nov. 30 
Andrew, Ap, M. , and Luke, 

Ev. tr May 9 

Angels, The Holy Guardian Oct. 2 
Anianus, Bp. . . . Nov. 17 
Anianus, Bp. tr. . . . June 14 
Anna, m. of the Blessed V. . July 26 
Anna, Prophetess . . Sep. i 
Annunciation of our Lady, 

the Blessed Virgin Mary . Mar. 25 | 
Anselm, Abp. Cant. (R. Mart.) Apr. 21 
Anselm, Abp. Cant. . . July 3 
Anthia, m. Eleutherius, MM. Apr. 18 
Antony, Ab. Egypt . . Jan. 17 
Apolina, Thomas and, MM. Aug. 23 
Apollinaris, Bp. M. nat. . July 23 j 
Apollinaris, Timothy and, 

MM. nat Aug. 23 ! 

Apollonia, V. M. nat. . . Feb. 9 
Apollonius, Pr. M. . . Apr. 10 
Apparition of St. Michael . May 8 
Appollonia, V. M. (K.B.A.) Feb. 12 
Apuleius, Marcus, Pope, C., 

Marcellus and, MM. . Oct. 7 
Aquila and Priscilla, MM. . July 8 
Aquinas, Thomas, C. Dr. . Mar. 7 
Archibald, Ab. C. . . Mar. 27 
Aristobulus, M. . . . Mar. 15 
Arnulph, Bp. Ht. M. . . July 18 
Artemius, M. . . . Oct. 20 
Asaph, Bp. C. May i 

Ascension Day, moveable. 
Ash Wednesday, moveable. 
Assumption of the Blessed V. Aug. 15 
Asterius, Marinus and, MM. Mar. 3 



Athanasius, Bp. Alexandria, 

Dr. nat May 2 

Audax, Anatolia, V. and, MM. July 9 
Audoenus (Owen), Bp. C. . Aug. 24 
Audry (Etheldreda), V. Q. 

Abs June 23 

Audry (Etheldreda), V. Q. 

Abs. tr Oct. 17 

Augustine, Abp. Cant. . May 26 
Augustine, Abp. Cant. tr. . Sep. 6 
Augustin[us], Bp. Hippo, Dr. 

con. ..... May 5 

Augustin[us], Bp. Hippo, Dr. 

nat Aug. 28 

Augustin[us], Bp. Hippo, Dr. 

tr Feb. 28 

Austin (Augustin) Friars . Aug. 28 
Ayle (Agilus, Yle), Ab. . Aug. 30 
Azarias, Ananias, Misael . Dec. 16 

BAITAN, Ab. . " . . June 9 
Balbina, V. M. . . . Mar. 31 
Baldred, Bp. C. Ht. . . Mar. 6 
Barbara, V. M. . . . Dec. 4 
Barnabas, Ap. M. nat. . June n 
Barr (Fimbarr), Bp. C. . Sep. 25 
Bartholomew, Ap. M. . . Aug. 24 
Bartholomew, Ap. M. (at 

Rome) .... Aug. 25 
Basil and Emmelia . . May 30 
Basil 'the Great,' Bp. C. 

ord. ..... June 14 

Basil 'the Great,' Bp. C. 

dep Jan. I 

Basilides, Cyrinus, Nabor, 

Nazarius, MM. nat. . . June 12 
Basilissa and Anastasia, MM. Apr. 15 
Bathan, Bp. . . . Dec. 25 

Bathilda, Q. Jan. 30 

Bathilda, Q. tr. . . . Mar. 27 
Bavo, C., Remigius, Bp. C. Oct. i 
Baya and Maura, VV. . Nov. 3 
Bean, Bp. C. nat. (K.B.A.) . Oct. 26 
Bean, Bp. (R. Mart.) . . Dec. 16 
Beatrix, Simplicius, Faus- 

tinus, MM. . . . July 29 
Becan, Ht May 17 



a Acts ix. 10. 



SAINTS' DAYS, FEASTS, AND FASTS 331 



Becket, Thomas, Archbishop 

of Canterbury, M. d. . Dec. 29 
Becket, Thomas, Archbishop 

of Canterbury, M. tr. . July 7 
Bede, The Venerable, d. . May 25 
Bede, The Venerable, dep. . May 27 
Bede, The Venerable, tr. . May 10 
Bees (Bega), V. . . Sep. 7 

Bega (Bees), V. . . . Sep. 7 

Bega, V Nov. 22 

Begha, V Oct. 31 

Beheading of St. John Baptist Aug. 29 
Beltane (fire of Baal) . . May i 
Benedict, Ab. F., O.S.B. 

nat Mar. 21 

Benedict, Ab. F., O.S.B. tr. . July 11 
Bennet (Biscop), Ab. C. . Jan. 12 
Berach, Ab. . . . Feb. 18 

Berchan, Bp. . . Aug. 4 

Bernard, Ab. F. Cistercians Aug. 20 
Bernard, Mk. tr. . . May 17 

Bertinus, Ab. . . . Sep. 5 
Bertinus, Ab. tr. . . July 16 

Bibiana, V. M. . . . Dec. 2 
Birds begin to sing . . Feb. 12 
Birinus, Bp. . . . Dec. 3 

Birth of our LORD . . Dec. 25 
Birth of St. John Baptist . June 24 
Birth of the Blessed Virgin 

Mary .... Sep. 8 
Blaithmaic, Mk. M. . . Jan. 19 
Blane, Bp. C. Aug. 10 

Blasius, Bp. M. . . . Feb. 3 
Boisil, Prior . . . Feb. 23 
Bonaventura, Bp. Dr. . Mar. 14 

Bonaventura, Bp. Dr. dep. . July 14 
Boniface, Bp. C. . . . Mar. 16 
Boniface, Abp. Ap. of Ger- 
many, M. . . . June 5 
Botulph, Ab. . . . June 17 
Brandan, Ab. C. nat. . . May 16 
Brandan, Ab. C. tr. . . June 14 
Braulio, Bp. C. . . . Mar. 26 
Brice (Britius), Bp. C. . Nov. 13 
Brigid (Bride), V. Abs. (The 

Mary of Ireland) . . Feb. i 

Brioc, Bp Apr. 29 

Britius (Brice), Bp. C. . Nov. 13 



Brothers, The Seven (sons of 

Felicitas), MM. . . July 10 
Brothers, The Seven (Macha- 

beei), MM. . . . Aug. i 

Bruno, C. F. Carthusians . Oct. 6 

Bruno, Abp. Cologne . . Oct. n 

Suite, Mk Dec. 7 

CADOC, Bp. M. . . . Jan. 24 
Cadroc, Ab. . . . Mar. 6 

Cailtanus, Ab. . . . Feb. 25 
Callistus I., Pope, M. nat. . Oct. 14 
Candlemas (Purification of 

the Blessed Virgin Mary) Feb. 2 
Canicus (Kenneth), Ab. . Oct. II 
Canute, K. M. nat. . . Jan. 19 
Caran, Bp. C. Dec. 23 

Cathan, Bp. . . . May 17 

Catherine (or Katherine) of 

Siena, Nun, O.S.D. . . Apr. 30 
Catherine (or Katherine) of 

Alexandria, V. M. nat. . Nov. 25 
Ceadda (Chad), Bp. Lich- 

tield, d Mar. 2 

Cecilia, V. M. . . . Nov. 22 
Cedde (br. of Chad), Bp. 

East Saxons . . . Oct. 26 

Celsus, Bp Apr. 6 

Chad (Ceadda), Bp. Lich- 

field, d Mar. 2 

Chaeremon, Bp. M. . ..Dec. 22 
Chair, St. Peter's (Antioch) Feb. 22 
Chair, St. Peter's (Rome) . Jan. 18 
Childermas (Holy Innocents' 

Day) .... Dec. 28 

Christiana, servant . . Dec. 15 
Christina, V. M. . . . July 24 
Christina, V. Abs. . . Nov. 26 
Christmas (Yule) . . Dec. 25 
Christmas Day, Little . Jan. I 

Christopher, M. . . . July 25 
Chrysogonus, M. nat. . . Nov. 24 
Chrysostom, St. John, Abp. 

Dr. nat Sep. 14 

Chrysostom, St. John, Abp. 

Dr. tr Jan. 27 

Cillen, Ab July 3 

Circumcision of our LORD . Jan. I 



332 AN ALPHABETICAL CALENDAR OF 



Ciriacus and companions, 

MM 

Ciricus (Cyr), Julitta, MM. 

Clara, V 

Clare, Pr. M. 

Glaus, ' Santa,' San Ni'claus 

(S. Nicolas), Abp. of Myra 
Clement, Bp. 
Clement, Pope M. nat. 
Cleophas, M. nat. 
Cletus (Anaclet), P. M. nat. 

Clotilda, Q 

Cloud, Mk 

Coemgen, Ab. 

Colman, Bp. C. . 

Colman, C. . 

Colman, Bp. C. . 

Colman, Bp. 

Colmoc, Bp. C. (K.B.A.) . 

Colmoc, Bp. C. ( Abdn. Mart. ) 

Columba (Columkille), Ab. C. 

Columban, Ab. 

Columbanus, Ab. dep. . 

Comgall, Ab. 

Comgan, Ab. 

Com. of St. Paul, Ap. M. . 

Com. of Faithful Departed . 

Comman, C. 

Con. of St. Paul, Ap. M. . 

Conan, Bp 

Conception of the Blessed 

Virgin Mary 
Concordia, nurse, M. . 
Conrad (Guelph), Bp. . 
Constantine, K. M. nat. 
Constantine, III., K. . 

Convall, C 

Cormac, Ab. 

Cornelius and Cyprian, MM. 
Corona, V., Victor and, MM. 
Corpus Christi, moveable. 
Cosmas and Damian, brs. 

MM. nat 

Crescens, Bp. M. 
Crescentia, Vitus, Modestus, 

MM 

Crispin and Crispinian, MM. 
Cross, Finding of the Holy . 



Aug. 8 
June i 6 
Aug. 12 
Nov. 4 

Dec. 6 
Mar. 19 
Nov. 23 
Sep. 25 
Apr. 26 
June 3 
Sep. 7 
June 3 
Feb. 1 8 
Sep. 26 
Oct. 1 6 
Dec. 12 
June 6 
June 7 
June 9 
Nov. 29 
Nov. 21 
May 12 
Oct. 13 
June 30 
Nov. 2 
Mar. 1 8 
Jan. 25 
Jan. 26 

Dec. 8 
Aug. 13 
Nov. 26 
Mar. ii 
Dec. 6 
Sep. 28 
June 21 
Sep. 14 
Sep. 1 8 



Sep. 27 
June 27 

June 15 

Oct. 25 
May 3 



j Cross, Raising of the Holy . Sep. 14 
Crouchmas (Holy Cross Day) Sep. 14 
Cucuphatus, M. . . . July 25 
Cumin, Bp. .... Aug. 19 
Cumine, Ab. . . . Feb. 24 
Cuthberga, V. M. . . Aug. 31 
Cuthbert, Bp. C. dep. . . Mar. 20 
Cuthbert, Bp. C. tr. . . Sep. 4 
Cyprian, Abp. M. . . Sep. 26 
Cyprian, Cornelius and, MM. Sep. 14 
Cyprian, M. and Justina, 

V. M. nat. . . . Sep. 26 
Cyr and Julitta, MM. . June 16 

Cyriacus, and 22 MM. . Aug. 8 

Cyril, Bp. Alexandria . Jan. 28 
Cyril and Methodius, Bps. . Mar. 9 
Cyril, Bp. Jerusalem . . Mar. 18 
Cyril, Bp. M. July 9 

Cyrinus, Basilides and, MM. June 12 



DAGAMUS, Bp. C. . . May 29 
Damasus, Pope, C. . . Dec. 11 
Damian, Cosmas and, brs. 

MM. nat. . . . Sep. 27 

Darlugtach, V. ... Feb. i 
David, Bp. C., Patron Saint 

of Wales .... Mar. i 

David, K Jan. 1 1 

David, K. d. . . . May 24 
Denis, Bp. Paris, M. . . Oct. 9 
Desiderius (Didier), Bp. M. May 23 
Devenic, Bp. C. . . . Nov. 13 
Diaconan, C. Dec. 23 

Didier (Desiderius), Bp. M. May 23 
Diomedes, Med. M. . . Aug. 16 
Dionysius ( Areopagite), Rusti- 

cus, Eleutherius, MM. nat. Oct. 9 
Dionysius (Denis), Bp. Paris, 

M Oct. 9 

Distaff, Rock Day, Uphaliday Jan. 7 
Dominic, F., O.S.D. (Preach- 
ing Friars) . . . Aug. 4 

Donald, K July 12 

Donan, Ab Apr. 17 

Donatus, Bp. M. nat. . . Aug. 7 
Donatus, Bp. C. . . . Oct. 22 
Dorotheus, Gorgonius, MM. Sep. 9 
Dorothy of Cappadocia,V.M. Feb. 6 



SAINTS' DAYS, FEASTS, AND FASTS 333 



Dorothy, V. ... Mar. 28 

Drostan, Ab. . . . Dec. 14 

Duffus, K. M. . . . Jan. 1 1 

Dunchad, Ab. . . . Mar. 24 

Dunstan, Abp. Cant. ord. . Oct. 21 

Dunstan, Abp. Cant. dep. . May 19 

Dunstan, Abp. Cant. tr. . Sep. 7 

Duthac, Bp. C. . . Mar. 8 

EASTER DAY, moveable. 
Easter Even, moveable. 
Eata, Bp. C. Oct. 26 

Ebba, V. Ab. . . . Aug. 23 
Ebba, V. M. . . . Apr. 2 
Edgar, K. dep. . . . July 8 
Edilburga, V. ... July 7 
Ediltrude, V. ... June 23 

Edith, V Sep. 16 

Edith, V. Abs. . . . May 14 
Edmund, Abp. Cant. C. dep. Nov. 16 
Edmund, Abp. Cant. C. tr. . June 9 
Edmund, K. M. . . . Nov. 20 
Edmund, K. M. tr. . . June 9 
Edward, K. C. d. . . Jan. 5 
Edward, K. C. tr. . . Oct. 13 
Edward, K. West Saxons, M. Mar. 18 
]dward, K. of West Saxons, 

M. tr June 20 

Edwin, K. M. . . Oct. 4 

Igesippus, Ch. Historian . Apr. 7 
Egidius (Giles), Ab. C. . Sep. i 
lleutherius, Bp.,and Anthia, 

MM Apr. 18 

jleutherius, Dn. M. nat. , Oct. 9 
Eleven thousand Virgins, 
Ursula and, MM. . . Oct. 21 

Elfreda, V Dec. 12 

ilgiva, Q May 5 

Eligius (Eloy, Lo), Bp. C. . Dec. i 

Eligius (Eloy, Lo), Bp. C. tr. June 25 

Elisabeth, Q. Hungary, W. . Nov. 19 

Elisabeth, Q. of Portugal . July 8 

Ilisabeth, Zacharias and . Nov. 5 

llmo (Erasmus), Bp. M. . June 2 

Eloy (Eligius, Lo), Bp. C. . Dec. i 

51 van, Bp.,Medwyn,Dr. and Jan. i 

Ember Days, moveable 

Imerentiana, V. M. . . Jan. 23 



Emmelia, Basil and . . May 30 
Englatius (Tanglan), Ab. . Nov. 3 
Enoch (Thenew), mother of 

St. Kentigern (Mungo) . July 18 
Enurchus (Evortius), Bp. . Sep. 7 
Epaphras, Bp. M. nat. . July 19 
Epimachus, Gordianus, MM. May 10 
Epiphany of our LORD, The Jan. 6 
Erasmus (Elmo), Bp. M. . June 2 
Erasmus, M. Nov. 25 

Erchard, Bp. C. . . . Aug. 24 
Erconwald, Bp. C. dep. . Apr. 30 
Erconwald, Bp. C. tr. . . Nov. 14 
Erhard, Ab. . . . Feb. 9 

Eric, K. M May 18 

Erlulph, Bp. M. . . . Feb. 10 
Ethan (? Etaoin, V.) . . July 5 
Ethelbert, K. M. . . May 20 
Ethelburga, V. Abs. Barking Oct. 1 1 
Ethelburga, Q. Abs. . . Sep. 10 
Etheldreda (Audry), V. Q. 

Abs June 23 

Etheldreda (Audry), V. Q. 

Abs. tr Oct. 17 

Ethelgiva, V. Abs. . . Dec. 9 
Ethelreda of Coldingham, V. Apr. 22 
Ethelwold, Bp. . . . Aug. i 
Ethelwold, Bp. C. . . Feb. 12 
Ethelwold, Bp. tr. . . Sep. 10 
Ethernan, Bp. C. . . Dec. 2 
Ethernasc, Bp. C. . . Dec. 22 
Eucharist (Easter), moveable. 
Eulalia, V. M. . . . Feb. 12 
Eulalia, V. M., aged 12 . Dec. 10 
Euphemia, V. M. nat. . Sep. 16 

Eusebius, Pr. nat. . . Aug. 14 
Eustace, Ab. . . . Mar. 29 
Eustace, Bp. C. nat. . . July 16 
Eustochium, V. M. . . Nov. 2 
Eutychius, Victorinus, Placi- 

dus, brs. MM. nat. . . Oct. 5 
Evaristus, P. M. . . . Oct. 26 
Eventius, Alexander, MM. . May 3 
Evilasius, Fausta, V. and, 

MM. nat Sep. 20 

Evortius (Enurchus), Bp. . Sep. 7 
Ewalds, The Two, MM. . Oct. 3 
Ezekiel, Prophet, . . Apr. 10 



334 AN ALPHABETICAL CALENDAR OF 



FABIAN, P. M. nat. . . Jan. 20 
Faelchu (Voloc), Ab. . . Jan. 29 
Failbhe, Ab. . . . Mar. 22 
Faith, V. M. nat. . . Oct. 6 
Fasterns-een (Shrove Tues- 
day), moveable. 

Fausta,V.,andEvilasius,MM. Sep. 20 
Faustin and Jovita, brs. MM. Feb. 1 5 
Faustinus, Simplicius, and 

Beatrix, MM. . . . July 29 
Faustus, M. nat. . . . July 16 
Fechin (Vigean), Ab. . . Jan. 20 
Felicianus, Primus and, MM. June 9 
Felicissimus, Dn., M. . . Aug. 6 
Felicitas, Perpetua and, MM. Mar. 7 
Felicitas, M. (mother of the 

seven brothers, MM.) . Nov. 23 
Felicula, V. M. nat. . . June 13 
Felix, Pr. nat. . . . Jan. 14 
Felix, Bp. C. Mar. 8 

Felix, Pope, M. . . . May 30 
Felix, Nabor and, MM. . July 12 

Felix, M July 29 

Felix and Adauctus, MM. . Aug. 30 
Felix de Valois, with John of 

Matha, F., O.H.T.R. Cap. Nov. 4 

Felix, M Nov. 23 

Fergus, Bp. C. . Nov. 18 

Fiacre, Ab. C. Aug. 30 

Fillan, Ab Jan. 9 

Fimbarr (Barr), Bp. C. . Sep. 25 
Finan (Finian), Bp. C. . Mar. 18 
Fincane and Findoch, VV. . Oct. 13 
Finding head of John Baptist Feb. 24 
Finding of the Holy Cross . May 3 
Finding of St. Stephen, Proto- 

martyr .... Aug. 3 
Findoch, Fincane and, VV. Oct. 13 
Finian (Finan), Bp. C. . Mar. 18 
Finnan, Bp. C. . . . Feb. 17 
Fintan-Munnu(Mundus),Ab. Oct. 21 
Firmina, V. M. . . . Nov. 24 
Firminus, Bp. M. . . Sep. 25 
Flavianus, M. Jan. 28 

Florence, M. Oct. 27 

Forty-seven, MM. nat. . Mar. 14 
Forty Soldiers, MM. . . Mar. 9 
Forty Virgins, MM. . . Dec. 24 



Fothad, Bp. ... June 4 
Fotinus, Bp. M. . . . Dec. 23 
Four crowned brs. MM. nat. Nov. 8 
Francis of Assisi, C., 

F., O.S.F. nat.. . . Oct. 4 
Francis of Assisi, C., 

F., O.S.F. tr. . . . May 25 
Francis Xavier, Pr. S. J. . Dec. 3 
Frideswide, V. M. . . Oct. 19 
Frideswide, V. M. tr. . . Feb. 12 
Frumentarius, Bp. . . Oct. 27 

Fumac, Bp May 3 

Fursey, A. C. . . Jan. 16 

GABRIEL, Archangel . . Nov. 18 

Gall, Ab Oct. 16 

Gangulphus( Jingo, Golff),M. May 11 

Genevieve (Genovefa), V. . Jan. 3 

Genovefa ( Genevieve), V. . Jan. 3 
George, Soldier, M., Patron 

Saint of England, nat. . Apr. 23 

Gerard, Bp. M. . . . Sep. 24 

Gereon and companions, MM. Oct. 10 

Germanus, Bp. Paris . . May 28 

Germanus, Bp. Auxerre . July 31 
Germanus, Remigius, Aman- 

dus, Bps Oct. i 

Germinianus, M. . . . Sep. 16 

Gertrude, V. Abs. . . Mar. 17 

Gertrude, V. nat. . . Nov. 17 

Gervadius, C. Nov. 8 
Gervasius and Protasius, brs. 

MM. .... June 19 

Gilbert, Ab. ... Feb. 4 

Gilbert, Bp. C. . . . Apr. i 
Gildard, Medard and, brs. 

Bps. nat June 8 

Gildas, C. Ht. . . . Jan. 29 

Giles (Egidius), Ab. C. . Sep. i 

Glascian, Bp. C. . . . Jan. 30 

Goar, Pr. C. July 6 

Godric, Ht May 21 

Golff(Gangulphus, Jingo), M. May n 
Good Friday, moveable. 
Gordianus and Epimachus, 

MM. nat May 10 

Gorgonius, Dorotheus and, 

MM Sep. 9 






SAINTS' DAYS, FEASTS, AND FASTS 335 



Gothard, Bp. Hildesheim, C. , May 4 
Gothard, Bp. Mentz . . May 5 
Gratian, Bp. . . . Dec. 18 ! 

Gregory 'the Great,' P. Dr. Mar. 12 j 
Gregory 'the Great,' P. Dr. 

ord. ..... Sep. 3 j 

Gregory ISTazianzen, Abp. nat. May 9 
Gregory Nazianzen, Abp. tr. June 1 1 ! 
Gregory VII., Pope . . May 25 ! 

Gudule, V Jan. 8 ! 

Guelph (Conrad), Bp. . . Nov. 26 
Guido, Ab. Lundors . . June 17 ; 
Guido (Guy), C. . . . Sep. 12 ; 
Guinoch, Bp. C. . . . Apr. 13 j 
Guthagon, C. July 3 I 

Guthlac, Ht. Apr. 1 1 

Guy (Guido), C. . . . Sep. 12 j 

HALLOW-EEN . . . Oct. 31 
Hallowmas .... Nov. i 

Hedda, Bp July 7 

Hegesipus, Ch. Historian . Apr. 7 

Helen, Q May 21 

Helena, m. of Constantine . Aug. 18 
Helier, Hermit, M. . . July 16 

Hemelin, C Mar. 10 | 

Hermes, M Aug. 28 

Hero, Bp. M. nat. . . Oct. 17 
Hieronymus ( Jerome), Pr. Dr. Sep. 30 
Hilary, Bp. Poitiers, C. . Jan. 13 
Hilary, Bp. Aries . . May 5 
Hilary, Pope, C. . . . Sep. 10 
Hilda, V. Abs. . . . Nov. 18 
Hilda, V. Abs. tr. . . Dec. 15 
Hippolyte and 20 MM. . Aug. 13 
Holy Cross, Finding of the . May 3 
Holy Cross, Raising of the . Sep. 14 
Holy Innocents, MM. nat. . Dec. 28 
Holy mas (Hallow Mass) . Nov. i 
Holy Name of JESUS. . Aug. 7 
Holy Rood (Cross) Day . Sep. 14 
Holy Rood, Finding of the . May 3 
Holy Rood, Raising of the . Sep. 14 
Holy Trinity Sunday, moveable. 
Honorius, Abp. Cant. C. . Sep. 30 
Hubert, Bp. Liege . . Nov. 3 
Hugh, Bp. Lincoln, C. . Nov. 17 
Hugh, Youth of Lincoln, M. June 29 



Hugo, Prior of the May . Jan. i 

Humphry (Onofrio), Hermit June 12 

Hyacinth, M. July 3 

Hyacinth, Prothus and, MM. Sep. n 

IoNATius,Bp.Antioch,M.nat. Feb. i 
Ignatius, Bp. Antioch, M. tr. Dec. 17 
Ignatius Loyola, C., F., S.J. July 31 

Inan, C Aug. 18 

Incarnation of our LORD . Mar. 25 
Innocents' Day (Childermas) Dec. 28 
Introits, see below, p. 342, 

No. 7, and note. 

Irenseus, Bp. M. . . . June 28 
Isabel, Q. of Portugal . . July 8 
Isabel of France, Nun, O.S.F. Aug. 31 
Isidore, Bp. Seville . . Apr. 4 
Ives, Pr. C. (Cornwall) . May 19 
Ivo(S.Ives,Huntingdon),Bp. June 10 
Ivo, Bp. (Persia) . . . Apr. 26 

JAMES, Philip and, App. 

MM. nat May i 

[James 'the Less,' 'son of 
Alphseus,' 1st Bishop of 
Jerusalem, writer of 
' The General Epistle of 
James.'] 
James 'the Great' (tall), 

Ap. M July 25 

[The son of Zebedee and 
the brother of St. John 
the Evangelist.] 

James 'the Great, 'Ap. M. tr. Dec. 30 
Januarius, Bp. M. . . Sep. 19 
Jerome, Pr. Dr. dep. . . Sep. 30 
JESUS, Holy Name of . Aug. 7 
Jingo(Gangulphus,Golff),M. May 11 
Joachim, Father of the 

Blessed Virgin Mary . Mar. 20 
Johanna, Mat. . . . May 24 
John, Ap. Ev., before the 

Latin Gate . . . May 6 
John, Ap. Ev. nat. . . Dec. 27 
John Baptist, Birth of (nati- 

vitas) .... June 24 
John Baptist, Beheading of 

(natale) .... Aug. 29 



336 AN ALPHABETICAL CALENDAR OF 



John Baptist, Findinghead of Feb. 24 
John Chrysostom, Abp. Dr. 

nat Sep. 14 

John Chrysostom, Abp. Dr.tr. Jan. 27 
John of Beverley, Bp. dep. . May 7 
John of Beverley, Bp. tr. . Oct. 25 
John of Egypt, Hermit . Mar. 27 
John of Matha, C. (with Felix 

deValois)F.,O.H.T.R.Cap. Feb. 8 
John of Matha, C. (with Felix 

deV.)F.,O.H.T.R.Cap. d. Dec. 17 
John and Paul, brs. MM. . June 26 
Joseph, husband of the 

Blessed Virgin Mary, nat. Mar. 19 
Joseph of Arimathea . . Mar. 17 
Jovita,Faustinand,brs.MM. Feb. 15 
Jude, Simon and, App. MM. Oct. 28 

[St. Jude, son of Alphaeus, 
'Judas not Iscariot,' 
' Lebbaeus surnamed 
Thaddseus,' 'brother of 
James ' (the Less).] 
Julia, V. M. . . . May 22 
Juliana, V. M. tr. . . Feb. 16 
Juliana, Abs. M. . . . Dec. 20 
Julianus, Bp. M. . . . Jan. 27 ! 
Julianus, M. Feb. 27 

Julitta, Cyr and, MM. . June 16 

Julius, M Dec. 20 

Justa and Rufina, VV. MM. July 19 
Justin, Philosopher, M. . Apr. 13 
Justina, V. M., Cyprian, M. 

and, nat Sep. 26 

Justus, M Oct. 1 8 

KALLISTUS I., Pope. M. . Oct. 14 
Katerine, V. (K.B.A.) . May 4 
Katherine (or Catherine) of 

Siena, Nun, O.S.D. . . Apr. 30 
Katherine (or Catherine) of 

Alexandria, V. M. nat. . Nov. 25 
Kenelm, K. M. (K.B.A.) . July 16 
Kenelm, K. M. . . . July 17 
Kennere, V. M. . . . Oct. 29 
Kenneth (Canicus), Ab. . Oct. 1 1 
Kentigern (St. Mungo), Bp. 

of Glasgow, C. . . . Jan. 13 



Kentigerna, Mat. Anch. . Jan. 7 

Kessog, Bp. C. . Mar. 10 

Kevoca, V Mar. 13 

Kilian, Bp. C. . Nov. 13 

Kyran (Queran), Ab. . . Sep. 9 

LADY DAY ( The Annunciation 
of our Lady, the Blessed 
Virgin Mary) . . . Mar. 25 
Laisren, Ab. . . . Sep. 16 
Lambert, Bp. M. . . . Sep. 17 
Lammas, .... Aug. i 
Landry, Bp. C. . June 10 

Laurence, Abp. C. . . Feb. 2 
Laurence, Archdeacon, M. . Aug. 10 
Laurence, Bp. Dublin . . Nov. 14 
Lazarus, Bp. . . . Dec. 17 
Leander, Bp. nat. . . Feb. 27 
Lebbseus (St. Jude) . . Oct. 28 
Leger (Leodegarius), Bp. M. Oct. 2 
Lent, moveable. 

Leo 'the Great,' Pope, C. . Apr. 11 
Leo II., Pope . . . June 28 
Leo IX, Pope . . . Apr. 19 
Leocadia, V. M. nat. . . Dec. 9 
Leodegarius (Leger), Bp. M. Oct. 2 

Leofric, Bp Feb. 10 

Leonard, Ab. Ht. C. . . Nov. 6 
Leu tf rid, Ab. . . . June 21 
Linus, P. M. (R. Mart.) . Sep. 23 
Linus, P. M. (Bl. Bk.) . . Nov. 26 
Little Christmas Day 3 . Jan. i 
Livin, Bp. M. Nov. 12 

Lo (Eligius), Bp. C. . . Dec. i 
Lolan, Bp. C. Sep. 22 

Longinus, Sol. M. . . Mar. 15 
Louis IX., K. C. . . . Aug. 25 
Lucianus, Pr. M. nat. . . Jan. 8 
Lucianus, M. Sep. 16 

Lucy, V. M. nat. . . Dec. 13 
Luke, Ev. nat. . . . Oct. 18 
Luke, Ev., Andrew, Ap. M. 

and, tr May 9 

Lydia, seller of purple . Aug. 3 



MACALLAN, Bp. C. 
Macarius, Ab. 



. Sep. 6 
. Jan. 2 



Celtic Calendar. 



SAINTS' DAYS, FEASTS, AND FASTS 337 



Machabsei, seven brs. MM. . Aug. i 
Machan, Bp. C. . Sep. 28 

Machar (Mauritius), Bp. C. Nov. 12 
Machutus (Malo), Bp. C. nat. Nov. 15 
MacKessog, Bp. C. . . Mar. 10 
Maelrubha, Ab. M. . . Aug. 27 
Maglorius, Bp. . . . Oct. 24 
Magnus, Bp. M. . . . Aug. 19 
Magnus, Jarl, M. . . Apr. 16 
Magnus, Jarl, M. tr. . . Dec. 13 
Malo (Machutus), Bp. C. . Nov. 15 
Malrubeus, Ab. M. . . Aug. 27 
Mammas, M. nat. . . Aug. 17 
Manirus, Bp. C. . . . Dec. 18 
Marcella, W. Jan. 31 

Marcellianus, Marcus, MM. June 18 
Marcellinus and Peter, MM. June 2 
Marcellus, Pope, M. nat. . Jan. 16 
Marcus and Marcellianus, 

brs. MM. nat. . . . June 18 
Marcus, Pope, C. , Marcellus, 

Apuleius, MM. . . Oct. 7 
Margaret, Q. of Scots, d. . Nov. 16 
Margaret, Q. of Scots, tr. . June 19 
Margaret, Q. of Scots ; see 

also below, p. 342, No. 8. 
Margaret, of Antioch, V. M. July 20 
Marinus and Asterius, MM. Mar. 3 
Mark, Ev. M. nat. . . Apr. 25 
Mark, Ev. M. tr. . . Jan. 31 

Marnan (Marnoc), Bp. C. . Mar. I 
Martha, V. (s. of Lazarus) . July 29 
Martin, Bp. C. nat. . . Nov. n 
Martin, Bp. C. ord. and tr. July 4 
Martinianus, Processus and, 

MM. nat July 2 

Martinmas .... Nov. n 



| Mary, the Blessed Virgin 

,, Annunciation of . Mar. 25 

,, Assumption of . . Aug. 15 

,, Birth of . . . Sep. 8 

,, Conception of . . Dec. 8 

,, Natale of . . . Jan. i 

,, Presentation of . . Nov. 21 

,, Purification of . . Feb. 2 

,, Visitation of . . July 2 

Mary of Egypt, Penitent, dep. Apr. 2 

Maryof Ireland (Brigid),Abs. Feb. i 

Mary Magdalene, 4 nat. . July 22 

Mary Magdalene, tr. . . Mar. 19 

Matthew, Ap. Ev. M. nat. . Sep. 21 

Matthew, Ap. Ev. M. tr. . May 6 

Matthias, Apostle M. nat. 

(in common years) . . Feb. 24 
Matthias, Apostle M. nat. 

(in leap years) . . . Feb. 25 
Maud, Q. dep. . . . Apr. 30 
Maundy Thursday, moveable. 
Maura, Baya and, VV. . Nov. 3 
Maurice and companions, MM. Sep. 22 
Mauritius (Machar), Bp. C. Nov. 12 
Maurus, Ab. . . . Jan. 15 
Maxentia, V. ... Nov. 20 
Maximus, Tiburcius, Valeri- 

anus, MM. . . . Apr. 14 

Mayota, V Dec. 23 

Medana, V Nov. 19 

Medard and Gildard, brs. 

Bps. nat June 8 

Medwyn, Dr., and Elvan, Bp. Jan. i 
Meliorus, M. Oct. i 

Mellitus, Abp. Cant. dep. . Apr. 24 
Menas, Sol. M. . Nov. 11 

Merinus, Bp. C. . . . Sep. 15 



4 [St. Mary Magdalene's Day is on 
the 22nd of July in all Calendars 
both ancient and modern, with the 
exception of those in the ' Annexed ' 
and 'Sealed' Books of Common 
Prayer, in both of which it is on the 
2ist of July. In the first Prayer 
Book of King Edward VI. (1549) 
there is an Introit (Psalm cxlvi.), 
Collect, Epistle and Gospel for St. 



Mary Magdalene's Day, and her name 
appears in the Calendar on the 22nd 
July. The 'Sealed' Book in the 
Chapter Library at Durham has no 
Collect, Epistle, or Gospel for St. 
Mary Magdalene's Day, but in the 
Calendar her name appears on the 
2ist of July, and there is a pen-and- 
ink correction to show that her day 
ought to be on the 22nd of that month. ] 



338 AN ALPHABETICAL CALENDAR OF 



Mernoc, Bp. C. . . Oct. 25 

Methodius, Cyril and, Bps. . Mar. 9 
Methodius, Bp. Constanti- 
nople .... June 14 
Methodius, Bp. Tyre, M. nat. Sep. 18 
Michael, and all Angels . Sep. 29 
Michaelmas .... Sep. 29 
Michael, Apparition of St. . May 8 
Michael in Monte Tumba . Oct. 16 
Midsummer Day . . . June 24 
Midwinter Day . . . Dec. 25 
Milburga, V. . . . Feb. 23 
Mildred, V. Abs. . . . Feb. 20 
Misael, Ananias, Azarias . Dec. 1 6 
Mochallocus (Allocus), Bp. C. Dec. 23 

Mochoat, C Aug. 9 

Modan, Ab Feb. 4 

Modan, Bp. C. Nov. 14 

Modestus, Vitus, Crescentia, 

MM. .... June 15 

Modoc (Aedan), Bp. Ferns, C. Jan. 31 
Modwenna, V. (A.S.) . . July 5 
Modwenna, V. (K.B.A.) . July 6 

Molio, Ab Apr. 18 

Moloc, Bp. C. June 25 

Momhaedoc, Ab. * . Mar. 23 

Monachus (Monoch) . . Oct. 30 
Monan, C. . . . . Mar. i 
Monica (mother of St. Augus- 

tin[us], Bp. of Hippo) nat. May 4 
Monica (m. St. Augustinus) tr. Apr. 9 
Monon (? Munnok), M. . Oct. 18 
Moroc, Bp. C. Nov. 8 

Mundus(Fintan-Munnu),Ab. Oct. 21 
Mungo (St. Kentigern), Bp. Jan. 13 
Munnok (? Monon, M. ) . Oct. 18 

NABOR, Basilides and, MM. June 12 
Nabor and Felix, MM. . July 12 
Name of JESUS, The Holy Aug. 7 



Narcissus, Bp. nat. . . Oct. 29 
Natale of the Blessed Virgin 

Mary .... Jan. i 
Nathalan, Bp. C. . . Jan. 8 

Nazarius, Basilides and, MM. June 12 
Nemisius, M. Dec. 19 

Neot, Pr. C. July 31 

Nereus, Achileus, brs. MM. May 12 
Nestor, Bp. M. nat. . . Feb. 26 
Nethan, Mk. . . . Oct. 26 
Newyeirsmas . . . Jan. i 
Nicanor, Dn. . . . Jan. 10 
Nicasius, Bp. Rouen, M. . Oct. n 
Nicasius, Bp. Rheims, M. . Dec. 14 
Nicolas, Abp. of Myra, C. nat. Dec. 6 
Nicolas, Abp. of Myra, C. tr. May 9 
Nicolas, Ht. C. . Sep. 10 

Nicomede, M. June i 

Nicomedes, Pr. M. nat. . Sep. 15 

Nidan, C Nov. 3 

Nine Maidens, VV. . . July 15 
Ninian, Bp. C. Sep. 16 

Noah entering the Ark . Mar. 17 
Noah leaving the Ark . . Apr. 29 
Norwich, William of, youth, M. Mar. 24 

OCTAVES 5 of the following Feasts, in 
chronological order : 

Christmas . . . Jan. 
Stephen, Protomartyr . Jan. 
John, Ap. Ev. . . Jan. 
The Holy Innocents, 

MM Jan. 

Thomas, Abp. Cant. M. Jan. 
The Epiphany . . Jan. 13 
Hilary, Bp. . . . Jan. 20 
Agnes, 6 V. M. . . Jan. 28 
Purification of Blessed V. Feb. 9 
Easter Day, moveable. 
Ascension Day, moveable. 



5 Octaves were sometimes used in 
dating documents. In counting an 
octave, the feast was reckoned as the 
first day, and the seventh day after 
the feast was ' the octave ' or eighth 
day, iu the same way in which an 
octave is counted in music. 



1 In Octabis' means on the day of 
the octave, not on any day during 
the octave ; see ' The Record Society,' 
vol. xxvii. a 1893, 'Lancashire Lay 
Subsidies,' vol. i. Introduction, pp. 
xxiii-xxvi, by John A. C. Vincent. 

6 Called ' St. Agnes the second.' 



SAINTS' DAYS, FEASTS, AND FASTS 339 



Pentecost, or Whit-Sun- 
day, moveable. 
Trinity Sunday, moveable. 
Corpus Christi, moveable. 
Birth of St. John Baptist July I 
Peter and Paul, App. 

MM July 6 

Visitation of Blessed V. July 9 
Holy name of JESUS . Aug. 14 
Laurence, Archdn. M. . Aug. 17 
Assumption of Blessed V. Aug. 22 
Birth of the Blessed V.. Sep. 15 
Michael, Archangel . Oct. 6 
All Saints . . . Nov. 8 
Martin, Bp. C. . . Nov. 18 
Andrew, Ap. M. . . Dec. 7 
The Patron Saint or De- 
dication of a Church. 

Oda, V Nov. 27 

Olaf, King of Norway, M. . July 29 
Olave (Ole), K. M. (K.B.A.) Mar. 30 

Olga July ii 

Olive, V June 3 

Onesimus, Bp. M. nat. . Feb. 16 

Onesiphorus, M. . . . Sep. 6 
Onofrio (Humphry), Hermit June 12 
Sapientia . . . Dec. 16 

Ositha, V. M. . . June 3 

Ositha, Q. M. Oct. 7 

Osmund, Bp. C. dep. . . Dec. 4 
Osmund, Bp. C. tr. . . July 16 
Oswald, Abp. . . . Feb. 29 
Oswald, Abp. tr. . . . Oct. 15 
Oswald, K. M. . . . Aug. 5 
Oswin, K. M. . . Aug. 20 

Oswin, K. M. tr. . . Mar. n 

Owen (Audoenus), Bp. C. . Aug. 24 

PALLADIUS (Padie), Bp. C., 

Apostle to the Scots . July 6 
Palm Sunday, moveable. 
Pancras, youth, M. . . May 12 
Pantaleo, Med. M. . . July 27 
Parmenas, Dn. M. . . Jan. 23 
Pascal I., Pope, C. . . May 14 
Patrick, Bp. C. , Patron Saint 

of Ireland, nat. . Mar. 17 

Patrick, Bp. C. tr. . . June 9 



Paul, Ap. M., Con. of . . Jan. 25 
Paul, Ap. M., Com. of . June 30 
Paul, Peter and, App. MM. June 29 
Paul, John and, brs. MM. . June 26 
Paulinus, Bp. York . . Oct. 10 
Pega, V. Anch. . . . Jan. 8 
Pentecost (Whit - Sunday), 

moveable. 

Perpetua and Felicitas, MM. Mar. 7 
Perpetuus, Bp. . . . Apr. 8 
Peter and Paul, App. MM. . June 29 
Petermas .... June 29 
Peter's Chains (ad Vincula) Aug. i 
Peter's Chair (Rome) . . Jan. 18 
Peter's Chair (Antioch) . Feb. 22 
Peter, Marcellinus and, MM. June 2 
Peter of Milan, M. . . Apr. 29 
Petronilla, V. M. . . May 31 

Phebe, Deaconess, nat. . Sep. 3 
Philip and James, App. MM. May i 
Philip, Dn. nat. . . . June 6 
Philogonius, Bp. nat. . . Dec. 20 
Phocas (of Antioch), M. nat. Mar. 5 
Phocas, Bp. Synope, M. . July 14 
Pius I., Pope, M. . . July 11 

Pius V., Pope . . . May i 
Placidus, Eutychius, Victor- 

inus, brs. MM. nat. . . Oct. 5 
Polycarp, Bp. M. nat. . . Jan. 26 
Potenciana, V. (K.B.A.) . May 19 
Praxedes, V. ... July 21 
Presentation of the Blessed 

Virgin Mary . . . Nov. 21 
Primus and Felicianus, MM. June 9 
Prisca, V. M. . . . Jan. 18 
Priscilla, Aquila and, MM. . July 8 

Priscus, M Sep. i 

Processus and Martinianus, 

MM. nat July 2 

Prochorus, Dn. M. . . Apr. 9 
Projectus, Bp. . . . Jan. 25 
Protasius, Gervasius and, 

brs. MM June 19 

Prothus and Hyacinth, brs. 

MM Sep. ii 

Pudentiana, V. (R. Mart.) . May 19 
Purification of the Blessed 

Virgin Mary (Candlemas) Feb. 2 



340 AN ALPHABETICAL CALENDAR OF 



QUADRAGESIMA, moveable. 

Queran (Kyran), Ab. . . Sep. 9 

Quinquagesima, moveable. 

Quintin, M. ... Oct. 31 

Quiricus and Julitta, MM. . June 16 

RAISING of the Holy Cross . Sep. 14 
Ranulph, Mk. . . . May 27 
Raphael, Archangel . . Oct. 24 
Regulus (Rule), Ab. (K.B.A.) Mar. 30 
Regulus, Bp. (K.B.A.) . Mar. 31 
Remigius, Germanus, Aman- 

dus, Bps Oct. i 

Resurrectio DOMINI . . Mar. 27 
Richard, K. West Saxons . Feb. 7 
Richard, Bp. C. dep. . . Apr. 3 
Richard, Bp. C. tr. . . June 16 
Robert, Ab. . . . June 7 

Roch (Roque), C. dep. . Aug. 16 

Rock Day, St. Distaff, Up- 

haliday .... Jan. 7 
Rogation Days, moveable. 
Rollox, C. (?Roch) . . Aug. 16 
Romanus, Ab. . . . Feb. 28 
Romanus, Sol. M. . . Aug. 9 
Romanus, Bp. C. . . . Oct. 23 
Ronan, Bp. C. (K.B.A.) . May 22 
Rood (Holy Cross) Day . Sep. 14 
Roodmas (Finding of the 

Holy Cross) . . . May 3 
Rosa, of Lima, V. . . Aug. 26 
Rosa, V. of Viterbo, . . Sep. 4 
Rufina, Justaand, VV. MM. July 19 
Rufus, Bp. M. nat. . . Aug. 27 
Rule (Regulus), Ab. . . Mar. 30 
Rummald, Bp. Dublin, M. . July i 
Rusticus, Dionysius, MM. . Oct. 9 

SABBAS, Ab. nat. . . . Dec. 5 
Sabina, V. . . . . Aug. 29 
Sabina, M. nat. . . . Aug. 29 
Sabinus, Bp. M. nat. . . Dec. 30 
Sampson, Bp. C. . . . July 28 
Santa Glaus, San Ni'claus (St. 

Nicolas), Abp. of Myra . Dec. 6 
Saturninus and Sisinius, MM. Nov. 29 
Scholastica, V. ... Feb. 10 
Sebastian, Sol. M. . . Jan. 20 



Sebbus, K Aug. 29 

Secundinus, M. . . . May 21 
Sennen, Abdon and, MM. . July 30 
Septuagesima, moveable. 

Serf, Bp Apr. 20 

Serf (Servanus), Bp. C. . July i 
Servanus (Serf), Bp. C. . July i 
Servatius, Bp. . . . May 13 
Servilian, SulpiciusandjMM. Apr. 20 
Seven brs. (Felicitas) MM. . July 10 
Seven brs. (Machabsei) MM. Aug. i 
Seven Sleepers (Ephesus), 

MM July 27 

Seventy -nine MM. (Sicily) . Feb. 21 
Severinus, Ab. . . . Feb. n 
Severus, Bp. C. . . . Oct. 22 
Sexagesima, moveable. 
Shrove Tuesday (Fasterns- 

een), moveable. 

Silas, Ds. of the Apostles . July 13 
Silvester I., Pope, C. nat. . Dec. 31 
Simeon Stylites, Mk. . . Jan. 5 
Simeon, Bp. M. nat. . . Feb. 18 
Simeon ' senex,' Prophet, nat. Oct. 8 
Simon and Jude, App. MM. 

nat Oct. 28 

[Simon 'Zelotes,' or 'the 
Canaanite.' Jude, 'son of 
Alphseus,' and ' brother 
of James ' (the Less), and 
of Joses.] 
Simphorianus. Timothy and, 

MM. .... Aug. 22 
Simplicius, Faustinus, Beat- 
rix, MM July 29 

Sisinius, Saturninus and, 

MM. nat Nov. 29 

Sixtus II., P., Felicissimus, 

Agapitus, MM. . . Aug. 6 
Sixtus III., Pope, C. . . Mar. 28 
Sleepers, Seven (Ephesus), 

MM July 27 

Sophia, W. (mother of Faith, 

Hope, and Charity, VV. 

MM.) .... Sep. 30 
Sosthenes, C. nat. . . Nov. 28 
Soter, Pope, M. nat. . . Apr. 22 
Stephen, Dn. Proto M. nat. Dec. 26 






SAINTS' DAYS, FEASTS, AND FASTS 341 



Stephen, Dn. Protomartyr, 

Finding of St. . . . Aug. 3 
Stephen, Dn. Proto M. tr. . May 7 
Stephen, Ab. C. . . . Apr. 17 
Stephen, Pope, M. . . Aug. 2 
Stephen, K. of Hungary, C. Sep. 2 
Sulpicius (Pius), Bp. . . Jan. 17 
Sulpicius (Severus), Bp. . Jan. 29 
Sulpicius and Servilian, MM. Apr. 20 
Sunniva, Virgin, Queen, M. July 8 
Swithun, Bp. C. dep. . . July 2 
Swithun, Bp. C. tr. . . July 15 
Symphorian, Timothy, MM. Aug. 22 
Synesius, Reader, M. . . Dec. 12 
Sythe, V. (K.B.A. ?Zita) . Apr. 27 

TALARICAN, Bp. C. . . Oct. 30 
Tanglan (Englatius), Ab. . Nov. 3 

Tatiana, M Jan. 12 

Ternan, Bp. C. . June 12 

Thaddeus (St. Jude) . . Oct. 28 
Thecla, V. M. . . . Sep. 23 
Thenew (Enoch), mother of 

St. Keritigern (Mungo) . July 18 
Theodolus, Alexander, Even- 

tius, MM. . . . May 3 
Theodore, Abp. Cant. . . Sep. 19 
Theodore, Sol. M. nat. . Nov. 9 
Thomas and Apolina, MM. . Aug. 23 
Thomas, Ap. M. nat. . . Dec. 21 
Thomas, Ap. M. tr. . . July 3 
Thomas Aquinas, C. Dr. . Mar. 7 
Thomas Becket, Archbishop 

of Canterbury, M. nat. . Dec. 29 
Thomas Becket, Archbishop 

of Canterbury, M. tr. . July 7 
Thomas, Bp. Hereford, C. . Oct. 2 
Tiburcius, Valerianus, Maxi- 

mus, MM. nat. . . Apr. 14 
Tiburcius, M. . . . Aug. 1 1 
Tighernach, Bp. C. . . Apr. 5 
Timon, Dn. M. . . . Apr. 19 
Timothy, Bp. Ephesus, M. 

nat Jan. 24 

Timothy, Bp.Ephesus,M.tr. May 9 
Timothy and Symphorianus, 

MM. .... Aug. 22 
Timothy, Apollinaris, MM. Aug. 23 



Titus, Bp. nat. . . . Jan. 4 
Torquatus, Bp. . . . May 15 
Transfiguration of our LORD Aug. 6 
Triduana, V. ... Oct. 8 
Trinity Sunday, moveable. 
Tryphena, Ds. of St. Paul . Nov. 10 
Tryphosa, Ds. of St. Paul . Nov. 10 
Turianus, Bp. C. . . . July 13 
Tychicus, Ds. of St. Paul . Apr. 29 

UPHALIDAY, St. Distaff, Rock 

Day Jan. 7 

Urban, Pope, M. . . May 25 
Ursula and 11,000 Virgins, 
MM Oct. 21 

VAAST, Bp. (Vedastus) . Feb. 6 
Valentine, Pr. M. nat. . Feb. 14 
Valentine, three Bps. MM. . Feb. 14 
Valerianus, Bp. . . . Dec. 15 
Valerianus, Maximus, Tibur- 
cius, MM. . . . Apr. 14 
Vedastus and Amandus, Bps. Feb. 6 
Venantius, youth, M. . . May 18 
Venerable Bede, d. . . May 25 
Venerable Bede, dep. . . May 27 
Venerable Bede, tr. . . May 10 

Venetia, V Feb. 26 

Verca, V Sep. 29 

Veronica, Mat. . . . Feb. 4 
Vicentius (Vincent), Dn. M. Jan. 22 

Victor, Bp Apr. 20 

Victor and Corona, MM. . Sep. 18 
Victoria (Carthage), V. M. . Feb. n 
Victoria (Cordova), V. M. . Nov. 17 
Victoria (Rome), V. M. . Dec. 23 
Victorinus, Placidus, Euty- 

chius, brs. MM. nat. . Oct. 5 
Vigean (Fechin), Ab. . . Jan. 20 
Vincent (Vicentius), Dn. M. Jan. 22 
Virgilius, Bp. . . . Nov. 27 
Visitation of the Blessed 

Virgin Mary . . . July 2 

Vitalis, M Apr. 28 

Vitus, Modestus, Crescentia, 

MM. nat June 15 

Voloc (Faelchu), Ab. . . Jan. 29 
Voloc, Bp. C. (K.B.A.) . Jan. 29 



342 AN ALPHABETICAL CALENDAR 



WAAST, Bp. (Vedastus) 
Walburga, V. Abs. dep. 
Walburga, V. ... 
Waltheof, Ab. . 
Wandregisilus, Ab. 
Wenceslaus, M. . 
Werburga, V. ... 
Whit - Sunday (Pentecost), 

moveable. 

Wilfrid, Abp. C. dep. . 
Wilfrid, Abp. C. tr. . 
William of Norwich, youth, 

M 

William, M. 
William, Ab. York, C. 
Willibrord, Abp. C. dep. . 
Winifred, V. M. . 
Winoc, Ab. dep. 
Winoc, Ab. tr. . 
Wiro, Bp. C. 
Wulfram, Abp. M. 



Feb. 6 


Wulfram, Bp. C. 


Oct. 15 


Feb. 25 


Wulfstan, Bp. C. 


Jan. 19 


Apr. 27 


Wulfstan, Bp. C. tr. . 


June 7 


Aug. 3 


Wynnin, Bp. C. . 


Jan. 21 


July 22 






Sep. 28 


XAVIER, Francis, S.J. 


Dec. 3 


Feb. 3 


Xystua I. , Pope, M. nat. 


Apr. 6 




Xystus, Bp. M. . 


Sep. i 


Oct. 12 


YARCHARD, Bp. C. (K.B.A.) 


Aug. 23 


Apr. 24 


Yle (Agilus, Ayle), Ab. 


Aug. 30 




Yule (Christmas) 


Dec. 25 


Mar. 24 


Yule-een (Christmas Eve) . 


Dec. 24 


May 23 






June 8 


ZACCHEUS, Bp. 


Aug. 23 


Nov. 7 


Zacharias and Elisabeth 


Nov. 5 


Nov. 3 


Zeno, Bp. M. 


Apr. 12 


Nov. 6 


Zeno, Bp. M. ord. 


Dec. 8 


Sep. 1 8 


Zephyriiius, Pope, M. . 


Aug. 26 


May 8 


Zita, V. (? Sythe) 


Apr. 27 


Mar. 20 


Zoa, M 


July 5 



NOTES 

Scottish Chronicles and Charters were sometimes dated by the first words 
of the Introit appropriated to the Mass of a particular day, generally a 
Sunday, e.g. : 



'Gaudete in Domino ' 
'Lcetare Hierusalem' 
1 Vocem jucunditatis ' 



Introit and name of 3rd Sunday in Advent. 
Introit and name of 4th Sunday in Lent. 
Introit and name of 5th Sunday after Easter. 



St. Margaret, queen of Malcolm III. (Ceannmor), king of Scots, on hearing 
that her husband had been killed three days before, died of grief in Edin- 
burgh Castle, on the i6th of November 1093. She was buried before the 
high-altar in the church of the Holy Trinity at Dunfermline. 

Pope Innocent IV., by Bull, dated Lyons, 2 1st September 1249, granted 
40 days' indulgence, every year, to those penitent and confessed who 
visited the church at Dunfermline in the Feast of St. Margaret. 

Queen Margaret's body was translated on the igth of June 1250. 

'The Gospel Book of Saint Margaret,' the subject of a miracle related 
by Turgot, is preserved in the Bodleian Library, and has been reproduced 
in facsimile. 8 



7 For the names of 45 Introits, 
see ' A Glossary of Dates,' in ' The 
Chronology of History,' by Sir Harris 
Nicolas (ed. 1843), P- n6- 



8 See above, Malcolm III., pp. 27, 
28, Nos. 17 and 18; also p. 33, No. 
53; and Alexander III., p. 95, No. 
7. See also Butler, vol. vi. p. 135. 



XXL A CHURCH CALENDAR 



343 



JANUARY, 31 DAYS 



FESTIVALS AND SAINTS' DAYS, ETC. 


YEARS. 




LATIN. 




Newyeirsmas. Circumcision of our LORD . 


B.C. 4 




Cal. 


Jan. 


S. Adalhard, Ab. of Corbie in France 


d. 826 


IV. 


Non. 


Jan. 


S. Genovefa (Genevieve), V., b. 422 . 


d. 512 


III. 


Non. 


Jan. 


S. Titus (Ds. of St. Paul), ist Bp. of Crete 


ist c. 


Prid. 


Non. 


Jan. 


SS. Simeon Stylites, Mk. 5th c. ; Edward, K.C. 


d. 1066 




Non. 


Jan. 


The Epiphany of our LORD, inst. 


36o 


VIII. 


Id. 


Jan. 


Uphaliday; St. Distaff; St. Kentigerna 


d- 734 


VII. 


Id. 


Jan. 


SS. Lucian, Pr. M., d. 290; Nathalan, Bp. C. . 


d. 678 


VI. 


Id. 


Jan. 


S. Fillan (Scot), Ab 


8th c. 


V. 


Id. 


Jan. 


SS. Nicanor, Dn. ist c. ; Paul, first Hermit 


d. 342 


IV. 


Id. 


Jan. 


S. Duffus (Scot), K. M 


d.96; 


III. 


Id. 


Jan. 


S. Bennet (Biscop), Ab. of Wearmouth, C. 


d. 690 


Prid. 


Id. 


Jan. 


SS. Hilary, Bp. C. ; Kentigern (St. Mungo), Bp. C. 


d. 603 




Id. 


Jan. 


S. Felix of Nola, Pr 


3rd c. 


XIX. 


Cal. 


Feb. 


S. Maurus, Ab. of Glanfeuil .... 


d. 584 


XVIII. 


Cal. 


Feb. 


SS. Marcellus, M. ; Fursey (Scot), Ab. C. . 


a. 650 


XVII. 


Cal. 


Feb. 


SS. Sulpicius, Bp. ; Antony, Ab. in Egypt . 


a. 356 


XVI. 


Cal. 


Feb. 


S. Peter's Chair at Rome ; St. Prisca, V. M. . 


3rd c. 


XV. 


Cal. 


Feb. 


S. Wulfstan, Bp. of Worcester, C. . 


d. 1095 


XIV. 


Cal. 


Feb. 


SS. Fabian, Pope, M. , d. 250 ; Sebastian, Sol. M. 


d. 288 


XIII. 


Cal. 


Feb. 


S. Agnes, V. M. at Rome, aged 12 years . 


a. 304 


XII. 


Cal. 


Feb. 


S. Vincent, Dn. at Valentia in Spain, M. . 


d. 304 


XI. 


Cal. 


Feb. 


SS. Parmenas, Dn. M. ; Emerentiana, V. M. 


a. 300 


X. 


Cal. 


Feb. 


S. Timothy, Bp. of Ephesus, M. 


ist c. 


IX. 


Cal. 


Feb. 


S. Paul, Ap. M., the Conversion of . 


35 


VIII. 


Cal. 


Feb. 


S. Polycarp (Ds. of St. John), Bp. Smyrna, M. . 


a. 159 


VII. 


Cal. 


Feb. 


SS. Julianus, Bp. C. ; JohnChrysostom, Abp. Dr. 


d. 407 


VI. 


Cal. 


Feb. 


SS. Agnes ' the second ' ; Flavianus, M. at Rome 


d. 285 


V. 


Cal. 


Feb. 


SS. Voloc, Bp. C. ; Voloc (Faelchu), Ab. lona . 


8th c. 


IV. 


Cal. 


Feb. 


SS. Bathild, Q., d. 680; Glascian, Bp. Fife, C. . 


d. 830 


III. 


Cal. 


Feb. 


S. Modoc (Aedan), Bp. of Ferns, C., b. 558 


d. 628 


Prid. 


Cal. 


Feb. 



344 



A CHURCH CALENDAR 



FEBRUARY, IN COMMON YEARS, 28 DAYS 



<n 




FESTIVALS AND SAINTS' DAYS, ETC. 


YEARS. 


] 


LATIN. 




i 


S Bride (Brigida, Bridget), V. Abs. . 


a $2$ 




Cal. 


Feb. 


2 


Candlemas. Purification of the Blessed Virgin 


j j 
6th c. 


IV. 


Non. 


Feb. 


3 


SS. Blasius, Bp. of Sebaste, M. ; Werburga, V. . 


7th c. 


III. 


Non. 


Feb. 


4 


SS. Veronica, Mat. ist c. ; Modan (Scot), Ab. . 


7th c. 


Prid. 


Non. 


Feb. 


5 


S. Agatha, V. M. at Catania in Sicily 


a. 251 




Non. 


Feb. 


6 


SS. Vedastus, Bp. of Arras, C. ; Amandus, Bp. C. 


d. 676 


VIII. 


Id. 


Feb. 


7 


S. Richard, King of the West Saxons 


8th c. 


VII. 


Id. 


Feb. 


8 


S. John of Matha, C., Founder O.H.T.R. Cap. . 


d. 1213 


VI. 


Id. 


Feb. 


9 


S. Apollonia, V. of Alexandria, M. . 


d. 249 


V. 


Id. 


Feb. 


10 


S. Scholastica, V. of Italy .... 


a. 548 


IV. 


Id. 


Feb. 


ii 


S. Severinus, Ab. of Agaunum .... 


d. 507 


III. 


Id. 


Feb. 


12 


SS. Eulalia, V. M. 4th c. ; Ethelwald, Bp. C. . 


740 


Prid. 


Id. 


Feb. 


13 


S. Agabus, Prophet at Antioch .... 


ist c. 




Id. 


Feb. 


14 


SS. Valentine, 3 Bps. MM. ; Valentine, Pr. M. . 


d. 269 


XVI. 


Cal. 


Mar. 


15 


SS. Faustin and Jovita, brothers, MM. 


a. 121 


XV. 


Cal. 


Mar. 


16 


SS. Onesimus, Bp. Ephesus, M. ; Juliana, V. M. 


a. 300 


XIV. 


Cal. 


Mar. 


17 


S. Finnan (Scot), Bp. of the Northumbrians, C. 


7th c. 


XIII. 


Cal. 


Mar. 


18 


SS. Simeon, Bp. Jerusalem, M. ; Colman, Bp. C. 


d. 676 


XII. 


Cal. 


Mar. 


19 


S. Acca, Bp. of Hexham, C 


d. 740 


XI. 


Cal. 


Mar. 


20 


S. Mildred, V. Abs. of Minstre in Thanet 


7th c. 


X. 


Cal. 


Mar. 


21 


SS. The 79 Martyrs of Sicily .... 


4th c. 


IX. 


Cal. 


Mar. 


22 


S. Peter's Chair at Antioch .... 


ist c. 


VIII. 


Cal. 


Mar. 


23 


S. Boisil, Prior of Melrose, C. . . 


a. 664 


VII. 


Cal. 


Mar. 


24 


S. Matthias, 1 Apostle, M 


d. a. 64 


VI. 


Cal. 


Mar. 


25 


S. Walburga, V. Abs. of Heidenheim 


d. 779 


V. 


Cal. 


Mar. 


26 


S. Nestor, Bp. in Pamphylia, M. 


d. 250 


IV. 


Cal. 


Mar. 


27 


SS. Julianus, M. ; Leander, Bp. of Seville . 


6th c. 


III. 


Cal. 


Mar. 


28 


S. Romanus, Pr. of Lyons, Ab. of Condate 


5th c. 


Prid. 


Cal. 


Mar. 



1 In common years the Feast of St. 
Matthias was on the 24th of February. 



In leap years the Feast of St. Matthias; 
was on the 25th of February. 



A CHURCH CALENDAR 

FEBRUARY, IN LEAP YEARS, 2Q DAYS 



345 



X 

| 


FESTIVALS AND SAINTS' DAYS, ETC. 


YEARS. 


LATIN. 


I 


S. Bride (Brigida, Bridget), V. Abs. . 


a. 525 




Cal. 


Feb. 


2 


Candlemas. Purification of the Blessed Virgin 


6th c. 


IV. 


Non. 


Feb. 


3 


SS. Blasius, Bp. of Sebaste, M. ; Werburga, V. . 


7th c. 


III. 


Non. 


Feb. 


4 


SS. Veronica, Mat. ist c. ; Modan (Scot), Ab. . 7th c. 


Prid. 


Non. 


Feb. 












5 


S. Agatha V. M. at Catania in Sicily 


a. 251 




Non. 


Feb. 


6 


SS. Vedastus, Bp. of Arras, C. ; Amandus, Bp. C. 


d. 676 


VIII. 


Id. 


Feb. 


7 


S. Richard, King of the West Saxons 


8th c. 


VII. 


Id. 


Feb. 


8 


S. John of Matha, C., Founder O.H.T.R. Cap. . 


d. 1213 


VI. 


Id. 


Feb. 


9 


S. Apollonia, V. of Alexandria, M. . 


d. 249 


V. 


Id. 


Feb. 


10 


S. Scholastica, V. of Italy 


a. 548 


IV. 


Id. 


Feb. 


ii 


S. Severinus, Ab. of Agaunum .... 


d. 507 


III. 


Id. 


Feb. 


12 


SS. Eulalia, V. M. 4th c. ; Ethelwald, Bp. C. . 


740 


Prid. 


Id. 


Feb. 


13 


S. Agabus, Prophet at Antioch .... 


isfc c. 




Id. 


Feb. 


14 


S. Valentine, 3 Bps. MM. ; Valentine, Pr. M. . 


d. 269 


XVI. 


Cal. 


Mar. 


15 


SS. Faustin and Jovita, brothers, MM. 


a. 121 


XV. 


Cal. 


Mar. 


6 


SS. Onesimus, Bp. Ephesus, M. ; Juliana, V. M. 


a. 300 


XIV. 


Cal. 


Mar. 


[ 7 


S. Finnan (Scot), Bp. of the Northumbrians, C. 


7th c. 


XIII. 


Cal. 


Mar. 












[8 SS. Simeon, Bp. Jerusalem, M. ; Colman, Bp. C. 


d. 676 


XII. 


Cal. 


Mar. 


[ 9 


S. Acca, Bp. of Hexham, C 


d. 740 


XI. 


Cal. 


Mar. 


:o 


S. Mildred, V. Abs. of Minstre in Thanet. 


7th c. 


X. 


Cal. 


Mar. 


T 

. 


SS. The 79 Martyrs of Sicily . . . . 4 th c. 


IX. 


Cal. 


Mar. 


12 


S. Peter's Chair at Antioch .... 


ist c. 


VIII. 


Cal. 


Mar. 


3 


S. Boisil, Prior of Melrose, C 


a. 664 


VII. 


Cal. 


Mar. 


4 


S. ^Ethelbert, K. of Kent, C 


d. 616 


VI. 2 


Cal. 


Mar. 


5 


S. Matthias, 3 Apostle, M 


d. a. 64 


VI. a 


Cal. 


Mar. 


6 


S. Nestor, Bp. in Pamphylia, M. 


d. 250 


V. 


Cal. 


Mar. 




SS. Julianus, M. ; Leander, Bp. of Seville . . 6th c. 


IV. 


Cal. 


Mar. 




S. Romanus, Pr. of Lyons, Ab. of Condate . 5th c. 


III. 


Cal. 


Mar. 


} 


S. Oswald, Abp. of York, d. 29th February 


992 


Prid. 


Cal. 


Mar. 



Bis-sextile or leap year affects the 
five days of February in the Latin 
endar. See below, pp. 356 and 358. 



3 In leap years the Feast of St. Matthias 
was on the 25th of February, in common 
years it was on the 24th of February. 



346 



A CHURCH CALENDAR 

MARCH, 31 DAYS 



1 


FESTIVALS AND SAINTS' DAYS, ETC. 


YEARS. 


LATIN. 


I 


S. David, Bp. C., Patron Saint of Wales . 


d. 544 




Cal. 


Mar 


2 


S. Chad (Ceadda), Bp. of Lichfield . 


d. 672-3 


VI. 


tfon. 


Mar 


3 


S3. Marinus, Sol. ; Asterius, Sen. MM. 


a. 262 


V. 


Non. 


Mar 


4 


SS. Adrian, Bp., and his Companions, MM. 


d. 874 


IV. 


Non. 


Mar 


5 


S. Phocas of Antioch, M. ..... 2nd c. 


III. 


Non. 


Mar 


6 


S. Baldred, Hermit of the Bass, Bp. C. . 


a. 608 


Prid. 


Non. 


Mar 


7 


SS. Perpetua and Felicitas, MM. nat. . 


d. 203 




Non. 


Mar 


8 


S. Duthac, Bp. of Ross, C 


d. 1253 


VIII. 


Id. 


Mar 


9 


SS. Cyril and Methodius, brothers, Bps. 


9th c. 


VII. 


Id. 


Mar 


10 


S. Kessog (Scot), Bp. C 


7th c. 


VI. 


Id. 


Mar 


ii 


S. Constantine, K. M 


d. 596 


V. 


Id. 


Mar 


12 


S. Gregory ' the Great,' Pope, Dr. 


d. 604 


IV. 


Id. 


Mar 


13 


S. Kevoca (Scot), V 


655 


III. 


Id. 


Mai 


14 


SS. The 47 MM., Ds. of SS. Peter and Paul 


ist c. 


Prid. 


Id. 


Mai 


15 


S. Aristobulus, Ds. of the Apostles, M. 


ist c. 




Id. 


Ma) 


16 


S. Boniface (Scot), Bp. in Ross, C. . 


a. 630 


XVII. 


Cal. 


Apr 


17 


S. Patrick, Bp. C., Patron Saint of Ireland 


5th c. 


XVI. 


Cal. 


Apr 


18 


SS. Finian, Bp. C. ; Edward, K. West Saxons, M. 


d. 979 


XV. 


Cal. 


Api 


19 


S. Joseph, husband of the Blessed Virgin Mary ist c. 


XIV. 


Cal. 


Apj 


20 


S. Cuthbert, Bp. of Lindisfarne, C. dep. . 


d. 687 


XIII. 


Cal. 


Api 


21 


S. Benedict, Ab. Founder of the O.S.B. . 


d. 543 


XII. 


Cal. 


Api 


22 


S. Failbhe, Ab. of lona 


d. 679 


XL 


Cal. 


Api 


23 


S. Momhaedoc, Ab. of Fiddown in Ireland 


6th c. 


X. 


Cal. 


Api 


2 4 


S. William of Norwich, M 


d. 1137 


IX. 


Cal. 


Api 


25 


Lady Day. Annunciation of the Blessed Virgin B.C. 5 


VIII. 


Cal. 


Api 


26 


S. Braulio, Bp. of Saragossa, C. . d. 646 


VII. 


Cal. 


Api 


27 


The Resurrection of our LORD 4 . 


A.C. 33 


VI. 


Cal. 


Api 


28 


S. Sixtus III., Pope, C 


d. 441 


V. 


Cal. 


Api 


29 


S. Eustace, Ab. of Luxeuil . . . . d. 625 


IV. 


Cal. 


Api 


30 


SS. Olave, K. M. ; Regulus, Ab. of St. Andrews . d. 1030 


III. 


Cal. 


Api 


31 


S. Balbina, V. of Rome d. 130 


Prid. 


Cal. 


Ap 



4 In medieval Calendars. See also above, p. 301. 






A CHURCH CALENDAR 



347 



APRIL, 30 DAYS 



FESTIVALS AND SAINTS' DATS, ETC. 

Q 


YEARS. 


LATIN. 


i S. Gilbert, Bp. of Caithness, C. 


a. 1245 




Cal. 


Apr. 


2 S. Mary of Egypt (Penitent), dep. 


5th c. 


IV. 


Non. 


Apr. 


3 S. Richard, Bp. of Chichester, C. 


d. 1253 


III. 


Non. 


Apr. 


4 S. Ambrose, Bp. of Milan, C. Dr. dep. 


d. 397 


Prid. 


Non. 


Apr. 


5 S. Tighernac (Scot), Bp. C 


d. 550 




Non. 


Apr. 


6 SS. Alfstan, Bp. C. ; Celsus, Bp. of Armagh 


d. 1129 


VIII. 


Id. 


Apr. 


7 S. Egisippus (Father of Church History) . 


d. 1 80 


VII. 


Id. 


Apr. 


8 S. Perpetuus, Bp. of Tours .... 


d. 491 


VI. 


Id. 


Apr. 


9 S. Prochorus, Dn. M. at Antioch 


ist c. 


V. 


Id. 


Apr. 


o S. Apollonius, Pr. at Alexandria, M. 


4th c. 


IV. 


Id. 


Apr. 


i S. Leo 'the Great,' Pope, C 


d. 461 


III. 


Id. 


Apr. 


2 S. Zeno, Bp. of Verona, M 


d. 380 


Prid. 


Id. 


Apr. 


3 S. Justin, Philosopher, M. at Rome . 


2nd c. 




Id. 


Apr. 


SS. Tiburcius, Valerianus, Maximus, MM.. 


d. 229 


XVIII. 


Cal. 


Mai. 


5 SS. Basilissa and Anastasia, MM. 


ist c. 


XVII. 


Cal. 


Mai. 


6 S. Magnus, Jarl in Orkney, M. .... 


d. 1115 


XVI. 


Cal. 


Mai. 


7 SS. Donan, Ab. M., d. 616; Stephen, Ab. . 


d. 1134 


XV. 


Cal. 


Mai. 


8 SS. Eleutherius, Bp., and Anthia his m., MM. . 


2nd c. 


XIV. 


Cal. 


Mai. 


9 S. Alphege, Abp. of Canterbury, M. . 
o SS. Sulpicius and Servilian, MM. at Rome . 


d. 1012 
a. 100 


XIII. 
XII. 


Cal. 
Cal. 


Mai. 
Mai. 


i S. Anselm, Abp. of Canterbury, C. 


d. 1109 


XI. 


Cal. 


Mai. 


2 S. Soter, Pope, M. at Rome .... 


d. 177 


X. 


Cal. 


Mai. 


S. George, Soldier M. , Patron Saint of England 


d. 303 


IX. 


Cal. 


Mai. 


S. Mellitus, ist Bp. London, Abp. Canterbury. 


d.62 4 


VIII. 


Cal. 


Mai. 


; S. Mark, Evangelist, M 


d. 68 


VII. 


Cal. 


Mai. 


i S. Cletus (Anaclet), Pope, M 


d. 88 


VI. 


Cal. 


Mai. 


SS. Anastasius I., Pope, d. 402 ; Sythe, V. 


7th c. 


V. 


Cal. 


Mai. 


S. Vitalis of Milan, M. at Ravenna . 


ist c. 


IV. 


Cal. 


Mai. 


S. Tychicus, Ds. of St. Paul . . . . ist c. 
SS. Erconwald, Bp. C. ; Catherine, V. N. Siena. 1380 


III. 

Prid. 


Cal. 
Cal. 


Mai. 
Mai. 



348 



A CHURCH CALENDAR 



MAY, 31 DAYS 



i 
p 


FESTIVALS AND SAINTS' DAYS, ETC. 


YEARS. 


LATIN. 


i 


SS. Philip and James ('the Less '), App. MM. . 


ist c. 




Cal. 


Mai 


2 


S. Athanasius, Abp. of Alexandria, C. Dr. nat. 


d. 373 


VI. 


Non. 


Mai 


3 


Roodmas. Finding of the Holy Cross . 


a. 326 


V. 


Non. 


Mai 


4 
5 


S. Monica, W. (m. St. Augustin[us],Bp.of Hippo) 
SS. Hilary, Bp. of Aries, d. 449 ; Elfgiva, Q. 


d. 3 87 
a. 946 


IV. 

III. 


Non. 

Non. 


Mai 
Ma: 


6 


S. John (Ap. Ev.), before the Latin Gate . 


a. 95 


Prid. 


Non. 


Ma. 


7 


S. John of Beverley, Bp. of York, C. 


d. 721 




Non. 


Ma 


8 


S. Michael, Archangel, Apparition of 


5th c. 


VIII. 


Id. 


Ma: 


9 


SS. Andrew, Luke, tr. ; Gregory, Naz. Abp. C. Dr. 


d. 389 


VII. 


Id. 


Ma 


10 


SS. Gordianus, M., d. 362; Epimachus, M. 


d. 250 


VI. 


Id. 


Ma 


ii 


S. Gangulphus (Golff, Jingo), M. 


d. 760 


V. 


Id. 


Ma 


12 


SS. Pancras, youth, M., d. 304; Comgall, Ab. . 


d. 602 


IV. 


Id. 


Ma 


13 


S. Servatius, Bp. of Tongres .... 


d. 384 


III. 


Id. 


Ma 


14 


SS. Edith, V. Abs. ; Pascal I., Pope, C. . 


d. 824 


Prid. 


Id. 


Ma 


15 


S. Torquatus, Bp. in Spain .... 


ist c. 




Id. 


Ma 


16 


S. Brandan (Scot), Ab 


577 


XVII. 


Cal. 


Jui 


17 


SS. Bernard, Mk. tr. ; Cathan, Bp. in Bute 


710 


XVI. 


Cal. 


Jui 


18 


SS. Venantius, youth, M., d. 250; Eric, K. M. . 


d. 1151 


XV. 


Cal. 


Jui 


19 


SS. Potenciana, V. 788 ; Dunstan, Abp. Cant. . d. 988 


XIV. 


Cal. 


Jui 


20 


S. Ethelbert, K. of the East Angles, M. . 


d. 794 


XIII. 


Cal. 


Jui 


21 


SS. Secundinus, M. ; Helen, Q. ; Godric, Ht. 


d. 1170 


XII. 


Cal. 


Jui 


22 


SS. Julia, V. M., d. 439 ; Ronan, Bp. C. . 


8th c. 


XI. 


Cal. 


Jui 


23 


SS. William, M. ; Desiderius, Bp. M. 


d. 411 


X. 


Cal. 


Juij 


2 4 


SS. Johanna, wife of Chuza ; David, K. nat. 


d. H53 


IX. 


Cal. 


Jui 


25 
26 


SS. Urban, P. M. 230 ; Aldhelm, Bp. of Sherborne 
S. Augustine, ist Abp. of Canterbury 


d. 709 
d.6o 5 


VIII. 
VII. 


Cal. 
Cal. 


Jui 
Ju: 


27 


The Venerable Bede, Pr. C. Hn. tr. 1020 


d. 735 


VI. 


Cal. 


Ju: 


28 


S. German, Bp. of Paris, C 


d. 577 


V. 


Cal. 


Ju: 


29 


S. Dagamus (Scot), Bp. C 


a. 609 


IV. 


Cal. 


Ju 


30 


SS. Felix, Pope, M., d. 274 ; Basil and Emmelia 


4th c. 


III. 


Cal. 


Ju 


31 


S. Petronilla, V. daughter of St. Peter 


ist c. 


Prid. 


Cal. 


Ju 



A CHURCH CALENDAR 

JUNE, 30 DAYS 



349 



1 

FESTIVALS AND SAINTS' DAYS, ETC. 

^ 


YEARS. 


LATIN 












I S. Nicomede, Pr. M. at Rome .... 


d. a. 90 




Cal. 


Jun. 


2 SS. Marcellinus and Peter, MM. at Rome . 


a. 304 


IV. 


Non. 


Jun. 


3 SS. Olive V. ; Clotilda, Q. of France . 


a- 545 


III. 


Non. 


Jun. 


4 S. Fothad (Scot), Bp. of the Isles . 


a. 980 


Prid. 


Non. 


Jun. 


5 S. Boniface, Abp. Maintz, Ap. of Germany, M. 


<* 755 




Non. 


Jun. 


6 SS. Philip, Dn. ; Colmoc (Scot), Bp. C. 


6th c. 


VIII. 


Id. 


Jun. 


7 S. Robert, Ab. of Newminster .... 


d. 1159 


VII. 


Id. 


Jun. 


8 SS. Medard and Gildard, brothers, Bps. . 


6th c. 


VI. 


Id. 


Jun. 


9 S. Columba (Columkille) (Scot), Ab. lona, C. . 


d. 597 


V. 


Id. 


Jun. 


o S. Margaret, ? Queen of James III. , K. of Scots, 5 


d. 1486 


IV. 


Id. 


Jun. 


i S. Barnabas, Apostle, M 


ist c. 


III. 


Id. 


Jun. 


2 S. Ternan, Bp. of the Picts, C 


5th c. 


Prid. 


Id. 


Jun. 


3 S. Felicula, V. M. at Rome .... 


ist c. 




Id. 


Jun. 


S. Basil 'the Great,' Abp. Ctesarea, C. ord. 


d. 379 


XVIII. 


Cal. 


Jul. 


5 SS. Vitus, Modestus, Crescentia, MM. 


4th c. 


XVII. 


Cal. 


Jul. 


6 SS. Quiricus and Julitta (his mother), MM. 


d. 307 


XVI. 


Cal. 


Jul. 


7 S. Botulph, Ab. at Boston, C 


7th c. 


XV. 


Cal. 


Jul. 


8 SS. Marcus and Marcellianus, brothers, MM. 


d. 286 


XIV. 


Cal. 


Jul. 


5 S. Margaret, Queen of Malcolm III. , K. of Scots 6 


tr. 1250 


XIII. 


Cal. 


Jul. 


D S. Edward, K. of West Saxons, M. tr. 982 


d. 979 


XII. 


Cal. 


Jul. 


t S. Leutfrid, Ab., near Evreux . . . . 


d. 738 


XL 


Cal. 


Jul. 


! S. Alban, 7 M. (Protomartyr of England), nat. . 


d. 304 


X. 


Cal. 


Jul. 


; S. Etheldreda (Audry), V. Q. Abs. . 


d. 679 


IX. 


Cal. 


Jul. 


Midsummer. Birth of St. John the Baptist . 


B.C. 5 


VIII. 


Cal. 


Jul. 


[ S. Moloc (Scot), Bp. C 


6th c. 


VII. 


Cal. 


Jul. 


SS. John and Paul, brothers, MM. at Rome 


a. 362 


VI. 


Cal 


Jul. 


S. Crescens, Ds. of St. Paul, Bp. Galatia, M. . 


ist c. 


V. 


Cal. 


Jul. 


SS. Irenseus, Bp. of Lyons, M. 208 ; Leo II., P. . 


d. 683 


IV. 


Cal. 


Jul. 


Petermas. SS. Peter and Paul, App. MM. . 


d. a. 69 


III. 


Cal. 


Jul. 


S. Paul, Apostle, M., Commemoration of . 


d. a. 69 


Prid. 


Cal. 


Jul. 



See above, p. 209, No. 30, and note. 
\See above, p. 342, No. 8, and note. 



7 The 1 7th of June is St. Alban's Day 
in England. See above, p. 329, note I. 



350 



A CHURCH CALENDAR 



JULY, 31 DAYS 



M 

t 
< 

Q 


FESTIVALS AND SAINTS' DAYS, ETC. 


YEARS. 


LATIN. 


I 


SS. Servanus (Serf), Bp. C. ; Rummald, Bp. M. . 


8th c. 




Cal. 


Jul 


2 


Visitation of the Blessed Virgin Mary, inst. 


1389 


VI. 


Non. 


Jul 


3 


S. Hyacinth, M. at Csesarea .... 


2nd c. 


V. 


Non. 


Jul 


4 


S. Martin, Bp. of Tours, C. tr. 473 . 


d. 397 


IV. 


Non. 


Jul 


5 


S. Modwenna, V. Abs. of Pollesworth . .a. 840 


III. 


Non. 


Jul. 


6 


S. Palladius (Padie), Bp. C. Ap. to the Scots . a. 430 


Prid. 


Non. 


Jul. 


7 


S. Thomas Becket, Abp. of Cant. M. tr. 1222 . d. 1170 




Non. 


Jul 


8 


SS. Aquila and Priscilla, Dss. of St. Paul . . ist c. 


VIII. 


Id. 


Jul 


9 


SS. Anatolia, V., and Audax, MM. . 


3rdc. 


VII. 


Id. 


Jut 


10 


SS. The Seven Brothers (sons of Felicitas), MM. 


2nd c. 


VI. 


Id. 


Jul 


ii 


SS. Pius L, P. M., d. 157 ; Benedict, Ab. tr. . 7th c. 


V. 


Id. 


Jul 


12 


SS. Nabor and Felix, MM. at Milan . . .a. 304 


IV. 


Id. 


Jul 


13 


S. Silas, companion of St. Paul . ist c. 


III. 


Id. 


Jul. 


14 


S. Phocas, Bp. of Sinope, M 2nd c. 


Prid. 


Id. 


Jul 


15 


S. Swithun, Bp. of Winchester, tr. 964 . . d. 862 




Id. 


Jul. 


16 


SS. Faustus, M. nat. 250 ; Eustace, Bp. C. . 4th c. 


XVII. 


Cal. 


Au f 


17 


SS. Alexius, C. 5th c. ; Kenelm, K. M. . 


d. 819 


XVI. 


Cal. 


Auf 


18 


S. Thenew (Enoch), Mat. mother of St. Mungo 


5H 


XV. 


Cal. 


Au* 


19 


SS. Epaphras, Bp. M. ; Justa, Rufina, VV. MM. 


299 


XIV. 


Cal. 


Auf 


20 


S. Margaret (or Marine), V. of Antioch, M. 


a. 278 


XIII. 


Cal. 


Au 


21 


S. Praxedes, V. of Rome 


ist c. 


XII. 


Cal. 


Au 


22 


S. Mary Magdalene, 8 nat. ..... 


d. a. 68 


XI. 


Cal. 


Au^ 


23 


S. Apollinaris, ist Bp. of Ravenna, M. nat. . d. a. 78 


X. 


Cal. 


AU| 


24 


S. Christina, V. M. at Tyre in Tuscany . 


a. 304 


IX. 


Cal. 


Au 


25 


S. James 'the Great,' Ap. M. (br. of St. John) . 


a. 43 


VIII. 


Cal. 


AnJ 


26 


S. Anna, mother of the Blessed Virgin Mary . 


ist c. 


VII. 


Cal. 


Auc 


27 


SS. The Seven Sleepers, MM. at Ephesus . 


3rd c. 


VI. 


Cal. 


Allf. 


28 


S. Sampson, Bp. of Dole, C 


d. 564 


V. 


Cal. 


Au 


29 


SS. Martha, V. (sister of Lazarus) ; Olaf, K. M. 


d. 1030 


IV. 


Cal. 


Auc 


30 


SS. Abdon and Sennen, MM. at Rome 


d. 250 


III. 


Cal. 


Au f: 


31 


S. German, Bp. of Auxerre, C. . 


d. 448 


Prid. 


Cal. 


Au< 



8 See above, Alphabetical Calendar, p. 337, note 4, St. Mary Magdalene's Day. 



A CHURCH CALENDAR 351 

AUGUST, 31 DAYS 



02 

FESTIVALS AND SAINTS' DAYS, ETC. 


YEARS. 


LATIN. 


I Lammas. St. Peter's Chains (ad Vincula)inst. 


435 




Cal. 


Aug. 


2 SS. Stephen, Pope, M., d. 257 ; Alric, Ht. C. . 


a. 1006 


IV. 


Non. 


Aug. 


3 S. Lydia, seller of purple at Philippi . . ist c. 


III. 


Non. 


Aug. 


4 S. Dominic, C., Founder of the O.S.D. . . 1221 


Prid. 


Non. 


Aug. 


5 S. Oswald, K. of Northumbria, M. . . . d. 642 




Non. 


Aug. 


6 Transfiguration of our LORD, first inst. . a. 450 


VIII. 


Id. 


Aug. 


7 Holy Name of JESUS (transferred fr. Jan. i) 


a. 1560 


VII. 


Id. 


Aug. 


8 SS. Cyriacus, Dn., and 22 Companions, MM. 


d. 303 


VI. 


Id. 


Aug. 


9 S. Romanus, Sol. M. at Rome .... 


d. 258 


V. 


Id. 


Aug. 


o S. Laurence, Archdeacon, M. at Rome 


d. 258 


IV. 


Id. 


Aug. 


i 1 S. Tiburcius, M. at Rome 


d. 286 


III. 


Id. 


Aug. 


2 S. Clare, V. of Assisi, N., O.S.F. . 


d. 1253 


Prid. 


Id. 


Aug. 


13 SS. Hippolyte and his 20 Companions, MM. 


d. 252 




Id. 


Aug. 


4 S. Eusebius, Pr. in Palestine .... 


3rd c. 


XIX. 


Cal. 


Sep. 


5 Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary 




XVIII. 


Cal. 


Sep. 


6 SS. Diomedes, Med. M. 285 ; Roch, C. dep. . : d. 1327 


XVII. 


Cal. 


Sep. 


7 S. Mammas, shepherd at Csesarea, M. . . d. 275 


XVI. 


Cal. 


Sep. 


8 S. Agapitus, youth, M. at Prseneste, nat. . J d. 274 


XV. 


Cal. 


Sep. 


9 S. Magnus, Bp. M. at Anagni .... 


d. 250 


XIV. 


Cal. 


Sep. 


o SS. Oswin, K. M., d. 651 ; Bernard, Ab. Dr. dep. 


d- H53 


XIII. 


Cal. 


Sep. 


I S. Anastasius, M. at Salona .... 


a. 273 


XII. 


Cal. 


Sep. 


J2 SS. Timothy, M. ; Symphorian, M. at Autun 


a. 1 80 


XL 


Cal. 


Sep. 


h SS. Zacchaeus, Bp. Jerusalem ; Ebba, V. Abs. . d. 683 


X. 


Cal. 


Sep. 


k S. Bartholomew, Apostle, M. (25th at Rome) . 


ist c. 


IX. 


Cal. 


Sep. 


K S. Louis (IX. ), K. of France, C. 


d. 1270 


VIII. 


Cal. 


Sep. 


p S. Zephyrinus, Pope, M. at Rome 


a. 219 


VII. 


Cal. 


Sep. 


V SS. Rufus, Bp. M. at Capua : Maelrubha, Ab. M. 


7th c. 


VI. 


Cal. 


Sep. 


P S. Augustin[us], Bp. of Hippo, C. Dr. 


d. 430 


V. 


Cal. 


Sep. 


p Beheading of St. John the Baptist 


d. 28 


IV. 


Cal. 


Sep. 


P S. Fiacre (Scot), Ab. at Meaux, C. . 


d. 670 


III. 


Cal. 


Sep. 


i Aidan (Scot), ist Bp. of Lindisfarne, C. . 


d. 651 


Prid. 


Cal. 


Sep. 



352 A CHURCH CALENDAR 

SEPTEMBER 30 DAYS 



$ 

p 


FESTIVALS AND SAINTS' DAYS, ETC. 


TEARS. 


LATIN. 


, 


S. Giles (Egidius), Ab. in Narbonne, C. . 


d. 725 




Cal. 


Sep. 


2 


S. Stephen, K. of Hungary, C 


d. 1038 


IV. 


Non. 


Sep 


3 


S. Phebe, Deaconess, Ds. of St. Paul 


ist c. 


III. 


Non. 


Sep 


4 


S. Cuthbert, Bp. of the Northumbrians, C. 9 


tr. 1104 


Prid. 


Non. 


Sep. 


5 


S. Bertinus, Ab. of Sithieu, in Artois 


d. 709 




Non. 


Sep. 


6 


S. Onesiphorus, Ds. of the Apostles, M. . 


ist c. 


VIII. 


Id. 


Sep. 


7 


S. Enurchus (Evortius), Bp. of Orleans . 


d. 391 


VII. 


Id. 


Sep. 


8 


Birth of the Blessed Virgin Mary, inst. 


a. 695 


VI. 


Id. 


Sep. 


9 


SS. Gorgonius, M., d. 304; Queran (Kyran), Ab. 


6th c. 


V. 


Id. 


Sep. 


10 


SS. Hilary, P. C., d. 468 ; Nicolas, Ht. C. . 


d. 1309 


IV. 


Id. 


Sep. 


ii 


SS. Prothus and Hyacinth, brothers, MM. . 


3rd c. 


III. 


Id. 


Sep, 


12 


S. Guido (Guy), of Anderlecht, C. . 


d. 1033 


Prid. 


Id. 


Sep. 


13 


S. Amatus, Pr. Ab. at Remiremont . 


a. 627 




Id. 


Sep 


14 


Crouchmas. Holy Rood (Holy Cross) Day . 


629 


XVIII. 


Cal. 


Oct. 


15 


SS. Nicomede, Pr. M. nat. ist c. ; Merinus, Bp. C. 


7th c. 


XVII. 


Cal. 


Oct 


16 


SS. Ninian, (Scot), Bp. C., d., 432 ; Edith, V. . 


a. 921 


XVI. 


Cal. 


Oct 


17 


S. Lambert, Bp. of Maastricht, M. . 


d. 709 


XV. 


Cal. 


Oct 


18 


S. Methodius, Bp. of Tyre, M 


a. 312 


XIV. 


Cal. 


Oct 


19 


SS. Januarius, Bp. M., d. 305; Theodore, Abp. . 


d. 690 


XIII. 


Cal. 


Oct 


20 


SS. Fausta, V., and Evilasius, MM. at Cyzicum . 


d- 305 


XII. 


Cal. 


Oct 


21 


S. Matthew, Apostle and Evangelist, M. . 


d. a. 90 


XL 


Cal. 


Oct 


22 


SS. Maurice and his Companions, MM. 


d. 286 


X. 


Cal. 


Oct 


23 


SS. Thecla, V. M. Ds. St. Paul ; Adamnan, Ab. Hn. 


d. 704 


IX. 


Cal. 


Oct 


2 4 


S. Gerard, Bp. of Chonad, M 


d. 1046 


VIII. 


Cal. 


Oct 


25 


SS. Cleophas, M. ; Fymber (Barr), Bp. C. . 


6th c. 


VII. 


Cal. 


Oct 


26 


SS. Cyprian, Magician, M., and Justina, V. M. . 


d. 304 


VI. 


Cal. 


Oct 


27 


SS. Cosmas and Damian, brothers, MM. nat. 


a. 303 


V. 


Cal. 


Oct 


28 


SS. Machan (Scot), Bp. C. 580 ; Convall C. 


8th c. 


IV. 


Cal. 


Oct 


2 9 


Michaelmas. St. Michael and all Angels inst. 


5th c. 


III. 


Cal. 


Oct 


30 


S. Jerome (Hieronymus), Pr. C. Dr. . 


d. 420 


Prid. 


Cal. 


Oct 












1 



9 See above, pp. 50, 51. 



A CHURCH CALENDAR 353 

OCTOBER, 31 DAYS 



FESTIVALS AND SAINTS' DAYS, ETC. 


YEAKS. 


LATIN. 


S. Remigius, Bp. of Rheims, C. tr. 1049 . 


d. 538 




Cal. 


Oct. 


S. Leger (Leodegarius), Bp. of Autun, M. 


7th c. 


VI. 


Non. 


Oct. 


SS. The Two Ewalds, Priests, MM. . 


;th c. 


V. 


Non. 


Oct. 


S. Francis of Assisi, C., Founder of the O.S.F. 


d. 1226 


IV. 


Non. 


Oct. 


SS. Placidus, Eutychius, Victorinus, MM. 


6th c. 


III. 


Non. 


Oct. 


S. Faith, V. of Aquitaine, M. nat. . 


a. 304 


Prid. 


Non. 


Oct. 


SS. Marcus, Pope, C. ; Marcellus, Apuleius, MM. 


ist c. 




Non. 


Oct. 


SS. Simeon (Senex), ist. c.; Triduana, V. . 


8th c. 


VIII. 


Id. 


Oct. 


S. Denis, Bp. Paris, M. (not the Areopagite) . 


a. 286 


VII. 


Id. 


Oct. 


SS. Gereon and his Companions, MM. 


a. 285 


VI. 


Id. 


Oct. 


SS. Kenneth (Canicus), Ab.; Ethelburga, Abs. . 


7th c. 


V. 


Id. 


Oct. 


SS. Adelburga, V. ; Wilfrid, Bp. of York, C. . 


d. 709 


IV. 


Id. 


Oct. 


SS. Fincane and Findoch, VV.; Comgau, Ab. . 


8th c. 


IIT. 


Id. 


Oct. 


S. Calixtus I., Pope, M. nat 


d. 222 


Prid. 


Id. 


Oct. 


SS. Agileus, M. at Carthage ; Wulfran, Bp. C. 


d. 679 




Id. 


Oct. 


SS. Michael in Monte Tumba ; Gall, Ab. . 


d. 646 


XVII. 


Cal. 


Nov. 


SS. Hero, Bp. M. ; Etheldreda, V. Q. Abs. tr. 695 


d. 679 


XVI. 


Cal. 


Nov. 


S. Luke, Physician and Evangelist . 


ist c. 


XV. 


Cal. 


Nov. 


S. Frideswide, V. Abs. at Oxford 


8th c. 


XIV. 


Cal. 


Nov. 


S. Artemius, M. at Antioch .... 


a. 362 


XIII. 


Cal. 


Nov. 


SS. Ursula and 1 1 ,000 VV. MM. 383 ; Mundus, Ab. 


a. 635 


XII. 


Cal. 


Nov. 


S. Donatus (Scot), Bp. of Fiesole 


9th c. 


XI. 


Cal. 


Nov. 


S. Romanus, Bp. of Rouen .... 


d. 639 


X. 


Cal. 


Nov. 


SS. Raphael, Archangel ; Maglorius, Bp. 


a- 575 


IX. 


Cal. 


Nov. 


SS. Crispin, Crispinian, MM.; Mernoc, Bp. C. . 


6th c. 


VIII. 


Cal. 


Nov. 


SS. Evaristus, P. M., d. 105 ; Bean, Bp. C. 


1012 


VII. 


Cal. 


Nov. 


S. Frumentius, Bp. of Ethiopia 


4th c. 


VI. 


Cal. 


Nov. 


SS. Simon and Jude, Apostles, MM. . 


ist c. 


V. 


Cal. 


Nov. 


SS. Narcissus, Bp. of Jerusalem ; Kennere, V. M. 


7th c. 


IV. 


Cal. 


Nov. 


S. Talarican, Bp. of the Scots, C. 


7th c. 


III. 


Cal. 


Nov. 


Hallow-een. St. Quintin, M. ; St. Begha, V. 


7th c. 


Prid. 


Cal. 


Nov. 



354 



A CHURCH CALENDAR 



NOVEMBER, 30 DAYS 



aj 

D 


FESTIVALS AND SAINTS' DAYS, ETC. 


YEARS. 


LATIN. 


j 


Hallowmas. All Hallows or All Saints, inst. 


608 




Cal. 


N 


2 


All Souls. Com. of the Faithful Departed . 




IV. 


Non. 


x. 


3 


SS. Baya and Maura, VV.; Hubert, Bp. of Liege 


d. 727 


III. 


Non. 


N 


4 


S. Clare, Pr. M. in Normandy .... 


a. 894 


Prid. 


Non. 


N 


5 


SS. Zacharias and Elisabeth . . . . ist c. 




Non. 


N 


6 


S. Leonard, Ht. at Limoges in Aquitaine, C. . d. 599 


VIII. 


Id. 


X 


7 


S. Willibrord, Bp. of Utrecht, C. dep. . . a. 745 


VII. 


Id. 


N 


8 


SS. Moroc, Bp. C.; Gervadius (Scot), Ht. C. . j 934 


VI. 


Id. 


N 


9 


S. Theodore (Tyro), Roman soldier, M. . . d. 306 


V. 


Id. 


N 


10 


SS. Tryphena and Tryphosa, Dss. of St. Paul . 


ist c. 


IV. 


Id. 


N 


n 


Martinmas. St. Martin, Bp. of Tours, C. nat. 


d. 397 


III. 


Id. 


N 


12 


SS. Machar, Bp. C. 6th c. ; Livin, Bp. M. 


a. 656 


Prid. 


Id. 


N 


13 


SS. Brice, Bp. of Tours, d. 444 ; Devinic, C. 


887 




Id. 


N 


14 
15 


SS. Modan, Bp. C.; Erconwald, Bp. C. tr. 
S. Machutus (Malo), Bp. Aleth, C. nat. . 


1148 
d.564 


XVIII. 
XVII. 


Cal. 
Cal. 


D 

D| 


16 


S. Margaret, Queen of Scots, 10 nat. . 


d. 1093 


XVI. 


Cal. 


D 


17 


SS. Anian, Bp. 390 ; Hugh, Bp. of Lincoln 


d. 1200 


XV. 


Cal. 


D 


18 


SS. Hilda, V. Abs. Whitby, 680 ; Fergus, Bp. C. 


d. 721 


XIV. 


Cal. 


D 


19 


SS. Medana, V.; Elisabeth, Q. of Hungary, W. 


d. 1231 


XIII. 


Cal. 


]) 


20 


S. Edmund, K. of East Anglia, M. . 


d. 870 


XII. 


Cal. 


1) 


21 


Presentation of the Blessed Virgin Mary 


XI. 


Cal. 


I) 


22 


SS. Cecilia, V. M. at Rome, d. 230 ; Bega V. 


7th c. 


X. 


Cal. 


D 


23 


SS. Clement, Pope, M., d. 100 ; Felicitas, Mat. M. 


d. 237 


IX. 


Cal. 


D 


24 


SS. Chrysogonus, M., d. 304 ; Firmina, V. M. . 


d. 285 


VIII. 


Cal. 


]) 


25 


S, Catherine, V. M. at Alexandria . 


4th c. 


VII. 


Cal. 


1) 


26 


SS. Linus, Pope, M. 78 ; Christina, V. Abs. . a. 1085 


VI. 


Cal. 


D 


27 


SS. Oda, V. (Scot), d. a. 700 ;" Virgilius, Bp. . 8th c. 


V. 


Cal. 


D 


28 


S. Sosthenes, Disciple of St. Paul . 


ist c. 


IV. 


Cal. 


D 


29 


SS. Saturninus and Sisinius, MM. 


d. 251 


III. 


Cal. 


I) 


30 


Andermas. St. Andrew, Apostle M. nat. 


istc. 


Prid. 


Cal. 


D 




Patron Saint of Scotland. 











See above, Alphabetical Calendar, p. 342, No. 



A CHURCH CALENDAR 



355 



DECEMBER, 31 DAYS 



JO- 
FESTIVALS AND SAINTS DAYS', ETC. 


YEARS. 


LATIN. 


I S. Eligius (Eloy), Bp. of Noyon, C. . 


d. 659 




Cal. 


Dec. 


2 SS. Bibiana, V. M., d. 363 ; Ethernan, Bp. C. . 


d. 669 


IV. 


Non. 


Dec. 


3 S. Birinus, ist Bp. of Dorchester 


a. 650 


III. 


Non. 


Dec. 


4 S. Barbara, V. M. in Nicomedia 


d. 306 


Prid. 


Non. 


Dec. 


5 S. Sabbas, Ab. in Cappadocia .... 


d. 531 




Non. 


Dec. 


6 S. Nicolas, 11 Abp. of Myra, in Lycia, C. nat. . 


d. 342 


VIII. 


Id. 


Dec. 


7 S. Columba (Columkille, Scot.). Ab. lona 


b. 520 


VII. 


Id. 


Dec. 


Conception of the Blessed Virgin Mary, inst. 


1 2th C. 


VI. 


Id. 


Dec. 


9 SS. Ethelgiva, V. Abs. ; Leocadia, V. M. . 


a. 304 


V. 


Id. 


Dec. 


S. Eulalia, V. M. at Mereda, aged 12 


a. 285 


IV. 


Id. 


Dec. 


I SS. Barsabas, M. in Persia, 342 ; Damasus, P. C. 


d. 384 


III. 


Id. 


Dec. 


2 1 SS. Synesius, Reader, M., d. 275 ; Colman, Bp. . 


a. 659 


Prid. 


Id. 


Dec. 


3 S. Lucy, V. of Syracuse, M. nat 


d. 304 




Id. 


Dec. 


S. Drostan (Scot), Ab 


7th c. 


XIX. 


Cal. 


Jan. 


SS. Christiana, servant, 330 ; Valerian, Bp. 


5th c. 


XVIII. 


Cal. 


Jan. 


O Sapientia. St. Ado, Bp. of Vienne, C. . 


d. 875 


XVII. 


Cal. 


Jan. 


S. Lazarus, Bp., brother of Martha and Mary . 


ist c. 


XVI. 


Cal. 


Jan. 


SS. Gratian, Bp., d. 301 ; Manirus, Bp. C. . 


d. 824 


XV. 


Cal. 


Jan. 


S. Nemisius, M. at Alexandria .... 


d. 250 


XIV. 


Cal. 


Jan. 


SS. Julius, M. ; Philogonius, Bp. of Antioch 


d. 323 


XIII. 


Cal. 


Jan. 


S. Thomas, Apostle, M. nat 


ist c. 


XII. 


Cal. 


Jan. 


SS. Chseremon, Bp. M. 250 ; Ethernasc, Bp. C. . 


7th c. 


XL 


Cal. 


Jan. 


SS. Victoria, V. M. at Rome, 250 ; Mayota, V. . 


6th c. 


X. 


Cal. 


Jan. 


Yule-een. SS. 40 Virgins, MM. at Antioch 


d. 250 


IX. 


Cal. 


Jan. 


Christmas (Yule). The Birth of our LORD . 


B.C. 5 


VIII. 


Cal. 


Jan. 


S. Stephen, Deacon, the first Martyr 


d. a. 30 


VII. 


Cal. 


Jan. 


S. John, Apostle and Evangelist, nat. . 


d. 101 


VI. 


Cal. 


Jan. 


Childermas. The Holy Innocents, MM. 


B.C. 4 


V. 


Cal. 


Jan. 


S. Thomas Becket, Abp. of Canterbury, M. 


d. 1170 


IV. 


Cal. 


Jan. 


S. Sabinus, Bp. of Assisi, M. at Spoleto . 


d. 304 


III. 


Cal. 


Jan. 


S. Silvester I., Pope, C 


d. 335 


Prid. 


Cal. 


Jan. 



11 San Ni'claus, Santa Clans. 



356 XXII. A LATIN CALENDAK 

WITH TRANSLATION 

This Calendar is specially arranged for persons unfamiliar with 
Latin, who naturally would not think that ' XIX. CaL Jan.' could 
be the i4th of December. (See next page.) 

The following explanations may be found useful. 

In the Latin Calendar : 

THE YEARS begin on the Calends or Kalends (ist) of January 
and are divided into 1 2 months. 

THE MONTHS begin on the Calends and are divided by Calends, 
Nones, and Ides. 

In the months of January, February, April, June, August, 
September, November, and December, the Calends are on the ist of 
the month, the Nones on the 5th, and the Ides on the i3th. 

In the months of March, May, July, and October, the Calends 
are on the ist of the month, the Nones on the yth, and the Ides 
on the 1 5th. 

THE CALENDS are counted backwards, into the previous month, 
as far as the Ides. 

THE IDES are counted backwards as far as the Nones. 

THE NONES are counted backwards as far as the Calends. 

THE DAYS are calculated by reckoning ' one ' for the Calends, 
Nones, or Ides, and counting backwards. The last day of the 
month is called Prid. Gal. [the day before the Calends of the 
following month]. 

MISTAKES sometimes occur from the fact of the days of the 
latter part of every month bearing the name of the following 
month. For instance, the last eighteen days of December are 
counted as days before the Calends of January. (See next page.) 

LEAP YEARS. 1 Instead of a day being added at the end of 
February, the 6th of the Calends of March (the 24th of February) 
is repeated in leap years. This arrangement is the origin of the 
term 'bis-sextile,' and it affects the last five days of February. 

N.B. In LEAP YEARS, owing to the fact of the days of the 
month being reckoned backwards 

VI. Cal. Mar. priorem 2 is the 25th of February, and 
VI, Cal. Mar. posterior em 2 is the 24th of February. 

(See above, pp. 344, 345, and notes; also below, p. 358.) 

1 See below, p. 363, note i. 2 See below, p. 363, note 2. 



A LATIN CALENDAR 

WITH TRANSLATION 



357 



Jan. 



Feb. 



LATIN. 


TRANSLATION. 


LATIN. 


TRANSLATION. 


XIX. Gal. 3 Jan. 


December 14 


XIX. Cal. Feb. 


January 14 


XVIII. Cal. Jan. 


December 15 


XVIII. Cal. Feb. 


January 15 


XVII. Cal. Jan. 


December 16 


XVII. Cal. Feb. 


January 16 


XVI. Cal. Jan. 


December 17 


XVI. Cal. Feb. 


January 17 


XV. Cal. Jan. 


December 18 


XV. Cal. Feb. 


January 18 


XIV. Cal. Jan. 


December 19 


XIV. Cal. Feb. 


January 19 


XIII. Cal. Jan. 


December 20 


XIII. Cal. Feb. 


January 20 


XII. Cal. Jan. 


December 21 


XII. Cal. Feb. 


January 21 


XI. Cal. Jan. 


December 22 


XI. Cal. Feb. 


January 22 


X. Cal. Jan. 


December 23 


X. Cal. Feb. 


January 23 


IX. Cal. Jan. 


December 24 


IX. Cal. Feb. 


January 24 


VIII. Cal. Jan. 


December 25 


VIII. Cal. Feb. 


January 25 


VII. Cal. Jan. 


December 26 


VII. Cal. Feb. 


January 26 


VI. Cal. Jan. 


December 27 


VI. Cal. Feb. 


January 27 


V. Cal. Jan. 


December 28 


V. Cal. Feb. 


January 28 


IV. Cal. Jan. 


December 29 


IV. Cal. Feb. 


January 29 


III. Cal. Jan. 


December 30 


III. Cal. Feb. 


January 30 


Prid. Cal. Jan. 


December 31 


Prid. Cal. Feb. 


January 31 


Cal. Jan. 


January I 


Cal. Feb. 


February I 


IV. Non. Jan. 


January 2 


IV. Non. Feb. 


February 2 


III. Non. Jan. 


January 3 


III. Non. Feb. 


February 3 


Prid. Non. Jan. 


January 4 


Prid. Non. Feb. 


February 4 


Non. Jan. 


January 5 


Non. Feb. 


February 5 


VIII. Id. Jan. 


January 6 


VIII. Id. Feb. 


February 6 


VII. Id. Jan. 


January 7 


VII. Id. Feb. 


February 7 


VI. Id. Jan. 


January 8 


VI. Id. Feb. 


February 8 


V. Id. Jan. 


January 9 


V. Id. Feb. 


February 9 


IV. Id. Jan. 


January 10 


IV. Id. Feb. 


February 10 


III. Id. Jan. 


January 1 1 


III. Id. Feb. 


February n 


Prid. Id. Jan. 


January 12 


Prid. Id. Feb. 


February 12 


Id. Jan. 


January 13 


Id. Feb. 


February 13 



3 Cal. or Kal. 



358 



A LATIN CALENDAR 



WITH TRANSLATION 
Mar. in Common Years. Mar. in Leap Years. 



LATIN. 


TRANSLATION. 


LATIN. 


TRANSLATION. 


XVI. Cal. Mar. 


February 14 


XVI. Cal. Mar. 


February 14 


XV. Cal. Mar. 


February 15 


XV. Cal. Mar. 


February 15 


XIV. Cal. Mar. 


February 16 


XIV. Cal. Mar. 


February 16 


XIII. Cal. Mar. 


February 17 


XIII. Cal. Mar. 


February 17 


XII. Cal. Mar. 


February 18 


XII. Cal. Mar. 


February 18 


XI. Cal. Mar. 


February 19 


XI. Cal. Mar. 


February 19 


X. Cal. Mar. 


February 20 


X. Cal. Mar. 


February 20 


IX. Cal. Mar. 


February 21 


IX. Cal. Mar. 


February 21 


VIII. Cal. Mar. 


February 22 


VIII. Cal. Mar. 


February 22 


VII. Cal. Mar. 


February 23 


VII. Cal. Mar. 


February 23 


VI. Cal. Mar. 


February 24 


VI. 4 Cal. Mar. 


February 24 


V. Cal. Mar. 


February 25 


VI. 4 Cal. Mar. 


February 25 


IV. Cal. Mar. 


February 26 


V. Cal. Mar. 


February 26 


III. Cal. Mar. 


February 27 


IV. Cal. Mar. 


February 27 


Prid. Cal. Mar. 


February 28 


III. Cal. Mar. 


February 28 






Prid. Cal. Mar. 


February 29 


Cal. Mar. 


March I 


Cal. Mar. 


March i 


VI. Non. Mar. 


March 2 


VI. Non. Mar. 


March 2 


V. Non. Mar. 


March 3 


V. Non. Mar. 


March 3 


IV. Non. Mar. 


March 4 


IV. Non. Mar. 


March 4 


III. Non. Mar. 


March 5 


III. Non. Mar. 


March 5 


Prid. Non. Mar. 


March 6 


Prid. Non. Mar. 


March 6 


Non. Mar. 


March 7 


Non. Mar. 


March 7 


VIII. Id. Mar. 


March 8 


VIII. Id. Mar. 


March 8 


VII. Id. Mar. 


March 9 


VII. Id. Mar. 


March 9 


VI. Id. Mar. 


March 10 


VI. Id. Mar. 


March 10 


V. Id. Mar. 


March n 


V. Id. Mar. 


March 1 1 


IV. Id. Mar. 


March 12 


IV. Id. Mar. 


March 12 


III. Id. Mar. 


March 13 


III. Id. Mar. 


March 13 


Prid. Id. Mar. 


March 14 


Prid. Id. Mar. 


March 14 


Id. Mar. 


March 15 


Id. Mar. 


March 15 



4 Annus bissextus, 
leap year. VI. Cal. 
25th February; VI. 



bis-sextile or teriorem, 24th February [the days 
Mar. priorem, being counted backwards from the 
Cal. Mar. pos- Calends (or let) of March], 






A LATIN CALENDAR 



359 



WITH TRANSLATION 

Apr. Mai. 



LATIN. 


TRANSLATION. 


LATIN. 


TRANSLATION. 






XVIII. Cal. Mai. 


April 14 






XVII. Cal. Mai. 


April 15 


XVII. Cal. Apr. 


March 16 


XVI. Cal. Mai. 


April 1 6 


XVI. Cal. Apr. 


March 17 


XV. Cal. Mai. 


April 17 


XV. Cal. Apr. 


March 18 


XIV. Cal. Mai. 


April 1 8 


XIV. Cal. Apr. 


March 19 


XIII. Cal. Mai. 


April 19 


XIII. Cal. Apr. 


March 20 


XII. Cal. Mai. 


April 20 


XII. Cal. Apr. 


March 21 


XI. Cal. Mai. 


April 21 


XI. Cal. Apr. 


March 22 


X. Cal. Mai. 


April 22 


X. Cal. Apr. 


March 23 


IX. Cal. Mai. 


April 23 


IX. Cal. Apr. 


March 24 


VIII. Cal. Mai. 


April 24 


VIII. Cal. Apr. 


March 25 


VII. Cal. Mai. 


April 25 


VII. Cal. Apr. 


March 26 


VI. Cal. Mai. 


April 26 


VI. Cal. Apr. 


March 27 


V. Cal. Mai. 


April 27 


V. Cal. Apr. 


March 28 


IV. Cal. Mai. 


April 28 


IV. Cal. Apr. 


March 29 


III. Cal. Mai. 


April 29 


III. Cal. Apr. 


March 30 


Prid. Cal. Mai. 


April 30 


Prid. Cal. Apr. 


March 31 






Cal. Apr. 


April i 


Cal. Mai. 


May i 


IV. Non. Apr. 


April 2 


VI. Non. Mai. 


May 2 


III. Non. Apr. 


April 3 


V. Non. Mai. 


May 3 


Prid. Non. Apr. 


April 4 


IV. Non. Mai. 


May 4 


Non. Apr. 


April 5 


III. Non. Mai. 


May 5 


VIII. Id. Apr. 


April 6 


Prid. Non. Mai. 


May 6 


VII. Id. Apr. 


April 7 


Non. Mai. 


May 7 


VI. Id. Apr. 


April 8 


VIII. Id. Mai. 


May 8 


V. Id. Apr. 


April 9 


VII. Id. Mai. 


May 9 


IV. Id. Apr. 


April 10 


VI. Id. Mai. 


May 10 


III. Id. Apr. 


April 1 1 


V. Id. Mai. 


May ii 


Prid. Id. Apr. 


April 12 


IV. Id. Mai. May 12 


Id. Apr. 


April 13 


III. Id. Mai. May 13 






Prid. Id. Mai. May 14 






Id. Mai. I May 15 



360 



A LATIN CALENDAR 



WITH TRANSLATION 



Jun. 



Jul. 



LATIN. 


TRANSLATION. 


LATIN. 


TRANSLATION. 






XVIII. Cal. Jul. 


June 14 






XVII. Cal. Jul. 


June 15 


XVII. Cal. Jun. 


May 1 6 


XVI. Cal. Jul. 


June 1 6 


XVI. Cal. Jun. 


May 17 


XV. Cal. Jul. 


June 17 


XV. Cal. Jun. 


May 1 8 


XIV. Cal. Jul. 


June 18 


XIV. Cal. Jun. 


May 19 


XIII. Cal. Jul. 


June 19 


XIII. Cal. Jun. 


May 20 


XII. Cal. Jul. 


June 20 


XII. Cal. Jun. 


May 21 


XI. Cal. Jul. 


June 21 


XI. Cal. Jun. 


May 22 


X. Cal. Jul. 


June 22 


X. Cal. Jun. 


May 23 


IX. Cal. Jul. 


June 23 


IX. Cal. Jun. 


May 24 


VIII. Cal. Jul. 


June 24 


VIII. Cal. Jun. 


May 25 


VII. Cal. Jul. 


June 25 


VII. Cal. Jun. 


May 26 


VI. Cal. Jul. 


June 26 


VI. Cal. Jun. 


May 27 


V. Cal. Jul. 


June 27 


V. Cal. Jun. 


May 28 


IV. Cal. Jul. 


June 28 


IV. Cal. Jun. 


May 29 


III. Cal. Jul. 


June 29 


III. Cal. Jun. 


May 30 


Prid. Cal. Jul. 


June 30 


Prid. Cal. Jun. 


May 31 






Cal. Jun. 


June i 


Cal. Jul. 


July I 


IV. Non. Jun. 


June 2 


VI. Non. Jul. 


July 2 


III. Non. Jun. 


June 3 


V. Non. Jul. 


July 3 


Prid. Non. Jun. 


June 4 


IV. Non. Jul. 


July 4 


Non. Jun. 


June 5 


III. Non. Jul. 


July 5 


VIII. Id. Jun. 


June 6 


Prid. Non. Jul. 


July 6 


VII. id. Jun. 


June 7 


Non. Jul. 


July 7 


VI. Id. Jun. 


June 8 


VIII. Id. Jul. 


July 8 


V. Id. Jun. 


June 9 


VII. Id. Jul. 


July 9 


IV. Id. Jun. 


June 10 


VI. Id. Jul. 


July 10 


III. Id. Jun. 


June n 


V. Id. Jul. 


July ii 


Prid. Id. Jun. 


June 12 


IV. Id. Jul. 


July 12 


Id. Jun. 


June 13 


III. Id. Jul. 


July 13 






Prid. Id. Jul. 


July 14 






Id. Jul. 


July 15 



A LATIN CALENDAR 

WITH TRANSLATION 



361 



Aug. 



Sep. 



LATIN. 


TRANSLATION. 


LATIN. 


TRANSLATION. 






XIX. Cal. Sep. 


August 14 






XVIII. Cal. Sep. 


August 15 


XVII. Cal. Aug 


July 1 6 


XVII. Cal. Sep. 


August 1 6 


XVI. Cal. Aug. 


July 17 


XVI. Cal. Sep. 


August 17 


XV. Cal. Aug. 


July 1 8 


XV. Cal. Sep. 


August 1 8 


XIV. Cal. Aug. 


July 19 XIV. Cal. Sep. 


August 19 


XIII. Cal. Aug. 


July 20 


XIII. Cal. Sep. 


August 20 


XII. Cal. Aug. 


July 21 


XII. Cal. Sep. 


August 21 


XI. Cal. Aug. 


July 22 


XI. Cal. Sep. 


August 22 


X. Cal. Aug. 


July 23 


X. Cal. Sep. 


August 23 


IX. Cal. Aug. 


July 24 


IX. Cal. Sep. 


August 24 


VIII. Cal. Aug. 


July 25 


VIII. Cal. Sep. 


August 25 


VII. Cal. Aug. 


July 26 


VII. Cal. Sep. 


August 26 


VI. Cal. Aug. 


July 27 


VI. Cal. Sep. 


August 27 


V. Cal. Aug. 


July 28 


V. Cal. Sep. 


August 28 


IV. Cal. Aug. 


July 29 


IV. Cal. Sep. 


August 29 


III. Cal. Aug. 


July 30 


III. Cal. Sep. 


August 30 


Prid. Cal. Aug. 


July 31 


Prid. Cal. Sep. 


( August 31 


Cal. Aug. 


August I 


Cal. Sep. 


September I 


IV. Non. Aug. 


August 2 


IV. Non. Sep. 


September 2 


III. Non. Aug. 


August 3 III. Non. Sep. 


September 3 


Prid. Non. Aug. 


August 4 Prid. Non. Sep. 


September 4 


Non. Aug. 


August 5 Non. Sep. 


September 5 


VIII. Id. Aug. 


August 6 


VIII. Id. Sep. 


September 6 


VII. Id. Aug. 


August 7 


VII. Id. Sep. 


September 7 


VI. Id. Aug. 


August 8 


VI. Id. Sep. 


September 8 


V. Id. Aug. 


August 9 


V. Id. Sep. 


September 9 


IV. Id. Aug. 


August 10 


IV. Id. Sep. 


September 10 


III. Id. Aug. 


August II III. Id. Sep. September II 


Prid. Id. Aug. 


August 12 j Prid. Id. Sep. 


September 12 


Id. Aug. 


August 13 Id. Sep. 


September 13 



362 



A LATIN CALENDAR 

WITH TRANSLATION 



Oct. 



Nov. 



LATIN. 


TRANSLATION. 


LATIN. 


TRANSLATION. 


XVIII. Cal. Oct. 


September 14 






XVII. Cal. Oct. 


September 15 






XVI. Cal. Oct. 


September 16 


XVII. Cal. Nov. 


October 16 


XV. Cal. Oct. 


September 17 


XVI. Cal. Nov. 


October 17 


XIV. Cal. Oct. 


September 18 


XV. Cal. Nov. 


October 18 


XIII. Cal. Oct. 


September 19 


XIV. Cal. Nov. 


October 19 


XII. Cal. Oct. 


September 20 


XIII. Cal. Nov. 


October 20 


XL Cal. Oct. 


September 21 


XII. Cal. Nov. 


October 21 


\X. Cal. Oct. 


September 22 


XI. Cal. Nov. 


October 22 


IX. Cal. Oct. 


September 23 


X. Cal. Nov. 


October 23 


VIII. Cal. Oct. 


September 24 


IX. Cal. Nov. 


October 24 


VII. Cal. Oct. 


September 25 


VIII. Cal. Nov. 


October 25 


VI. Cal. Oct. 


September 26 


VII. Cal. Nov. 


October 26 


V. Cal. Oct. 


September 27 


VI. Cal. Nov. 


October 27 


IV. Cal. Oct. 


September 28 


V. Cal. Nov. 


October 28 


III. Cal. Oct. 


September 29 


IV. Cal. Nov. 


October 29 


Prid. Cal. Oct. 


September 30 


Ill Cal. Nov. 


October 30 


i 




Prid. Cal. Nov. 


October 31 


Cal. Oct. 


October i 


Cal. Nov. 


November i 


VI. Non. Oct. 


October 2 


IV. Non. Nov. 


November 2 


V. Non. Oct. 


October 3 


III. Non. Nov. 


November 3 


IV. Non. Oct. 


October 4 


Prid. Non. Nov. 


November 4 


III. Non. Oct. 


October 5 


Non. Nov. 


November 5 


Prid. Non. Oct. 


October 6 


VIII. Id. Nov. 


November 6 


Non. Oct. 


October 7 


VII. Id. Nov. 


November 7 


VIII. Id. Oct. 


October 8 


VI. Id. Nov. 


November 8 


VII. Id. Oct. 


October 9 


V. Id. Nov. 


November 9 


VI. Id. Oct. 


October 10 


IV. Id. Nov. 


November 10 


V. Id. Oct. 


October n 


III. Id. Nov. 


November n 


IV. Id. Oct. 


October 12 i 


Prid. Id. Nov. 


November 12 


III. Id. Oct. 


October 13 


Id. Nov. 


November 13 


Prid. Id. Oct. 


October 14 


1 




Id. Oct. 


October 15 








i 


i 





A LATIN CALENDAR 

WITH TRANSLATION 

Dec. 



363 



] 


jATIN. 




TRANSLATION. 


XVIII. 


Cal. 


Dec. 


November 14 


XVII. 


Cal. 


Dec. 


November 15 


XVI. 


Cal. 


Dec. 


November 16 


XV. 


Cal. 


Dec. 


November 17 


XIV. 


Cal. 


Dec. 


November 18 


XIII. 


Cal. 


Dec. 


November 19 


XII. 


Cal. 


Dec. 


November 20 


XI. 


Cal. 


Dec. 


November 21 


X. 


Cal. 


Dec. 


November 22 


IX. 


Cal. 


Dec. 


November 23 


VIII. 


Cal. 


Dec. 


November 24 


VII. 


Cal. 


Dec. 


November 25 


VI. 


Cal. 


Dec. 


November 26 


V. 


Cal. 


Dec. 


November 27 


IV. 


Cal. 


Dec. 


November 28 


III. 


Cal. 


Dec. 


November 29 


Prid. 


Cal. 


Dec. 


November 30 




Cal. 


Dec. 


December I 


IV. 


Non. 


Dec. 


December 2 


III. 


Non. 


Dec. 


December 3 


Prid. 


Non. 


Dec. 


December 4 




Non. 


Dec. 


December 5 


VIII. 


Id. 


Dec. 


December 6 


VII. 


Id. 


Dec. 


December 7 


VI. 


Id. 


Dec. 


December 8 


V. 


Id. 


Dec. 


December 9 


IV. 


Id. 


Dec. 


December 10 


III. 


Id. 


Dec. 


December u 


Prid. 


Id. 


Dec. 


December 12 




Id. 


Dec. 


December 13 



NOTES TO PAGE 356. 

1 [The origin of the term ' Leap ' 
year is supposed to be the rubric in 
the 1604 edition of the Booke of Com- 
mon Prayer : ' When the yeeres of 
our Lord may be diuided into foure 
euen parts, which is euery fourth 
yeere : then the Sunday letter 
leapeth.' See also Monthly Star 
Maps, MOM. (1900), p. hi.] 

2 [In Whitaker's Almanack ( 1906, 
p. 70), the explanation is erroneously 
stated. The misstatement first 
appeared in the Almanack last 
century, and it has been repeated 
annually ever since.] 



364 XXIII. A SCOTTISH CALENDAR 1 

JANUARY 

1 Newyeirsmas. The Circumcision of our LORD. 
The Christian Era, 'Anno Domini,' begins, A.D. i. 
' Little Christmas ' in the Celtic Calendar. 

Holmcultrum Abbey founded by David I., King of Scots, 

and his son, Earl Henry, 1150-1. 

King James V. married first, Madeleine de Valois, 1536-7. 
1 James VIII.,' 'The King over the water,' died, 1766. 
The Union of Great Britain and Ireland took place, 1801. 

2 The earliest known instance of 'Impaled Arms' in Scotland 

(the wife impales the arms of her husband), 1351-2. 

3 
4 

5 Edward the Confessor, King of England, died, 1065-6. 

6 The Epiphany. ' Christmas of the Star ' in the Celtic Calendar. 

7 Bull for the Foundation of Glasgow University, 1450-1. 

8 Eadgar, King of Scots, died, 1106-7. 

Perth retaken by Robert L, King of Scots, from the English, 

1312-13. 
Prince Albert Victor, Duke of Clarence, born, 1864. 

9 Glasgow. The See made an Archbishopric, 1491-2. 
10 

ii King Duffus murdered, 967-8. 

George of Dunbar, nth Earl of Dunbar, 4th Earl of March, 
attainted, 1434-5. 

12 

13 Dunbar Castle invested by the English, 1337-8. 
Prince Arthur of Connaught born, 1883. 

14 Old Newyeirsmas. 

Prince Albert Victor, Duke of Clarence, died, 1892. 

15 

1 See above, Preface, p. xvi, The Scottish Calendar. 



A SCOTTISH CALENDAR 365 

JANUARY 

1 6 A post-nuptial Papal Dispensation for the marriage of Patric 

of Dunbar, qth Earl of Dunbar, 2nd Earl of March, with 
'Black' Agnes, daughter of Sir Thomas Ranulph, ist 
Earl of Moray, 1323-4. 

17 The second Battle of Falkirk, 1745-6. 

18 Robert, third son of James VI., King of Scots, born, 1601-2. 

19 

20 Prince Henry of Battenberg died, 1896. 

21 Alexander, elder son of King Alexander III., born, 1263-4. 
All the Livingstons ' forfeited,' and two beheaded, 1449-50. 

22 Her Majesty Victoria, Queen and Empress, died, aged 81, in 

the 64th year of her reign, 1901. 

23 Excommunication : James Kennedy, Bishop of St. Andrews, 

cursed solemnly with mitre and staff, book and candle, the 
Earl of Crawford, James Livingston, all the Ogilvys, and 
various others, for a year, 1444-5. 

The Battle of Arbroath : the Lindsays defeated the Ogilvys, 
1445-6. 

James Stewart, Earl of Moray, ' The Regent Moray ', assas- 
sinated, 1569-70. 

Prince Edward, Duke of Kent, died, 1820. 

Duke Alfred, of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, Duke of Edinburgh, 
married, 1874. 

24 H.R.H. Albert, Prince Consort, naturalised, 1840. 

25 The Bishops of the Scottish Church declined to submit to the 

Archbishop of York, 1175-6. 
Robert Burns, poet, born, 1759. 
Victoria, Princess Royal, Empress Frederick, married, 1858. 

26 General Gordon killed at Kartoum, 1885. 

27 David, Duke of Rothesay, son of Robert III., King of Scots, 

appointed King's Lieutenant for three years, 1398-9. 

28 Alexander, elder son of King Alexander III., died, 1283-4. 
The Second Confession of Faith signed by James VI., King of 

Scots, 1580-1. 

29 King George III. died, 1820. 

Louisa, widow of 'Prince Charlie,' died, 1824. 

30 King Charles I., second son of James VI., King of Scots, 

beheaded, 1648-9. 

31 Charles Edward, 'Prince Charlie,' 'Charles III.,' died, 1788. 



366 A SCOTTISH CALENDAR 

FEBRUARY 

I 

2 Candlemas. Term Day. 

James I., King of Scots, married Joan Beaufort, daughter of 
John, ist Earl of Somerset, 1423-4. 

3 

4 Lochmaben Castle retaken from the English, 1384-5. 

' The Chevalier St. George,' 'James VIII.,' left Scotland, 1715-16. 

5 Margaret, 'The Maid of Norway', acknowledged heir to the 

Kingdom of the Scots, by the Magnates, in Parliament, at 
Scone, 1283-4. 
Lord George Gordon tried for high treason, and acquitted, 1781. 

6 Duke Alfred, of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, died, 1899. 

7 James Stewart, 'The Bonnie Earl of Moray,' murdered by 

George, 6th Earl of Huntly, 1591-2. 

8 Mary Queen of Scots beheaded at Fotheringay, 1586-7. 

9 Sir Thomas Brus and his brother Alexander, Dean of Glasgow, 

taken prisoners in Galloway, 1306-7. 

10 Sir John Corny n stabbed at Dumfries by Robert Brus, Earl of 

Carrick, afterwards Robert I., King of Scots, 1305-6. 
Aberdeen University instituted, 1494-5. 
Lord Darnley, second husband of Mary Queen of Scots, 

murdered, 1566-7. 
Queen Victoria married, 1840. 

11 Queen Ermengarde, widow of William 'The Lion,' King of 

Scots, died, 1233-4. 

12 Heriot's Hospital. George Heriot, the founder, died, 1623-4. 

13 Elizabeth, Queen of Bohemia, daughter of James VI., King 

of Scots, died, 1661-2. 
The Massacre of Glencoe, 1691-2. 

14 Fight at Lang Hermandston, 1405-6. 

Elizabeth, Queen of Bohemia, daughter of James VI., King 
of Scots, married, 1612-13. 



A SCOTTISH CALENDAR 367 

FEBRUARY 
16 

17 Sir Thomas and Alexander Brus, brothers of Eobert I., King of 

Scots, executed at Carlisle by order of Edward I., King of 
England, 1306-7. 

1 8 Martin Luther died, 1545-6. 

19 Henry-Frederick, Duke of Rothesay, eldest son of James VI., 

King of Scots, afterwards Prince of Wales, born, 1593-4. 

20 James II., King of Scots, annexed the Earldom of Orkney and 

the Lordship of Shetland to the Crown, 1471-2. 
Louise, Princess Royal, Duchess of Fife, born, 1867. 

21 James I., King of Scots, assassinated at Perth, 1436-7. 

King James V. invested with the Order of the Garter, 1534-5. 

22 David II., King of Scots, died in Edinburgh Castle, 1370-1. 

William, 8th Earl of Douglas, stabbed by James II, King 

of Scots, in Stirling Castle, 1451-2. 
Marie de Lorraine, second wife of James V., King of Scots, 

crowned, 1539-40. 

23 

24 The Battle of Rosslyn : the Scots defeated the English, 1302-3. 
The Scottish clergy in a General Council made fealty to 
Robert I., King of Scots, 1309-10. 

25 

26 Queen Margaret, first wife of Alexander III., King of Scots 

died at Cupar in Fife, 1274-5. 

27 Roxburgh Castle retaken by the Scots from the English, 

1312-13. 

The Battle of Ancrum Moor : the Scots defeated the English, 
1544-5- 

28 Margaret, Queen of Norway, daughter of Alexander III., 

King of Scots, born, 1260-1. 
St. Andrews University founded, 1411-12. 

29 Heresy: Patrick Hamilton, Abbot of Feme, burned at St. 

Andrews, 1527-8. 



368 A SCOTTISH CALENDAR 

MARCH 

1 St. David, Bishop, Patron Saint of Wales, died, 554-5. 
Heresy : George Wishart burned at St. Andrews, 1545-6. 

2 Marjorie, eldest daughter of Robert I., King of Scots, killed by 

a fall from her horse, 1315-16. 

Eobert II., King of Scots (the first Stewart king), born, 1315-16. 
Queen Anna, wife of James VL, King of Scots, died, 1618-19. 

3 

4 Queen Joan, first wife of King Alexander II., died, 1237-8. 
The Forth Bridge opened by H.R.H. the Prince of Wales, 1890. 

5 David II. (Brus), King of Scots, born, 1323-4. 
Lochindorb Castle to be demolished, order dated, 1455-6. 

6 

7 Princess Charlotte of Wales born, 1796. 

8 King William III. died, 1701-2. 

9 John of Dunbar, and his wife, Marjorie, daughter of Robert II., 

King of Scots, created Earl and Countess of Moray, in full 
Parliament, at Scone, 1371-2. 

David Riccio, secretary to Mary Queen of Scots, murdered, 
1565-6. 

10 Gavin Dunbar, Bishop of Aberdeen, died, 1531-2. 

King Edward VII. married H.R.H. Princess Alexandra, eldest 
daughter of Christian IX., King of Denmark, 1863. 

1 1 Post-nuptial Papal Dispensation to David, Earl of Carrick, for 

his marriage with Elisabeth of Dunbar, 1396-7. 
The Session, or College of Justice, instituted, 1425-6. 

12 The Regent Morton resigned, 1577-8. 

13 The Scottish Church taken under special protection of the 

Papal See, 1187-8. 
Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught, married, 1879. 

14 Edinburgh Castle retaken by the Scots from the English, 

1312-13. 

1 5 The Holy Writ : ' the New Testament and the Old in the 

vulgar tongue,' declared lawful by the Scots Parliament, 
1542-3- 



A SCOTTISH CALENDAR 369 

MARCH 

1 6 Victoria, Duchess of Kent, died, 1861. 

17 St. Patrick, Bishop, Patron Saint of Ireland, 5th century. 
Lulach, 'The Simple,' King of Scots, slain, 1057-8. 

1 8 Princess Louise, Duchess of Argyll, born, 1848. 

19 Alexander III., King of Scots, killed by a fall from his horse, 

near Kinghorn, in Fife, 1285-6. 
Margaret, ' The Maid of Norway,' became Queen of Scots, 1 285-6. 

20 David, younger son of Alexander III., King of Scots, born, 1272-3. 
21 

Princess Louise, Duchess of Argyll, married, 1871. 
22 The Battle of Bauge in France: the Scots and French, under 
John Stewart, Earl of Buchan, defeated the English, 1420-1. 
23 

24 Queen Elizabeth died, 1602-3. 

James VI., King of Scots, proclaimed in London as ' James I., 
King of England, Scotland, France, and Ireland,' 1602-3. 

25 Lady Day. The Era of the Incarnation of the WORD began 

B.C. I. 

James II., King of Scots, crowned, 1437. 

The Scottish Parliament prorogued and abolished, 1707. 

26 Robert II., the first Stewart King of Scots, anointed and 

crowned, 1371. 
David, Duke of Rothesay, died (? starved), 1402. 

27 Robert I. (Brus), King of Scots, crowned, 1306. 

James VI., King of Scots (James I., King of England, Scotland, 
France, and Ireland), died, 1625. 

28 Berwick taken by the Scots from the English, 1318. 
James I., King of Scots, released from captivity, 1424. 
Prince Leopold, Duke of Albany, died, 1884. 

29 The Scottish Episcopal Church observed Easter according to 

the old style, for the last time, 1752. 

30 

31 Walter Stewart, Earl of Athol, beheaded, 1437. 

The Institution of the College of Justice confirmed by Pope 

Paul III., 1535. 
James VI., King of Scots, proclaimed in Edinburgh as ' James I., 

King of England, Scotland, France, and Ireland,' 1603. 
Prince Henry William of Wales born, 1900. 
2 A 



370 A SCOTTISH CALENDAR 



APRIL 

1 St, Gilbert, Bishop of Caithness, Confessor, died, 1245. 

2 Six Guardians of the Kingdom appointed by the common 

advice, 1286. 
Marischal College, Aberdeen, founded, 1593. 

3 John Napier of Merchiston, inventor of logarithms, died, 1617. 
Princess Maud Duff born, 1893. 

4 Robert III., King of Scots, died, 1406. 
The first book printed in Scotland, 1508. 

5 James VI., King of Scots, left Edinburgh for London, 1603. 

6 The Scottish Barons sent their letter of remonstrance to Pope 

John XXII., 1320. 
Prince Alexander of Wales born (died yth), 1871. 

7 Pluscarden Priory founded by King Alexander II., 1236. 
John Hamilton, Archbishop of St. Andrews, hanged, 1571. 
Prince Leopold, Duke of Albany, born, 1853. 

8 Mary, daughter of James VI., King of Scots, born, 1605. 

9 Margaret, Queen of Norway, only daughter of Alexander III., 

King of Scots, died, 1283. 

The Clan Chattan massacred a number of Camerons, 1430. 
Simon Eraser, Lord Lovat, beheaded, 1 746. 

10 James V., King of Scots, born, 1512. 
ii 

12 Marie de Lorraine, widow of James V., King of Scots, made 

Regent, 1554. 

1 3 The Laird of Buckcleugh rescued William Armstrong(Kinmont 

Willie) from Carlisle Castle, 1596. 

14 Edinburgh University founded by King James VI., 1582. 
Beatrice, Princess Henry of Battenberg, born, 1857. 

15 William Augustus, Duke of Cumberland, born, 1721. 



A SCOTTISH CALENDAR 371 



APRIL 

6 St. Magnus, Jarl in Orkney, murdered, 1115. 
The Battle of Culloden, 1746. 

7 Charles Edward Stewart, 'Prince Charlie,' 'Charles III.,' 

married, 1772. 

9 Robert II., King of Scots, died, 1390. 
o 

Sir David Lindesay created Earl of Crawford, 1398. 
Henry VII, King of England, father-in-law to James IV., King 

of Scots, died, 1509. 
The Scottish Episcopal Church observed Easter according to 

the New Style, for the first time, 1753. 

St. George, soldier, M., Patron Saint of England, martyred, 303. 
The Battle of Clontarf : the Irish and Scots defeated the 

Northmen, on Good Friday, 1014. 
Alexander L, King of Scots, died, 1124. 
Papal Dispensation for the second marriage of Marjorie, 

daughter of King Robert II., 1403. 
Mary Queen of Scots married, as her first husband, to Francois 

le Dauphin, 1558. 

Mary Queen of Scots seized by Both well at Kirkliston, 1567. 
Malcolm III. (Ceannmor), King of Scots, crowned, 1058. 
Berwick surrendered to the Scots by the English, 1461. 
Alice, Grand Duchess of Hesse, born, 1843. 
Princess 'Mary' (Victoria Alexandra) of Wales born, 1897. 
6 

7 The Battle of Dunbar : the English defeated the Scots, 1296. 
Prince Leopold, Duke of Albany, married, 1882. 
The first Scottish Dukes created, 1398. 
Heresy : Walter My In, priest, aged 81 (the last victim), burned 

at St. Andrews, 1558. 
9 
o ' Cleanse the Causeway ' a fight between the Douglases and 

Hamiltons, in the High Street, Edinburgh, 1520. 
Gavin Dunbar, Archbishop of Glasgow, died, 1547. 



372 A SCOTTISH CALENDAR 

MAY 

1 Matilda, 'The good Queen Maud,' daughter of Malcolm III., 

King of Scots, and wife of Henry I., King of England, 

died, 1118. 
James VI., King of Scots, returned to Leith with his Queen, 

Anna of Denmark, 1590. 
The Battle of Arkinholme : George Douglas, Earl of Angus, 

defeated the three brothers of James, Earl of Douglas, 1455. 
The Union of Scotland and England took place, 1707. 
Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught, born, 1850. 

2 Edward Brus crowned King of Ireland, 1316. 

Mary Queen of Scots escaped from Lochleven Castle, 1568. 

3 James Sharp, Archbishop of St. Andrews, murdered, 1679. 

4 The Treaty of Northampton ratified, 1328. 
William, first Earl of Gowrie, beheaded, 1584. 

5 

6 The earliest known Celtic charter extant, 1408. 

7 Edinburghand Holyrood completely burned by the English, 1 544. i 
James VI., King of Scots, 'James I., King of England, Scotland, | 

France, and Ireland,' buried in Westminster Abbey, 1625. 

8 

9 

10 A Convention assembled at Norham to settle who was heir to| 

the Kingdom of the Scots, 1291. 

The Battle of Loudon Hill : the Scots, under Robert I., Kin| 
of Scots, defeated the English, 1307. 

11 King Charles I. married, 1626. 
12 

13 The earliest known 'Achievement of Arms' connected wit 

Scotland, 1334. 

The Battle of Langside : the adherents of Mary Queen of S( 
were defeated by the Regent Moray, 1568. 

14 Lady Jane Gordon, Countess of Bothwell, afterwards Count 

of Sutherland, died, set. 84, 1629. 

15 Term Day, called 'Whitsunday' in Scotland. 
Alexander II., King of Scots, married secondly Marie 

Coucy, 1239. 

Mary Queen of Scots married, as her third husband, to Jame 
Hepburn, 4th Earl of Bothwell, Duke of Orkney, 1567. 



A SCOTTISH CALENDAR 373 

MAY 
16 

17 Alphonso XIII., King of Spain, born (posthumous), 1886. 
Princess Alexandra Victoria Duff born, 1891. 

1 8 The Battle of Brechin : Alexander of Seton, ist Earl of Huntly, 

defeated Alexander Lindesay, 4th Earl of Crawford, 1452. 

19 James V., King of Scots, with Queen Madeleine, arrived at 

Leith, 1537. 

Mary Queen of Scots fled to Carlisle, 1568. 
20 

21 Kinloss Abbey founded by David I., King of Scots, 1150. 
James I., King of Scots, and Queen Joan crowned, 1424. 
James Graham, Marquis of Montrose, executed, 1650. 

22 The Battle of Inverurie : Robert L, King of Scots, defeated 

John Comyn, Earl of Buchan, 1308. 
Highlanders' raid in Moray, 1534. 

23 

24 David L, 'The Saint,' King of Scots, died at Carlisle, 1153. 
Sir Walter Stewart, son of Murdac, Duke of Albany, beheaded 

for treason, 1425. 
Queen Victoria born at Kensington Palace, 1819. 

25 Murdac, Duke of Albany, late Governor of the Kingdom, Sir 

Alexander Stewart, his son, and Duncan, Earl of Lennox, 
beheaded for treason, 1425. 
Helena, Princess Christian, born, 1846. 

26 Victoria Mary, Princess of Wales, born, 1867. 

27 The Session, or College of Justice, began, 1532. 
Jean (John) Calvin, Reformer, died at Geneva, 1564. 
Robert, third son of James VI., King of Scots, died, 1602. 

28 Removal Term in Scotland. 

'Chevalier St. George,' 'James VIII.,' married, 1719. 

29 David Beaton, Cardinal-Archbishop of St. Andrews, murdered 

in the castle at St. Andrews, 1546. 
Edinburgh Castle surrendered by Kirkaldy of Grange, 1573. 

30 

31 Mary, Countess of Boulogne, daughter of Malcolm III., King 

of Scots, died, 1116. 
Victoria Eugenie, Queen of Spain, married, 1906. 



374 A SCOTTISH CALENDAR 

JUNE 

1 The Battle of Drumclog, 1679. 

2 David II., King of Scots, returned from France, 1341. 
The Regent Morton beheaded, 1581. 

3 The Scots burned Alnwick, 1448. 

George Frederick, Prince of Wales, born, 1865. 

4 King George III. born (N.S.), 1738. 

5 
6 

7 Robert I., King of Scots, died at Cardross, 1329. 

Sir Thomas Ranulph, ist Earl of Moray, became Guardian of 
the Kingdom, 1329. 

8 Sophia, Electress of Hanover, granddaughter of James VI., 

King of Scots, died, 1714. 

9 The Battle of Clitheroe : the Scots, under William Fitz-Duncan, 

son of Duncan II., King of Scots, defeated the English, 1138. 

10 Edward III., King of England, came to Lochindorb, in Moray, 

to the assistance of the Countess of Athol, 1336. 
Marie de Lorraine, widow of James V., King of Scots, died, 1560. 
'The Chevalier St. George,' 'James VIII.,' born, 1688. 

11 The Isle of Man taken by the Scots, 1313. 

The Battle of Sauchieburn : James III., King of Scots, mur- 
dered, after the battle, 1488. 

12 Earl Henry, son of David I., King of Scots, predeceased his 

father, 1152. 

Parliament pronounced sentence of forfeiture against the 
Douglases, 1455. 

13 The anointing and crowning of the Scottish Kings, authorised 

by Bull of Pope John XXII., 1329. 

Parliament enacted that ' all barons and freeholders shall put 
their eldest sons to a grammar-school, until they have 
perfect Latin,' 1496. 

14 James V., King of Scots, aged 14, 'assumed his Authority 

Royal,' 1526. 

15 Dovenald Ban, son of Donald Ban MacWilliam, slain, 1215. 
The Scots invaded England, 1327. 

Mary Queen of Scots surrendered at Carberry Hill, 1567. 



A SCOTTISH C.ALENDAR 375 

JUNE 

1 6 The siege of Dunbar Castle raised, 1338. 

'Black Agnes,' Countess of Dunbar, successfully defended 

Dunbar Castle against the English for five months, 1337-8. 
Mary Queen of Scots sent as a prisoner to Lochleven Castle, 1567. 

1 7 The Cathedral at Elgin burned by Alexander Stewart, Earl of 

Buchan, 'the Wolf of Badenoch,' 1390. 

1 8 The Battle of Waterloo, 1815. 

19 Alexander II., King of Scots, married first, Joan, daughter of 

John, King of England, 1221. 

The Battle of Methven : the English defeated the Scots, 1 306. 
James VI., King of Scots, born at Stirling, 1566. 

20 University of Glasgow. The Privilege proclaimed, 1451. 
Queen Victoria's Accession, 1837. 

21 Queen Victoria's Jubilee, 1887. 

22 The 2nd Battle of Nesbit : the English defeated the Scots, 1402. 
Queen Victoria's Diamond Jubilee, 1897. 

Haakon VII. and his wife, Maud, crowned King and Queen of 
Norway, 1906. 

23 A Battle in Badenoch : James I., King of Scots, totally routed 

Alexander of the Isles, 1429. 
Prince Edward Albert of Wales born, 1894. 

24 Midsummer Day. 

The Battle of Bannockburn : the Scots under their King, 
Eobert I., totally defeated the English under their King, 
Edward II., 1314. 

Margaret, daughter of James I., King of Scots, married to 
Louis le Dauphin, 1436. 

25 H.R.H. Prince Albert created Prince Consort by letters- 

patent, 1857. 

26 King George IV. died, 1830. 

27 James VI., King of Scots, escaped from Ruthven Castle, 1583. 

28 Queen Victoria's Coronation, 1838. 
29 

30 Archibald Campbell, 9th Earl of Argyle, beheaded, 1685. 



376 A SCOTTISH CALENDAR 

JULY 

1 The College of Surgeons of Edinburgh constituted, 1505. 
Fraserburgh University founded, 1592. 

Alice, Grand Duchess of Hesse, married, 1862. 

2 The Western Isles and the Isle of Man ceded to Alexander III. 

King of Scots, by Haco, King of Norway, 1266. 
Prince Olaf, Crown Prince of Norway, born, 1903. 

3 James II., King of Scots, married Marie, daughter of Arnold, 

due de Gueldres, 1449. 
4 

5 Helena, Princess Christian, married, 1866. 

6 Princess Victoria, daughter of King Edward VII., born, 1868. 
George Frederick, Prince of Wales, married, 1893. 

7 ' The Hammer of the Scots ' (Edward I., King of England) died 

at Burgh-on-the-Sands, near Carlisle, 1307. 
Queen Madeleine, first wife of King James V., died, 1537. 
The Skirmish at Reds wire : the Scots defeated the English, 1575, 

8 Alexander II., King of Scots, died, 1249. 

9 James III., King of Scots, carried off by the Boyds, 1456. 

10 John Balliol, King of Scotland, abdicated, 1296. 
The Second Interregnum began, 1296. 

James III., King of Scots, born at Stirling, 1451. 
Mary Queen of Scots became Queen of France, 1559. 

1 1 Caerlaverock Castle taken from the Scots by Edward L, King 

of England, 1300. 

Papal Dispensation for the marriage of John of Dunbar with 
Marjorie, daughter of Robert II., King of Scots, 1370. 

12 Sybilla, Queen of Alexander L, King of Scots, died, 1122. 
Cupar Abbey founded by Malcolm IV., King of Scots, 1164. 
Prince John Charles of Wales born, 1905. 

13 William 'The I Jon,' King of Scots, taken prisoner, 1174. 
James III., King of Scots, married Margaret of Denmark, 1469 
Henry Benedict Stewart, Cardinal York, died, 1807. 

14 Margaret of Denmark, Queen of King James III., died, 1486. 

15 Joan, widow of King James L, died in Dunbar Castle, 1445. 



A SCOTTISH CALENDAE 377 



JULY 

1 6 An Insurrection in Galloway subdued by Alexander II. , King 

of Scots, 1235. 

17 David, son of Robert I., King of Scots, married Johanna, 

daughter of Edward II., King of England, 1328. 
Jane, sister of Archibald Douglas, 6th Earl of Angus, burned 
for treason, 1537. 

1 8 The Scots invaded England, and burned Warkworth, 1448. 

19 The Battle of Halidon : the English defeated the Scots, 1333. 
Prince Leopold, Duke Charles Edward of Saxe-Coburg and 

Gotha, 2nd Duke of Albany born (posthumous), 1884. 

20 Stirling (the second siege) surrendered to the English, 1304. 
Sir Thomas Eanulph, ist Earl of Moray, Guardian of the 

Kingdom, died, 1332. 

21 The Battle of Shrewsbury, 1403. 
Robert Burns, poet, died, 1796. 

22 The Battle of Falkirk: Edward L, King of England, defeated 

the Scots under Sir William Wallace, 1298. 
The Treaty of Union between Scotland and England signed, 1706. 
Maud, Queen of Norway, married, 1896. 

23 Heresy : Paul Crawar burned at St. Andrews, 1433. 
Beatrice, Princess Henry of Battenberg, married, 1885. 

24 The Battle of Harlaw : the Lowlanders defeated the High- 

landers and Islanders, 1411. 

Mary Queen of Scots abdicated in favour of her son, James VI. , 
King of Scots, 1567. 

25 James VI. , King of Scots, anointed and crowned as ' James L, 

King of England, Scotland, France, and Ireland,' in West- 
minster Abbey, 1603. 

26 Edward L, King of England, halted at Elgin, 1296. 

27 Earl Siward defeated Macbeth, King of Scots, at Scone, 1054. 
The Battle of Killiecrankie, 1689. 

Louise, Princess Royal, Duchess of Fife, married, 1889. 

28 Papal Dispensation to James IV., King of Scots, for his 

marriage with Margaret Tudor, 1500. 

29 Mary Queen of Scots married, as her second husband, to 

Henry Stewart, Lord Darnley, 1565. 

30 Prince Alfred, Duke Alfred of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, 

Duke of Edinburgh, died, 1900. 
mi Donald Ban MacWilliam slain at Mam Garvia, 1187. 



378 A SCOTTISH CALENDAR 

AUGUST 

1 Lammas. Term Day in Scotland. 

An Ecclesiastical Council held in Edinburgh Castle, 1177. 
Mary Queen of Scots buried at Peterborough, 1587. 
'The good Queen Anne' died, 1714. 

2 Donald, Earl of Mar, chosen Guardian of the Kingdom, 1332. 

3 James II., King of Scots, killed by the bursting of a cannon at 

Roxburgh, 1460. 
Haakon VII., King of Norway, born, 1872. 

4 

5 The Battle of Otterburn : the Scots defeated the English, 1388. 
The second Gowrie Conspiracy defeated, 1600. 

Victoria, Princess Royal, Empress Frederick, died, 1901. 

6 Edward Balliol, with an English army, landed at Kinghorn, 1332. 
Prince Alfred, Duke Alfred of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, Duke 

of Edinburgh, born, 1 844. 

7 Queen Victoria reviewed 20,000 Volunteers in Queen's Park, 

Edinburgh, 1860. 

8 Edward I., King of England, was at Scone, and sent the 

'Coronation Stone' to Westminster Abbey, 1296. 
Roxburgh Castle taken by the Scots from the English, 1460. 
James IV., King of Scots, married Margaret Tudor, 1503. 

9 Edward VII., King of England, crowned, 1902. 

10 James of Dunbar, 8th Earl of Moray, murdered, 1429. 
James III., King of Scots, crowned in Kelso Abbey, 1460. 
'Prince Charlie' raised his standard at Glenfinnan, 1745. 

11 The Battle of Dairy, 1306. 

12 Edward II., King of England, invaded Scotland, 1322. 

The Battle of Dupplin : the English defeated the Scots, 1332. 
The Battle of the Nile, 1798. 

13 Robert II., King of Scots, buried in Scone Abbey 1390. 

14 Duncan I., 'The Gracious,' King of Scots, murdered, 1040. 
Johanna, Queen of David II., King of Scots, died, 1362. 
Henry IV., King of England, invaded Scotland, 1400. 

15 Macbeth, King of Scots, slain. 1057. 
Sir Walter Scott born, 1771. 



A SCOTTISH CALENDAR 379 

AUGUST 

16 Prince Frederick, Duke of York, born, 1763. 

17 St. Andrews made a Metropolitan See by Bull of Pope 

Sixtus IV., 1472. 
The Reformation was adopted in Scotland, 1560. 

1 8 Papal Dispensation to Patric of Dunbar, gih Earl of Dunbar, 

for his marriage with 'Black Agnes,' 1320. 
The Earl of Kilmarnock and Lord Balmerino beheaded for 
high treason, 1746. 

19 Elizabeth, Queen of Bohemia, eldest daughter of James VI., 

King of Scots, born, 1596. 

20 Mary Queen of Scots, Queen-Dowager of France, returned to 

Holyrood House after an absence of 13 years, 1561. 

21 King William IV. born, 1765. 

2 2 The Battle of the Standard : the English defeated the Scots, 1138. 
Dervorgulla, Lady Balliol, gave a charter to Balliol College, 

Oxford, 1282. 
The Raid of Ruthven (the first Gowrie Conspiracy), 1582. 

23 Sir William Wallace tried at Westminster and executed, 1305." 

24 Alexander II., King of Scots, born, 1198. 

Patric, 7th Earl of Dunbar, died at Whittinghame, 1289. 
The Battle of Hadden-rig : the Scots defeated the English, 1542. 
The Pope's jurisdiction was abolished in Scotland by Parlia- 
ment, 1560. 

25 Sir James Douglas killed by the Moors in Spain, 1330. 

26 David, 3rd son of Earl Henry, married Maud, daughter of 

Hugh, Earl of Chester, 1190. 
H.R.H. Albert, Prince Consort, born, 1819. 

27 Heresy : Norman Gourlay and David Straiton burned in Edin- 

burgh, 1534. 

28 Papal Dispensation to David, Earl of Carrick, eldest son of 

King Robert III., for his marriage with Elisabeth, daughter 
of George of Dunbar, loth Earl of Dunbar, 1395. 
St. Andrews University. Foundation Charter confirmed by 
Pope Benedict XIII. at Paniscola, 1413. 

29 Queen Victoria's first visit to Scotland, 1842. 
30 



380 A SCOTTISH CALENDAR 

SEPTEMBER 

I 

2 

3 Robert, Duke of Albany, Governor of the Kingdom, died, 1420. 
The second Battle of Dunbar, 1650. 

4 Alexander, ' the Earl ' (afterwards King of Scots), present in 

Durham at the Translation of the body of St. Cuthbert, 1 104. 
Alexander III., King of Scots, born at Roxburgh, 1241. 
The Battle of Linlithgow, 1526. 
The Regent Lennox shot, 1571. 

5 William 'The Lion,' King of Scots, married Ermengarde de 

Bellomonte, 1186. 
Sentence of forfeiture pronounced against the Douglases, 1528. 

6 The Regent Mar accepted office, 1571. 

7 Elizabeth, Queen of England, born, 1533. 

8 Orkney and Shetland pledged to Scotland for the dowry of 

Margaret of Denmark, Queen of King James III., 1468. 

9 The Battle of Flodden : the English defeated the Scots; 

James IV., King of Scots, slain, 1513. 
Mary Queen of Scots crowned at Stirling, 1543. 
Kelso and Melrose burned by the English, 1545. 

10 The Battle of Piperden : the Scots defeated the English, 1436. 
The Battle of Pinkie : the English defeated the Scots, 1547. 

1 1 Adam, Bishop of Caithness, burned alive in his own house, by 

the men of his diocese, 1222. 
The Battle of Stirling : Wallace defeated the English, 1297. 

12 Edward I., King of England, was in Elgin, 1303. 

13 Kildrummie Castle taken by the English, 1306. 

14 The Battle of Homildon : the English defeated the Scots, 1402. 
The New Style adopted in Great Britain, 1752. 

15 Exclusive privilege of printing granted to Walter Chepman 

and Andro Millar, 1507. 



A SCOTTISH CALENDAR 381 

SEPTEMBER 

16 George L, King of England, landed in England, 1714. 

17 

1 8 Earthquake in Scotland, 1901. 

19 The Battle of Poitiers : the English defeated the French and 

their Scottish allies, 1356. 

Antony de la Bastie murdered by the Humes, 1517. 

20 The Battle (or ' Chapter ') of Mitton : the Scots defeated the 

English, 1319. 

'Prince Charlie,' after five months' wandering, escaped from 
Scotland to France, 1746. 

21 The Battle of Prestonpans, 1745. 
Sir Walter Scott died, 1832. 

22 

Princess Augusta, daughter of King George III., died, 1840. 

23 Alexander Stewart, Earl of Mar, with about eighty Scottish 

knights, assisted the Duke of Burgundy in his victory at 
Liege, 1408. 
Queen Mary II., wife of King William III., died, 1694. 

24 Edward Balliol crowned King of Scotland by the English, 1332. 
Jedburgh burned by the English, 1523. 

25 

26 Margaret, 'The Maid of Norway,' Queen of Scots, died on or 

about this day, 1290. 
The First Interregnum began 1290. 

27 

28 The Battle of the Clans fought at Perth, 1396. 
George Buchanan, historian, died in Edinburgh, 1582. 

29 Michaelmas. Term Day. Lord Nelson born, 1758. 

30 Sophia, daughter of Elizabeth, Queen of Bohemia, married to 

the Elector of Hanover, 1658. 



382 A SCOTTISH CALENDAR 

OCTOBER 

I 

2 Alexander III., King of Scots, defeated Haco, King of Norway, 

at Largs, 1263. 

The Scottish Church transferred her allegiance from Pope 
Benedict XIII. to Pope Martin V., 1417. 

3 The Battle of Glenrinnes : the Lowlanders defeated the High- 

landers, 1594. 

4 

5 Prince Henry of Battenberg born, 1858. 

6 Charlotte, Princess Eoyal, Queen of Wiirtemburg, died, 1828. 

7 Mary Queen of Scots buried in Henry VII. 's chapel, Westminster 

Abbey (her body translated from Peterborough), 1612. 

8 The Scots defeated the inhabitants of the Isle of Man, 1275. 
Alexander, Lord Hume, beheaded for treason, 1516. 

9 William, brother of Lord Hume, beheaded for treason, 1516. 

10 Patric of Dunbar, 8th Earl of Dunbar, ist Earl of March, 

Competitor, died, aged 66, 1308. 

11 Prince Leopold, Duke Charles Edward of Saxe-Coburg and 

Gotha, 2nd Duke of Albany, married, 1905. 

12 Henry VIIL, King of England, applied to Pope Leo X. for a 

dispensation to bury James IV., King of Scots, in St. Paul's 
Cathedral, 1513. 

13 The Constitution of the Eoyal College of Surgeons confirmed 

by James IV., King of Scots, 1506. 
The Eegency of Matthew Stewart, Earl of Lennox, confirmed 

by Parliament, 1570. 
Sophia, Electress of Hanover, born, 1630. 

14 Alexander III., King of Scots, married, as his second wife, 

Yolande de Dreux, 1285. 

Edward Brus, King of Ireland, slain near Dundalk, 1318. 
The Battle of Biland : Eobert I., King of Scots, defeated 

Edward II., King of England, 1322. 
Mary, Queen of Scots, tried at Fotheringay Castle, 1586. 

15 The New Style, or Gregorian Calendar, adopted inEome, 1582. 



A SCOTTISH CALENDAR 383 

OCTOBER 

1 6 James II., King of Scots, born at Holyrood, 1430. 

1 7 The Battle of Durham or Neville's Cross : the English 

defeated the Scots, and took David II. , King of Scots, 
prisoner, 1346. 

1 8 Margaret Tudor, daughter of Henry VII., King of England, 

widow of James IV., King of Scots, died, 1541. 

19 Friedrich III., German Emperor, born, 1831. 
20 

21 The Battle of Trafalgar : Lord Nelson killed, 1805. 

22 James VI., King of Scots, left Leith for Denmark, 1589. 

23 The Battle of Sarke or Clochmaben Stone : the Scots defeated 

the English, 1448. 

24 Victoria Eugenie, Queen of Spain, born, 1887. 

25 William Elphinston, Bishop of Aberdeen, died, 1514. 
King George II. died, 1760 

26 Elisabeth, daughter of Haymer de Burk, Earl of Ulster, second 

wife of Robert I., King of Scots, died at Cullen, 1327. 

27 Princess Mary Adelaide, Duchess of Teck, died, 1897. 

28 The Battle of Corrichie : James Stewart, Earl of Moray, 

defeated George Gordon, 4th Earl of Huntly, 1562. 

29 Prince Christian Victor died, at Pretoria, 1900. 

30 King George II. born, 1683. 

3 1 Hallow-een. 



384 A SCOTTISH CALENDAR 

NOVEMBER 

1 Hallowmas. All Hallows or All Saints. 

Neubotle Abbey founded by David I., King of Scots, 1140. 

2 Prince Edward, Duke of Kent, born, 1767. 
3 

4 King William III. and Queen Mary II. married, 1677. 

5 The Gunpowder Plot, 1605. 

6 Somerled invaded Scotia, 1153. 

Henry-Frederick, Prince of Wales, eldest son of James VI., 

King of Scots, died, 1612. 
Princess Charlotte of Wales died, 1817. 

7 Three Scottish ladies imprisoned in cages by order of Edward I., 

King of England, 1306. 

8 Duns Scotus, theologian and historian, died, 1308. 

9 Edward VII. , King of Great Britain and Ireland, Emperor of 

India, born, 1841. 

10 Martin Luther., Reformer, born, 1483. 

The extermination of the Clan Chattan ordered, 1528. 

1 1 Martinmas. Term Day in Scotland. 

Matilda, ' The good Queen Maud,' daughter of Malcolm III., 
King of Scots, married to Henry I., King of England, noo. 

12 Duncan II., King of Scots, 'betrayed to death,' 1094. 
The Battle of Preston in Lancashire, 1715. 

13 Malcolm III. (Ceannmor), King of Scots, slain, 1093. 
The Battle of Sheriffmuir, 1715. 

14 King William III. born, 1650. 

15 Alexander, elder son of Alexander III., King of Scots, married 

Marguerite de Flandre, 1282. 



A SCOTTISH CALENDAR 385 



NOVEMBER 

16 'St.' Margaret, Queen of Malcolm III., King of Scots, died of 

grief in Edinburgh Castle, 1093. 
Eadward, eldest son of Malcolm III., King of Scots, died, 1093. 

17 John Balliol became King of Scotland, 1292. 
The First Interregnum ended, 1292. 

1 8 The Duke of Wellington buried in St. Paul's Cathedral, 1852. 

19 Charles, second son of James VI., King of Scots, afterwards 

King Charles I., born at Dunfermline, 1600. 

20 Queen Caroline, wife of King George II., died, 1737. 

21 Victoria, Princess Royal, 'Empress Frederick,' born, 1840. 

22 Sir Alexander Boyd beheaded, 1469. 

23 Prince Alexander of Battenberg born, 1886. 

24 David II., King of Scots, anointed and crowned, 1331. 
William, 6th Earl of Douglas, and his brother David, beheaded 

in Edinburgh Castle, 1440. 
The Rout at Solway Moss, 1542. 
John Knox died in Edinburgh, 1572. 
King James VI. married Anna of Denmark, at Upslo, 1589. 

25 Malcolm II., King of Scots, died, 1034. 

26 Maud, Queen of Norway, daughter of Edward VII. , King of 

England, born, 1869. 

27 Princess Mary Adelaide, Duchess of Teck, born, 1833. 

28 Removal Term in Scotland. 

Malcolm Fleming of Biggar beheaded, 1440. 

29 Margaret Tudor, daughter of King Henry VII., Queen of 

James IV., King of Scots, born, 1489. 

50 Andermas. St. Andrew, Ap. M., Patron Saint of Scotland. 
John Balliol crowned King of Scotland, at Scone, 1292. 
The Battle of Kilblain, 1335. 
2B 



386 A SCOTTISH CALENDAR 

DECEMBER 

1 Marie de Gueldres, widow of King James II., died, 1463. 
Queen Alexandra born, 1844. 

2 Queen Adelaide, widow of King William IV., died, 1849. 

3 'The Congregation' first appears in 'Ane Godlie Band,' 1557. 

4 William 'The Lion,' King of Scots, died, 1214. 

5 The Independence of the Scottish Kingdom acknowledged and 

the pledges restored by Richard I., King of England, 1189. 

Fra^ois II., King of France, first husband of Mary Queen of 
Scots, died, 1560. 

6 Alexander II., King of Scots, 'raised to the throne,' 1214. 

7 Mary Queen of Scots born on the 7th or 8th 2 December, 1542. 

8 King William ' The Lion ' surrendered the independence of 

the Kingdom to Henry II., King of England, 1174. 

9 Malcolm IV., 'The Maiden,' King of Scots, died, 1165. 

10 William 'The Lion,' King of Scots, buried at Arbroath, 1214. 
The Army of Scotland ordered by Parliament always to fight 
on foot, 1540. 

ii 

12 

13 Balmerino Abbey founded and endowed by Alexander II., 

King of Scots, and his mother, Queen Ermengarde, 1229. 

Patric of Dunbar, 7th Earl of Dunbar, served heir to his 
father in his English lands, 1248. 

14 James V., King of Scots, died at Falkland, 1542. 
H.R.H. Albert, Prince Consort, died, 1861. 
Alice, Grand Duchess of Hesse, died, 1878. 
Prince Albert Frederick of Wales born, 1895. 

i5 

2 See above, pp. 246, 247, and 295. 



A SCOTTISH CALENDAR 387 

DECEMBER 

1 6 Edward Balliol, the English-made King, fled from Scotland, 

'one leg booted, and the other naked,' 1332. 
Mary, daughter of James VL, King of Scots, died, 1607. 

17 James VI., King of Scots, baptized at Stirling, 1566. 

The Year to begin on the ist of January in future. Proclama- 
tion, 1599. 
18 

19 

20 The First General Assembly of the Reformed Kirk of Scotland 

was held in Edinburgh, 1560. 
Prince George Edward of Wales born, 1902. 
21 

22 Governor: James Hamilton, 2nd Earl of Arran, chosen, 1542. 

23 ' The Chevalier St. George,' 'James VIII.,' landed at Peter- 

head, 1715. 
Public Funeral of H.R.H. Albert, Prince Consort, 1861. 

24 Yule-een. 

Margaret, daughter of James VL, King of Scots, born, 1598. 

25 Christmas. Yule. 'Anno Christi' begins B.C. 5. 
Great Christmas in the Celtic Calendar. 

Gospatric purchased the Earldom of Northumberland from 

William the Conqueror, 1067. 
The Rout at Slioch : Robert L, King of Scots, routed John 

Corny n, Earl of Buchan, 1307. 

26 Alexander III., King of Scots, married as his first wife, Mar- 

garet, daughter of Henry III., King of England, 1251. 
27 
28 Queen Mary II. died, 1694. 

The Tay Bridge disaster, 1879. 
29 

3 

31 Patric of Dunbar, 5th Earl of Dunbar, died, aged eighty, 1232. 
Charles Edward Stewart, 'Prince Charlie,' 'Charles III.,' 
born, 1720. 



388 



XXIV. ABBREVIATIONS IN THE CALENDARS 



Ab. 


Abbot, Abbot of. 


K. 


King, King of. 


Abs. 


Abbess, Abbess of. 


K.B.A. 


Kalendarium Breviarii 


Abdn. 


Aberdeen. 




Aberdonensis. 


Abp. 
A.C. 


Archbishop, Abp. of. 
Anno Christi. 


M., MM. 


Martyr, Martyrs. 


A.D. 


Anno Domini. 


Mart. 


Martyrology. 


Anch. 


Anchorite. 


Mat. 


Matron. 


Ap., App. 


Apostle, Apostles. 


Med. 


Doctor of Medicine. 


A.S. 


Acta Sanctorum. 


Mk. 


Monk. 


a., abt. 


about. 


m. 


mother, mother of. 


a. 


anno. 


N. 


Nun. 


B.C. 


Before Christ. 


nat. 


natale, day of death 


Bl. Bk. 


Black Book of the 




(or martyrdom) of a 




Exchequer. 




Saint. 


Bp. 
Bps. 


Bishop, Bishop of. 
Bishops. 


O.H.T.R. 


Order of the Holy 


B.V. 


Blessed Virgin. 


Cap. 


Trinity for the Re- 


b. 


born. 




demption of Captives. 


br., brs. 


brother, brothers. 


O.S.B. 


Order of St. Benedict. 






O.S.D. 


Order of St. Dominic. 


C. 


Confessor of the Faith. 


O.S.F. 


Order of St. Francis. 


Cant. 


Canterbury. 


ord. 


ordination. 


Gen. 


Centurion. 






Ch, 


Church. 


P. 


Pope. 


Com. 


Commemoration of. 


Pr. 


Priest. 


Con. 


Conversion of. 






c. 


century. 


Q. 


Queen, Queen of. 


Dn. 


Deacon. 


R. Mart. 


Roman Martyrology. 


Dr. 


Doctor of the Church. 






Ds., Dss. 


Disciple, Disciples of. 


S., SS. 


Saint, Saints. 


d. 


died. 


Scot. 


Scotland, Scottish. 


dep. 


deposition. 


Sen. 


Senator. 






S.J. 


Society of Jesus. 


Ev. 


Evangelist. 


Sol. 


Soldier. 


F. 


Founder, Founder of. 


s. 


sister, sister of. 


f. 


father, father of. 


tr. 


translation. 


Hn. 


Historian. 






Ht. 


Hermit. 


V., VV. 


Virgin, Virgins. 


inst. 


instituted. 


w. 


Widow. 



389 



XXV. AUTHORS, BOOKS, CHRONICLES, ETC., 
REFERRED TO IN THE FOOTNOTES 

* The Books marked with an asterisk were used in drawing up the 
Calendars and Tables. 

A 

Acta Sanctorum, quotquot toto orbe coluntur ; collegit, digessit, notis illus- 

travit Joannes Bollandus, cum continuationibus Henschenii, etc., 56 

vols. fol. Venetiis, Brux., et Par. 1734-1883. 
Acts of Parliaments. Acts of the Parliaments of Scotland. 12 vols. fol. 

1814-1875. 

Adamnan. St. Columba. Historians of Scotland, vol. vi. Edinburgh, 1874. 
Ailred. Chronicle of the Scots, MS. Colb. Bib. Nat. Paris, 4126. (Skene's 
Chron. Picts and Scots, pp. 130-134.) 

,, Cronicon Elegiacum, MS. Bodl. C. iv. 3, etc. (Skene's Chron. Picts 

and Scots, pp. 177-182.) 
Almanach de Gotha : Annuaire Genealogique, Diplomatique et Statistique. 

Gotha, 1898-1906. 
A Lost Chapter in the History of Mary Queen of Scots recovered. By John 

Stuart, LL.D. Edinburgh, 1874. 

Aluredus. Aluredi Beverlacensis Annales. (Thomas Hearne.) Oxford, 1716. 
Ancient Scottish Seals, Descriptive Catalogue of Impressions from. By 

Henry Laing. 2 vols. Vol. i. Edin. 1850 ; vol. ii. Edin. 1866. 
Ane Account of the Familie of Innes. Spalding Club. 1864. 
Annales of Scotland. By Sir James Balfour. 4 vols. Edinburgh, 1824. 
Annales Scalholtenses. Skalholts Annalar, Icelandic MS. printed in Islandske 

Annalar. Edited by G. Storm, Christiania. 1888. 
Annals of Commerce. By David Macpherson. 4 vols. London, 1805. 
Annals of England : An Epitome of English History. Oxford, 1876. 
Annals of Inisfallen. MS. Bodl. Rawlinson, B. 503. (Skene's Chron. Picts 

and Scots, pp. 167-170.) 
Annals of Loch Ce". Irish, with Translation. Edited by W. M. Hennessy. 

No. 54, Rolls Series. 2 vols. 1871. 
Annals of Scotland. Advocates' Library, Edinburgh, MS. No. 33. 2. 9. 

By George Marjoribanks. Edinburgh, 1814. 

Annals of Scotland. By Sir David Dairy mple. Third Edition, 3 vols. 1819. 
Annals of Tighernac. MS. Bodl. Rawlinson, B. 488. (Skene's Chron. Picts 

and Scots, pp. 66-78.) 
Annals of Ulster. MS. Bodl. Rawlinson, 489 ; and MS. Trin. Coll. Dublin. 

H.I. 8. (Skene's Chron. Picts and Scots, pp. 343-374, and Rolls Series.) 
Armorial de Gelre. MS. No. 15652-6 in the Bibliotheque Royale at Brussels. 

Vide Proceedings Society of Antiquaries of Scotland, xxv., 1890-91, pp. 

9-19. Facsimiles of 42 Scottish Coats of Arms emblazoned in colours. 
Auchinleck Chronicle, The, printed from the Asloan MS. Edin. 1819. 
Audfinn Letter. Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland, x. 

417-418, 12th Jan. 1874. 
Avesbury, R. Historia Edwardi III. Edited by T. Hearne. 1720. 



390 AUTHORS, BOOKS, CHRONICLES, ETC. 

B 

Baccalaure"at es Lettres, Nouveau Manuel du. Paris, 1844. 

Baker. MS. Bodl. 761, fol, 122. Chronicon Galfridi le Baker de Swyne- 

broke. Edited with notes by E. M. Thompson. Oxford, 1889. 
Bannatyne Club, Miscellany. 3 vols. 1827-1855. 

Baronage of Scotland, The. By Sir Bobert Douglas. Edinburgh, 1798. 
Bartholomew. Gazetteer of the British Isles. Edinburgh, 1893. 
Benedict. Gesta Regis Henrici Secundi Benedict! Abbatis. No. 49, Rolls 

Series. 2 vols. 1867. 

Bible, The Holy. Authorised Version. 1611. 
Birrel (Robert). Diary in Fragments of Scottish History. Dalyell. 4to. 

Edinburgh, 1798. 

Blackwood's Magazine, ii. 31. October 1817. 
*Blaikie (Walter Biggar). Monthly Star Maps. Series 1-9. 1898-1906. 

Edinburgh. 

*Bond. Handy-Book of Rules and Tables. By John J. Bond. London, 1869. 
* ,, The same. Fourth Edition. London, 1889. 

Book of Deer, The. Edited by John Stuart, LL.D. Spalding Club, 1869. 
Book of Pluscarden. Historians of Scotland. 2 vols. Vol. vii. Latin. 1877. 

Vol. x. Translation. 1880. (The references given apply both to the Latin 

and to the English versions.) 
Brevis Chronica. Chronica Brevis. MS. Bib. Fac. Jurid. Edin. 34. 7. 3. 

(Skene's Chron. Picts and Scots, pp. 148-152.) 
Bruce, The. Scottish Text Society. Edinburgh. 2 vols. 1894. 
Brus, The. By John Barbour. Spalding Club. Aberdeen, 1856. 
Buchanan (George). History of Scotland. 2 vols. Edin. 1751-52. 
Burke. A Genealogical and Heraldic Dictionary of the Peerage and 

Baronetage. By Sir Bernard Burke. Edited by his son. 1898-1906. 
Burnt Njal. Icelandic Sagas. No. 88, Rolls Series. 4 vols. Vols. i. and ii., 

edited by Gudbrand Vigfusson, 1887. Vols. iii. and iv., translated by 

Sir G. W. Dasent. 
*Butler, Rev. Alban. Lives of the Fathers, Martyrs, and other Principal 

Saints. 12 vols. Dublin and London, 1866-1868. 



Caerlaverock, The Roll of, and the Siege of. See above, p. 122 n. 
Calderwood (David). History of the Kirk of Scotland. Wodrow Society. 

8 vols. 1842-1849. 
Cal. Doc. Scot. Calendar of Documents relating to Scotland. Edited by 

Joseph Bain. 4 vols. Edinburgh, 1881-1888. 
Capgrave. The Chronicle of England. By John Capgrave. No. 1, Rolls 

Series. 1858. 

Cassell. Miniature Cyclopaedia. London, 1888. 

*Celtic Calendar. Kalendars of Scottish Saints. By Bishop Forbes. Page 79. 
Celtic Scotland. By W. F. Skene. 3 vols. Edinburgh, 1876-1880. 
Chester (Joseph L.). Westminster Abbey Registers. Harl. Soc. 10. 1876. 
Chron. Cumbrise. Dugdale's Monasticon. 3 vols. London, 1655-1673. 
Chron. de Dunstaple. Edited by Thomas Hearne. 2 vols. Oxford, 1733. 



AUTHORS, BOOKS, CHRONICLES, ETC. 391 

Chron. Elegiacum (Ailred). MS. Bodl. C. iv. 3 ; MS. Brit. Mus. Cott. 
Faustina, B. ix. ; MS. Brit. Mus. Bib. Reg. 17. D. xx. (Skene's 
Chronicles of the Picts and Scots, pp. 177-182.) 
Chron. Huntingdon. MS. in Pub. Archiv. London. (Skene's Chron. Picts 

and Scots, pp. 209-213. ) 

,, H. Huntingdon. Henrici Archidiaconi Hunten- 

dunensis Historia Anglorum. No. 74, Roll Series. 
Edited by Thomas Arnold. 1879. 

Chron. Lanercost. Chronicon de Lanercost. Maitland Club. 1839. 
Chron. Mailros. Chronica de Mailros. Bannatyne Club. 1835. 
Chron. Mannise. Chronica Regum Mannise et Insularum. MS. in British 

Museum. P. A. Munch. Christiania, 1860. 

,, Antiquitates Celto-Normanicse, Rev. J. Johnstone. 1876. 

Chron. Picts and Scots. (B.) MS. Brit. Mus. Harl. 4628. (Skene's Chron. 

Picts and Scots, pp. 171-176.) 
,, ,, (C. ) MS. Corpus Christi Coll. Cant. Scalachronica. 

(Skene's Chron. Picts and Scots, pp. 194-208.) 
,, (D.) MS. Sir T. Phillipps, 3119. (Skene's Chron. 

Picts and Scots, pp. 285-290. ) 
Chron. Scots. (B.) MS. Colb. Bib. Nat. Paris, 4126. (Skene's Chron. Picts 

and Scots, pp. 130-134.) 
(C.) MS. Brit. Mus. Cott. Claudius, D. vii. (Skene's Chron. 

Picts and Scots, pp. 295-297. ) 
,, (D.) MS. Brit. Mus. Cott. Vittellius, A. 20. (Skene's Chron. 

Picts and Scots, pp. 298-303. ) 
,, (E.) MS. Brit. Mus. Harl. 1808. (Skene's Chron. Picts and 

Scots, pp. 304-307.) 
,, (F.) MS. Brit. Mus. Bibl. Reg. 17. D. 20. (Skene's Chron. 

Picts and Scots, pp. 378-390. ) 
Chron. Scots and Picts. MS. Bib. Fac. Jurid. Edin. 34. 7. 3. (Skene's 

Chron. Picts and Scots, pp. 148-152.) 

Chron. Scotorum. No. 45, Rolls Series. W. M. Hennessy. 1866. 
Chron. S. Crucis. Chronicon Ccsnobii S. Crucis Edinburgensis. Bannatyne 

Club. 1828. 
Chron. Johannis Bromton. Historiae Anglicanse Scriptores Decem. R. 

Twysden. 2 vols. fol. London, 1652. 
Chron. Thomse Wilkes : aliter Chronicon Salisburiensis Monasterii. Angli- 

canse Historise Scriptores Quinque. Edited by Thomas Gale. 
Chronica Brevis. See Brevis Chronica. 
Chronicle of Aberdeen. Miscellany of the Spalding Club, vol. ii. pp. 29-70. 

1842. 

Chronicle of England. By John Stowe. London, 1631. 
Chronicle of Perth. MS. No. 35. 4. 4. in the Advocates' Library, Edinburgh. 

Maitland Club. 1831. 
Chronicle by John Smyth, monk of Kinloss. Harl. MS. 2363. (See Records 

of the Monastery of Kinloss, Appendix to Preface. ) 

Chronicon Anglise. Edited by Edward M. Thompson. No. 64, Roll Series. 
Chroniquesde Monstrelet. Translated by T. Johnes. 2 vols. imp. 8vo. 1840. 



392 AUTHORS, BOOKS, CHRONICLES, ETC. 

*Chronological Synopsis of the Four Gospels. By Karl Wieseler Author's 
Preface, dated Gottingen, June 1843 translated by the Rev. Edmund 
Venables, M.A., Cambridge. (Deighton, Bell & Co.) 1864. 
*Chronology of History. By Sir Harris Nicolas. Second Edition. 1843. 
*Church Dictionary, A. By W. F. Hook, D.D., Dean of Chichester. 

Tenth Edition. London, 1867. 
Cirencester, R. Ricardi de Cirencestria Speculum Historiale de Gestis 

Regum Anglife. No. 30, Rolls Series. 2 vols. 1863-1869. 
^Classical Dictionary, A. By the late Sir Win. Smith. Revised by G. E. 

Marindin. London, 1894. 
Codex Flateyensis. Flateyjarbok. Icelandic MS. printed in 3 vols. 

Christiania, 1860-1868. 

*Common Prayer, The Booke of. Printed by Robert Barker. London, 1604. 
,, The Booke of. And Administration of the Sacraments and 

other parts of Divine Service for the use of the 
Church of Scotland. Printed by Robert Young, 
Printer to the King's Most Excellent Majestie. Edin- 
burgh. M.D.C.XXXVII. (Small folio: Black-letter.) 
,, The Annexed Book of, signed by Convocation, 20th Dec. 

1661, and attached to the Act of Uniformity, 1662 
[13th and 14th Charles II. c. 4]. 
,, Facsimile of Annexed Book of, Eyre & Spottiswoode, fol. 

London, 1891. 
,, The Sealed Book of, in the Chapter Library, Durham 

Cathedral. 1662. 
* The Annotated Book of. Seventh Edition. By the Rev. 

John Henry Blunt. London, 1876. 
Concilia Scotiae. Concilia Scotise : Ecclesiae Scoticanse Statuta. Edited by 

Joseph Robertson. Baniiatyne Club. 2 vols. 1866. 
Cotton, B. Bartholomaei de Cotton Historia Anglicana. No. 16, Rolls 

Series. 1859. 

Councils and Eccles. Documents. Haddan & Stubbs. Oxford, 1867-1878. 
Coventry, W. Historical Collections of Walter of Coventry. No. 58, Rolls 

Series. 1872-73. 

Cronica de Origine Antiquorum Pictorum. MS. Colb. Bib. Nat. Paris, 
4126. (Skene's Chron. Picts and Scots, pp. 3-10.) 

D 

De Illust. Henricis. By John Capgrave. No. 7, Rolls Series. 1858. 

De Rebus Albanicis. Collectanea de rebus Albanicis. Edited for the lona 

Club. Vol. i. Edinburgh, 1839. 
Descriptive Catalogue of Mauuscripts relating to the History of Great 

Britain and Ireland. By T. Duffus Hardy. Rolls Series. 3 vols. 1862. 
De situ Albanie. MS. Colb. Bib. Nat. Paris, 4126. (Skene's Chron. Picts 

and Scots, pp. 135-137.) 
Devizes, R. Chronicon Ricardi Divisiensis de rebus Gestis Ricardi Primi 

Regis Angliae. English Historical Society. London, 1838. 
Diplomatarium Norvagicum, in progress, many vols. Christiania, 1S47, etc. 



AUTHORS, BOOKS, CHRONICLES, ETC. 393 

Diplomatum Scotise Thesaurus. By James Anderson. Edinburgh, 1739. 

Diurnal of Occurrents. Bannatyne Club. 1833. 

Dodsworth (Roger). Monasticon Anglicanum. 1655. 

Duan Albanach. MS. R.I.A. Dublin, M'Firbis. (Skene's Chron. Picts and 

Scots, pp. 57-64.) 

Dugdale, Monasticon Anglicanum. 6 vols. London, 1817-1830. 
Dunbar. For Modern Readers. By Hugh Haliburton. London, 1895. 
,, Poems by William Dunbar. Edited by David Laiog. 2 vols. 

Edin. 1834. Supplement, Edinburgh, 1865. 

The Poems of William Dunbar. Scottish Text Society. 1883-1893. 
The Poems of William Dunbar. By Professor J. Schipper, Ph. D. , 

Vienna. 4to. 1891-1894. 
Durham Charters. Penes the Dean and Chapter of Durham. 

E 

Eadmer. Eadmeri Historia Novorum in Anglia. No. 81, Rolls Series. 1884. 
Early Britain. Celtic Britain. By J. Rhys, M. A. Second Edition, S.P.C.K. 

1884. 
Early Kings. Scotland under her Early Kings. By E. W. Robertson. 

2 vols. Edinburgh, 1862. 

Early Scottish Charters. By Sir Archibald C. Lawrie. Glasgow, 1905. 
Ecclesiastical Annals of Perth. By R. S. Fittis. Edinburgh and Perth, 1885. 
Edinburgh Com. Test. Commissariot Testaments in H.M. General Register 

House, Edinburgh. 

Edinburgh Review. October 1837. Vol.66. No. 133. Article 2, pp. 46-52. 
Edward I. of England, in the North of Scotland. By Dr. James Taylor. 

Printed at Elgin. 1858. 

Epistolse, Regum Scotorum, etc. 1505-1545. 2 vols. Edinburgh, 1722-1724. 
Erkibyskups. Thomas Saga Erkibyskups : A Life of Thomas a Becket, 

Archbishop, in Icelandic. By M. Eirikr Magnusson. No. 65, Rolls 

Series. 2 vols. 1875-1884. 
Eubel (Conrad). Hierarchia Catholica Medii JEvi. 1198-1503. 2 vols. 4to. 

1898-1901. 
Eulogium Hist. Eulogium (Historiarum sive Temporis). No. 9, Rolls 

Series. 3 vols. 1858-1863. 
Exchequer Rolls (of Scotland). Vols. i. to xix. H.M. General Register 

House, Edinburgh. 1878-1901. 

Ex. Obit. Dun. (Excerpta ex Obituario Ecclesise Dunelmensis), and 
Ex. Obit. Dun. Minori. Printed at the end of Liber Vitse. Surtees Society. 
Extracta. Extracta e Variis Cronicis Scotie. Abbotsford Club. Edin. 1842. 



Fantosme (Jordan). Chronicle of the Wars between the English and the 

Scots. Surtees Society. 1840. 

Ferrerii. Historia Abbatum de Kynlos. Bannatyne Club. 1839. 
Flann Mainistreach (Synchronisms of). MS. Bib. Fac. Jurid. Edin. Kil- 
bride. 28; M.S. R.I.A. Dubl. Book of Lecain ; MS. 



394 AUTHORS, BOOKS, CHRONICLES, ETC. 

Bodl. Rawlinson, B. 512. (Skene's Chron. Plots and 
Scots, pp. 18-22.) 

Flann Mainistreach (Synchronisms of), Continuation of, MS. R.I. A. Dublin, 
Book of Lecain ; MS. Bodl. Rawlinson, B. 512. 
(Skene's Chron. Picts and Scots, p. 119.) 

Flateyjarbok. 3 vols. Christiania, 1860-1868. See Codex Flateyensis. 
Fleming's Chronicle, or A Chronicle of Perth. MS. Bib. Fac. Jur. Edin. 

No. 35. 4. 4. Maitland Club. 1831. 

Fcedera (Rymer's). Third Edition. 20 vols. The Hague, 1739-1745. Fourth 
Edition. Published by the Commissioners of Public Records. 6 vols. 
folio. 1816-1830. 

Fordun (John). Annals: Scottish Historians, 2 vols. Vol. i. Latin. 1871. 
Vol. iv. Translation. 1872. (The references given apply both to the 
Latin and to the English versions. ) 

Fraser's Lennox Reviewed. An Epistolary Review of The Lennox, by Wil- 
liam Eraser.' ' The Lanox of Auld.' By Mark Napier. Edinburgh, 18SO. 
Froissart, Chronicles, by Sir John. Translated by Thomas Johnes. 2 vols. 
London, 1852. 

G 

Gams (Pius Bonifacius). Series episcoporum. 4to. Ratisbonae, 1873. 
Genealogical History of the Stewarts. By Andrew Stuart. London, 1798. 
Gesta Stephani. English Historical Society. 1846. 

Gloucester, R. Robert of Gloucester's Chronicle. ByT.Hearne. 2 vols. 1724. 
Gospatric, The House of. By Canon (the Rev. William) Green well in 

History of Northumberland. Vol. vii. 
Gough, R. British Topography. 2 vols. London, 1780. 

H 

Haddan and Stubbs. Councils and Ecclesiastical Documents. 3 vols. Ox- 
ford, 1869-1878. 

Hamilton Papers. Edited by Joseph Bain. H.M. General Register House, 
Edinburgh. 2 vols. 1890-92. 

*Haydn. Dictionary of Dates. (Edition 1892.) 

Heimskringla, The ; or the Sagas of the Norse Kings, from the Icelandic of 
Snorre Sturlason, by Samuel Laing. Second Edition. By R. B. Ander- 
son. 4 vols. London, 1889. 

Hemingburgh, or Hemingford. Chron. Dom. Walteri de Hemingburgh. 
English Historical Society. 2 vols. 1848. 

Heraldic Ceiling of the Cathedral Church of St. Machar, Old Aberdeen. 
New Spalding Club. 1888. 

Hexham. The Priory of Hexham, its Chronicles, etc. By James Raine. 
Surtees Society. Nos. 44 and 46. 2 vols. 8vo. Durham, 1864-65. 

Hist. Britonum. MS. Brit. Mus. Harl. 3859. (Skene's Chron. Picts and 
Scots, pp. 11-16.) 

Hist. Doc. Scot. Documents illustrative of the History of Scotland. 
Edited by Rev. J. Stevenson. 2 vols. H.M. General Register House, 
Edinburgh. 1870. 



AUTHORS, BOOKS, CHRONICLES, ETC. 395 

Hist. Novorum. (See Eadmer. ) 

Historians of Scotland, The. Edin. 10 TO!S. 1872-1880. 

History of Old Aberdeen. Bibliotheca Topographica Britannica, No. in., 

containing 'A Description of the Chanonry in Old Aberdeen in 1724-5.' 

By William Orem, Town-clerk of Aberdeen. London, 1782. 
History of Dunbar. By James Miller. 8vo. Dunbar, 1830, 1859. 
History of the Earldom of Sutherland, A Genealogical. By Sir Eobert 

Gordon, of Gordonstoun. 1630. Folio. Edinburgh, 1813. 
History of the Province of Moray. By Rev. Lachlan Shaw, 1775. Second 

Edition, 1827. 
History of Northumberland. Vol. vii. By Canon (the Rev. William) 

Greenwell. 

Hoveden. Annalium Pars prior. Frankfurt, 1601. 
Hoveden. Chronica M. Rogeri de Houedene. No. 51, Rolls Series. 4 vols. 

Edited by the Rev. William Stubbs, M.A. 1868-1871. 
Huntingdon, H. Henrici Archidiaconi Huntendunensis Historia Anglorum. 

No. 74, Rolls Series. 1879. 

I 

Islenzkir Annalar, sive Annales Islandici. A.D. 803-1430. (Hafnise, 1847.) 



Jordan Fantosme. Chronicle of the Wars between the English and the 

Scots. Surtees Society. 1840. 
Journals of the House of Lords. 

K 

Kalendar of Ferae. MS. at Dunrobin. Extracts given by Bishop Forbes in 

the ' Kalendars of Scottish Saints ' (Preface). 
*K. B. A. Kalendarium Breviarii Aberdonensis. Kalendars of Scottish 

Saints. By Bishop Forbes. Page 109. 
Kalendarium de Hyrdmanistoun. Kalendars of Scottish Saints. By Bishop 

Forbes. Page 33. 
*Kalendars of Scottish Saints. By Alexander Penrose Forbes, D. C. L. , Bishop 

of Brechin. Edin. 1872. 
Keith. Scottish Bishops, An Historical Catalogue of the. A new edition. 

Edinburgh, 1824. 
Kilravock, A Genealogical Deduction of the Family of Rose of. Edited by 

Cosmo Innes. Spalding Club. 1848. 
Kingis Quair, The. Scottish Text Society. 1884. 

The Authorship of: A New Criticism. By J. T. T. 

Brown. Demy 8vo. Glasgow, 1896. 
Knighton. Chronicle of Henry Knighton. No. 92, Rolls Series. 2 vols. 

1889. 
Knox (John), The Works of. Edited by David Laing. 6 vols. Edin. 1846, 

and 1895. 
Knyghton. Scriptores Decem Anglicanse Historic. R. Twysden. 2 vols. 

folio. London, 1652. 



396 AUTHORS, BOOKS, CHRONICLES, ETC. 



Labanoff (Prince Alexandre). Lettres, Instructions et Memoires de Marie 

Stuart, pub. sur les originaux et les MSS. du State-Paper Office de 

Londres. 7 vols. 8vo. Londres, 1844. 
Langtoft, P. The Chronicle of Pierre de Langtoft. No. 47, Rolls Series. 

2 vols. 1866-68. 
*L'Art de verifier les Dates. 3 vols. 4to. Third Edition. Paris, 1783-87. 

8vo. Edition, 13 vols. Paris, 1818. 

Leland (John). De rebus Britanii. collectanea. 6 vols. 8vo. London, 1774. 
Lesley. The History of Scotland. By John Lesley, Bishop of Ross. 

Bannatyne Club. 1830. 
Leslie. Historie of Scotland. Translation. Scottish Text Society. 2 vols. 

1888. 
Letter of the Barons of Scotland sent to Pope John XXII. , 6th April 1320. 

Duplicate of original in H.M. General Register House, Edinburgh. 

Acts of Parliaments, i. 114, 115, black (474, 475, red), also facsimile, 
with seals coloured, and transcript. 

Nat. MSS. Scot., ii. 17, No. xxiv. : facsimile, transcript and transla- 
tion. 

Diplomata Scotiee, Plate LI., facsimile ; and Plate LII., transcript. 

Scotichron., ii. 275-277, book xiii. cc. 2, 3. 

Book of Pluscarden, book viii. c. 54 (Latin and English). 

Skene's Chron. Picts and Scots, pp. 291-294. 

Annals of Scotland. By Sir David Dalrymple. Third Edition. 3 vols. 

ii. pp. 115-121, substance of the letter. 

Liber de Dryburgh. Liber S. Marie de Dry burgh. Bannatyne Club. 1847. 
Liber de Scon. Liber Ecclesie de Scon. Maitland Club. 1843. 
Liber Emptorum, MS. in H.M. General Register House, Edinburgh. 
Liber Vitae. Surtees Society, No. 13. MS. Brit. Mus. Bibl. Cott. Domitian, 

A. VII. (Formerly on the high-altar of the cathedral at Durham.) 
Lindores Abbey, Chartulary of. Scottish History Society. 1903. 

M 

Macpherson. Geographical Illustrations of Scottish History. By David 

Macpherson. 4to. With Map. London, 1796. 
Magnus Barefoot Saga. Heimskringla : A Chronicle of the Kings of Norway. 

By Snorre Sturlason. Translated by Samuel Laing. 4 vols. 1844. 
Magnus Saga. In Collectanea de rebus Albanicis. Edited for the lona 

Club. Vol. i. pp. 347-351. Edinburgh, 1834. 

Malmesbury, W. Willelmi monachi Malmesbiriensis gesta Regum Anglo- 
rum. English Historical Society. Edited by T. D. Hardy. 2 vols. 

London, 1840. 
Marianus Scotus (Chronicle). MS. Vatican, 830. Printed in Pertz Mon. 

Germ. Hist. Script. Vol. v. pp. 556-558. (Skene's Chron. Picts and 

Scots, p. 65.) 
Marriage of King James VI., Papers relating to the. Bannatyne Club. 

Edinburgh, 1828. 



AUTHORS, BOOKS, CHRONICLES, ETC. 397 

*Martyrologium Romanum. Romse, 1873. 

*Mas Latrie. Tresor de Chronologic. By M. le Comte de Mas Latrie. 

Paris, 1889. 
Matt. Paris, Chron. Maj. Matthaei Parisiensis Chronica Majora. No. 57, 

Rolls Series. 7 vols. 1872-1884. 
,, Hist. Mathsei Parisiensis Historia Anglorum, Historia Minor. 

No. 44, Rolls Series. 3 vols. 1866-1869. 
Matt. Westminster. Flores Historiarum per Mattheum Westmonas- 

teriensem. Frankfurt, 1601. 

Melville. Memoirs of Sir James Melville of Halhill. Bannatyne Club. 1827. 
Miscellany of the Spalding Club. 5 vols. 1841-1852. 
^Monthly Star Maps. By Walter B. Blaikie. Series 1-9. 1898-1906. 
Murimuth. Adami Murimuth, Chronica sui Temporis. 2 vols. English 
Historical Society. 1846. 

N 

Nat. MSS. of England. Facsimiles of National Manuscripts (England). 

4 parts. 1866-68. 
Nat. MSS. Scot. Facsimiles of National Manuscripts (Scotland). 3 parts. 

1867-1872. 

Newburgh, W. English Historical Society. 2 vols. London, 1856. 
*Nicolas (Sir Harris). The Chronology of History. Second Edition. 1843. 

,, Notitia Historica. London, 1824. 

Nisbet, Heraldry. A System of Heraldry. By Alexander Nisbet, Gent. 

2 vols. folio. Vol. i. Edin. 1722 ; vol. ii. Edin. 1742. Second Edition, 

2 vols. Edin. 1804. Third Edition, Edin. 1816. 
Northumberland, History of. Vol. vii. By Canon (the Rev. William) 

Greenwell. 
Notes and Queries. 
*Notitia Historica. By N. H. Nicolas. London, 1824. 



Ogygia. A Chronological Account of Irish Events, translated by Rev. James 

Hely, A.B. 2 vols. Dublin, 1793. 
Orderic Vitalis. Orderici Vitalis, Histories Ecclesiastic*. 5 vols. 8vo. 

Paris, 1838-1855. 
Ordnance Map, co. Elgin. 
Origines Parochiales Scotise. Bannatyne Club. Vol. i. 1851. Vol. ii. 

Part i. 1854. Vol. ii. Part ii. 1855. 
Orkneyinga Saga. Translated from the Icelandic. 1786. Edited by Joseph 

Anderson, LL.D. Edinburgh, 1873. 

P 

Palgrave. Ancient Kalendars and Inventories of the Treasury of H.M. 
Exchequer. Edited by Sir Francis Palgrave. Record Com- 
mission Publications. 3 vols. 1856. 

,, Documents, etc., illustrating the History of Scotland. By Sir 
Francis Palgrave. Record Commission Publications. 1837. 

Peerage and Consistorial Law. By John Riddell. 2 vols. Edinburgh, 1842. 



398 AUTHORS, BOOKS, CHRONICLES, ETC. 

Peerage of Scotland. By George Crawfurd. Edinburgh, 1716. 

Peerage of Scotland. By Sir Robert Douglas. Second Edition. Edited 

by J. P. Wood. 2 vols. fol. Edin. 1813. 
Peerage, The Scots. Edited by Sir James Balfour Paul. Vol. i. 1904 ; 

vol. ii. 1905 ; vol. iii. 1906. Edinburgh. 
Pictish Chron. The Pictish Chronicle. MS. Colb. Bib. Nat. Paris, 4126. 

(Skene's Chronicles of the Picts and Scots, pp. 3-10.) 
Pinkerton (John). The History of Scotland, from the Accession of the 

House of Stuart to that of Mary. 2 vols. 4to. London, 1797. 
Pitcairn. Criminal Trials in Scotland (1488-1624). 3 vols. Bannatyne Club. 
Pitscottie. The History of Scotland from 1436 to 1565. By Robert Lindsay 

of Pitscottie continued to 1604. Fol. Edin. 1728. 
Polychron. Polychronicon Ranulphi Higden, with Trevisa's Translation. 

No. 41, Rolls Series. 9 vols. 1865-1886. 
Privy Seal Register, The. Reg. Sec. Sig. Reg. Scot. MS. In H.M. General 

Register House, Edinburgh. 
Proceedings Society of Antiquaries of Scotland. 
Prophecy of St. Berchan. MS. R.I. A. Dubl. No. 6. 5. Ibid., H. and S. 

No. 221. (Skene's Chronicles of the Picts and Scots, pp. 79-105.) 
Provincial Councils of the Scottish Clergy. Historical Memorials concern- 
ing the Provincial Councils of the Scottish Clergy, from the earliest 

accounts to the eve of the Reformation. By Sir David Dalrymple. 

4to. Edinburgh, 1769. 

E 

Raine. North Durham. The History and Antiquities of North Durham. 

By the Rev. James Raine. Fol. London, 1852. 
Records of Marischal College and University, Aberdeen. New Spalding 

Club. 2 vols. Vol. i. 1889 ; vol. ii. 1898. 
Records of the Monastery of Kinloss. Edited by John Stuart, LL.D. Soc. 

Antiq. Scot. 1872. 

Red Book of Grandtully, The. Edited by William Fraser. 2 vols. 4to. 
Reg. de Aberbrothoc. Liber S. Thome de Aberbrothoc. 2 vols. Registrum 

Vetus, 1848 ; Registrum Nigrum, 1856. Bannatyne Club. 1848. 
Reg. Cambuskenneth. Registrum Monasterii S. Marie de Cambuskenneth. 

4to. Grampian Club. Edinburgh, 1872. 
Reg. Cartarum de Calcou (Kelso). Liber S. Marie de Calchou. Bannatyne 

Club. 2 vols. Edinburgh, 1846. 

Reg. Dunfermelyn. Registrum de Dunfermelyn. Bannatyne Club. 1842. 
Reg. Ecc. Col. S. Trinitatis. Registrum domus de Soltre, etc. Charters of 

the Hospital of Soltre, of Trinity College, Edinburgh, and other 

Collegiate Churches in Mid-Lothian. Bannatyne Club. 1861. 
Reg. Epis. Aberdonen. Registrum Episcopatus Aberdonensis. Spalding 

Club. 2 vols. 1845. 
Reg. Epis. Brechin. Registrum Episcopatus Brechinensis. Bannatyne 

Club. 2 vols. 1856. 
Reg. Epis. Glasguensis. Registrum Episcopatus Glasguensis. Bannatyne 

Club. 2 vols. 1843. 



AUTHORS, BOOKS, CHRONICLES, ETC. 399 

Reg. Epis. Moraviensis. Registrum Episcopatus Moraviensis. Bannatyne 

Club. 1837. 
Reg. Mag. Sig. Register of the Great Seal of Scotland, 1306-1424. Vol. i. 

folio. 1814. Vols. ii. to ix. (1424-1651). 1882 to 1898. 
Reg. Mag. Sig. Registrum Magni Sigilli. MS. in H.M. General Register 

House, Edinburgh. 

Reg. Neubotle. Registrum S. Marie de Neubotle. Bannatyne Club. 1849. 
Reg. Prior. S. Andree. Liber Cartarum Prioratus Sancti Andree in Scotia. 

Bannatyne Club. 1841. 
Register of the Privy Council of Scotland (1545-1630). H.M. General 

Register House, Edinburgh. 17 vols. 1877-1901. 
Reg. Sec. Sig. Registrum Secreti Sigilli. MS. in H.M. General Register 

House, Edinburgh. 
Rishanger, W. Chronica et Annales. Vol. ii. of Chronica Monasterii S. 

Albani. No. 28, Rolls Series. Edited by H. T. Riley. 1863-76. 
Robertson. History of Scotland. By William Robertson, D.D. 2 vols. 

Lond. 1758-59. 

Robertson (William). Index of Missing Charters. Edin. 1798. 
Rotuli Scotise, in Turri Londinensi, etc. Printed by command. 2 vols. 

folio. 1814-1819. 
Ruddiman. Introduction to Diplomata Scotise. Edin. 1739. 

S 
Saga of Harald Hardrade. Heimskringla, vol. iii. p. 346-416 ; continued in 

vol. iv. pp. 1-59. 
Saga of King Olaf Haraldson, the Saint. Heimskringla, vol. ii. pp. 248- 

410 ; continued in vol. iii. pp. 1-293. 
Saga of King Olaf Trygveson, and Appendix in Heimskringla, vol. ii. pp. 

71-247. 

Saga of Magnus the Good. Heimskringla, vol. iii. pp. 294-345. 
Saga of Sigurd, Inge, and Eyestein, the sons of Harald. Heimskringla, 

vol. iv. pp. 215-264. 

Saint Margaret, The Gospel Book of. A facsimile of the original in the Bod- 
leian Library, Oxford. Edited by W. Forbes Leith, S. J. Edin. 1896. 
*Saintly Women, A Dictionary of. By Agnes B. C. Dunbar. 2 vols. London, 

1904, 1905. 
Saxon Chron. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. No. 23, Rolls Series. 2 vols. 

Vol. i. Original Texts ; vol. ii. Translation. By Benjamin Thorpe. 1861. 
Saxon Chronicle, The. With translation. By J. Ingram, D.D. 1823. 
Scalacronica. By Sir Thomas Gray. Maitland Club. 1836. 
Schir William Wallace. By Henry, the Minstrel. Scot. Text Soc. 1885-9. 
Science of Herauldry, The. By Sir George Mackenzie. Edin. 1680. 
Scotichron. Joannis de Fordun Scotichronicon. Edited by W. Goodall. 

2 vols. Edin. 1759. 
Scots Peerage, The. Edited by Sir James Balfour Paul. Vol. i. 1904 ; 

vol. ii. 1905 ; vol. iii. 1906. Edinburgh. 

Scottish Arms. By R. R. Stodart. 2 vols. folio. Edin. 1881. 
Scottish Heraldry. The Law and Practice of Heraldry in Scotland. By 

George Seton, Advocate. Edin. 1863. 



400 AUTHORS, BOOKS, CHRONICLES, ETC. 

Scottish Kings, 1005-1625. By Sir Archibald H. Dunbar, Bart. First 

Edition, demy 8vo. Edinburgh, 1899. [Second Edition, 1906.] 
Scriptores Decem. Historiae Anglicanse Scriptores Decem. R. Twysden. 

2 vols. fol. London, 1652. 

Scriptores Rerum Danicarum Medii ^Evi. 9 vols. fol. Hafniae, 1772-1878. 
' Shakspere ' is the spelling in his signatures to the sheets of his will, in 

H.M. Record Office. 

Simpson, Robert. The History of Scotland, 23rd Edition. Edinburgh, 1839. 
Skene, Chronicles of the Picts and Scots. Edited by W. F. Skene, LL.D. 

H.M. General Register House, Edinburgh. 1867. 
The Coronation Stone. By William F. Skene, 1869. 
Statutes at Large, The. 
Statutes of the Realm. 

Stephens (George). Old Northern Runic Monuments. 4 vols. folio. 
Stowe (John). Annals. Lond. 1631. 
Stubbs (William) Bishop of Oxford. Constitutional History of England. 

2 vols. London, 1874-1878. 
,, Chronica M. Rogeri de Houedene. No. 51, Rolls Series. 4 vols. 

1868-1871. 

,, Councils and Ecclesiastical Documents. (See Haddan. ) 
,, Letters of William Stubbs, Bishop of Oxford. London, 1904. 
Symeon, de obs Dun. Surtees Society, No. 51. Symeonis Dunelmensis, 

Opera et Collectanea. Vol. i. p. 154. 

,, Hist. Regum. The Historical Works of Symeon of Durham. Edited 
by^Thomas Arnold, M. A. No. 75, Rolls Series. 2 vols. 1882-1885. 
,, Libelius, E Codice MS. By Thomas Bedford, London. 1732. See 
also Surtees Society, No. 51, pp. 202-215. 



Thanes of Cawdor, The. The Book of the Thanes of Cawdor. Spalding 

Club. Edinburgh, 1859. 
Theiner (Augustinus). Vetera Monumenta Hibernorum et Scotorum 

Historian! illustrantia. Romae, 1864. 
Tract on the Picts. MS. Bodl. Rawlinson, B. 506. MS. R.I. A. Dubl. Book 

of Lecain. (Skene's Chron. Picts and Scots, pp. 318-329.) 
Tract on the Scots of Dalriada. MS. Trin. Col. Dubl. H. 2. 7. (Skene's 

Chronicles of the Picts and Scots, pp. Ixviii, 308, 330.) 
Treasurers' Accounts. Accounts of the Lord High Treasurer of Scotland. 

Edited by Thomas Dickson. Vol. i. Edinburgh. 1877. 
*Tresor de Chronologic. By M. le Comte de Mas Latrie. Paris, 1889. 
Trivet. F. Nicholai Triveti Annales. Edited by Thomas Hog. English 

Historical Society. 1845. 
Trokelowe. Chronica Monasterii S. Albani. Johannis de Trokelowe et 

Henrici de Blandeforde Chronica et Annales. No. 28, Rolls Series. 

Vol. iii. Edited by H. T. Riley. 1863-1876. 
Tytler. History of Scotland. By Patrick Fraser Tytler. 7 vols. Third 

Edition. Edinburgh, 1845. Index, 1850. 



AUTHORS, BOOKS, CHRONICLES, ETC. 401 



Vincent. Record Society, vol. xxvii. Lancashire Lay Subsidies, vol. i. 

Introduction by John A. C. Vincent. 1893. 
Virgil's /Eneis. Translated into Scottish verse by Gawin Douglas, Bishop 

of Dunkeld. Edinburgh, 1710. The Prefix contains 'An Exact 

Account of the Author's [Gawin Douglas] Life and Writings, from the 

best Histories and Records.' 
Vita ^Edwardi Regis. Lives of Edward the Confessor. No. 3, Rolls Series. 

Part iii. Edited by H. R. Luard. 1858. 
Vita S. Margaretse. Surtees Society, No. 51, pp. 234-254. 

w 

Walsingham. Thomse Walsingham, Historia Anglicana. Edited by H. T. 

Riley. No. 28, Rolls Series. 2 vols. 1863-1876. 
War of the Gaedhil with the Gaill, The. Edited by J. H. Todd, D.D. 

No. 48, Rolls Series. 1867. 
Was Christ born in Bethlehem ? By Professor W. M. Ramsay, Aberdeen. 

1898. 
Wendover (Roger). ChroniconRogeri de Wendover sive Flores Historiarum. 

No. 84, Rolls Series. By H. G. Hewlett. 3 vols. 1886-1889. Also 

Rogeri de Wendover, Chronica. 4 vols. and Appendix. English 

Historical Society. London, 1841. 
Wetherhal. Registrum Prioratus de Wetherhal. By J. E. Prescott, D.D. 

London, 1897. 
Whitaker. Almanack. 1906. 

,, Titled Persons: A Dictionary of Titled Persons for 1900. 

Designed as a Companion to Whitaker's Almanack. 

'Woodward and Gates. Encyclopaedia of Chronology, Historical and Biogra- 
phical. By B. B. Woodward, B.A., and William L. R. Cates. London, 

1872. 
Worcester, F. Florentii Wigorniensis Chronicon. Edited by B. Thorpe. 

English Historical Society. 2 vols. 1848. 
Wyntoun. The Orygynale Cronykil of Scotland. By Andrew of Wyntoun. 

Edited by David Laing. 3 vols. (Historians of Scotland, vols. ii. iii. 

andix.) 1879. 
Wyntown. Orygynale Cronykil of Scotland, with notes, glossary, etc. 

Edited by D. Macpherson. 2 vols. 1795. 



2 C 



TttE 

KTSTGDOM Or 
AtBAN 




THE 
KIN GD OM 

OF 
SCOTIA 




Map illustrating 

STATE OF CHURCH 

IN KEIGIT OF DAVID I. 




longitude West 4 /K>m Oreentirich 



SCOTLAND 

with the 

ANCIENT DIVISIONS 
OF THE LAJTD. 




403 



INDEX 



ABBEVILLE, 155. 

Abbreviations in the Calendars, 388. 

Abercorn Castle, 199. 

duke of, 202. 

Aberdeen, 8, 72, 119, 122, 124 n., 
141, 151, 185, 200, 215, 233 n., 
266 n., 370. 
archdeacon of, 173. 

bishops of, 105, 161, 368. 

bishopric of, 61, 63, 80, 89, 95, 
208. 

cathedral, 208 n. 

university of, 215, 366. 

Aberdeeushire, 2, 80 n., 130, 132, 

185, 254. 

' Abthania de Dull,' 4. 
Acts of Parliament 

To abolish the Mass, 253 n. 
To change a surname, 230. 
To confirm the appointment of 
James Douglas, 4th earl of 
Morton, as Regent, 265. 

James Stewart, earl of Moray, 

as Regent, 263. 

John Erskine, 6th earl of Mar, 

as Regent, 265. 

Matthew Stewart, 4th earl of 

Lennox, as Regent, 264. 
To ensure the succession to the 
Crown of Scotland, 134, 135. 

in the male line, 161. 

To extinguish the authority of the 
Bishop of Rome in England, 
233. 

To grant the earldom of Carrick 
to John (afterwards King Robert 
III.) and his wife, 172. 
To grant tithe to King Robert I., 

138. 

To improve education, 215. 
To institute the College of Justice, 

Edinburgh, 231. 

To legalise the use of Holy Writ 
in the vulgar tongue, 247. 



Acts of Parliament continued. 

To limit the jurisdiction of the 

Pope, 253 n. 

To ratify 'The Confession of Faith,' 
252, 263. 
the earldom of Moray, 239 n. 

the institution of the College 

of Justice, Edinburgh, 236 n. 

the King assuming the 

Government of the Kingdom, 
266. 

the Treaty for the release of 

King David II., 153. 
To regulate the mode of warfare, 
236. 

religious observances, 236. 

the use of armorial bearings, 

207, 269. 
To secure a Protestant succession 

to the Crown, 274 n. 
To settle the Guardianship of the 
Kingdom on the death of King 
Robert I., 134, 135, 136, 146. 
To shorten Lent, 273 n. 
Ada, daughter of Earl David, wife of 
Henry de Hastynges, 66, 68, 112, 
281, 283. 

daughter (illegitimate) of Earl 

David, wife of Malise, 68. 

daughter of Earl Henry, wife of 

Florent III., comte de Hollande, 
65, 68, 111, 281, 283. 

daughter of King William ' the 

Lion,' wife of Patric of Dunbar, 5th 
earl of Dunbar, 84, 111, 282. 

daughter of William, earl of 

Warenue, wife of Earl Henry, 65, 
71, 76. 
Adam, bishop of Caithness, 89, 380. 

de Kilconquhar, 67, 126. 

Stewart, prior of Charter House 

at Perth, son of King James V., 
239. 
Admiral, Great, of Scotland, 256. 



404 



INDEX 



Adrian IV., the only English Pope, 
75 w.,303w, 325. 

Advocates' Library, Edinburgh, 147 n. 

Aed, son of King Kenneth L, 280. 

^Elgifu, daughter of JSthelred II., 
king of England, wife of Uchtred, 
earl of Northumberland, 5. 

^Eneis (the) of Virgil translated into 
Scottish verse, 244. 

^Ethelred II., king of England, 5. 

son of King Malcolm III., 31, 

32. 

JEthelreda, daughter of Gospatric, 
1st earl of Dunbar, wife of King 
Duncan II., 5, 6, 38, 286. 

Afreca, countess of Orkney, 14. 

Agatha, wife of Mandeville, 282. 

Agincourt, battle of, 185. 

Agnes or Anne, daughter of Bertrand 
II., comte d'Auvergne and Bou- 
logne, 201. 

Alan, lord of Galloway, 66, 115, 281, 
283. 

Alban, the kingdom of, 1, 2, 8, 9, 
30, 47, 49, 51, 60. See also Map 
No. I. 

the men of, 2, 18, 60. 

Albanach, the war-cry of the Scots, 8. 

Albany, Henry Stewart, duke of. See 
Darnley. 

John (Governor), duke of, grand- 
son of King James II., 201, 225- 
228, 284. 

Leopold, duke of, 285. 

Murdac (Governor), duke of, 

grandson of King Robert II., 166, 
186, 188, 284, 373. 

Robert (Governor), duke of, 

earl of Fyff and Menteth, son of 
King Robert II., 165, 166, 174, 
177, 184, 186, 284, 380. 

Albemarle, William the Gross, earl 

of, 40. 

Alberic, papal legate, 6, 62. 
Albert, duke of Clarence, son of King 

Edward VII. , 285. 
Prince Consort, prince of Saxe- 

Coburg and Gotha, 275, 285. 
Frederick, son of George, Prince 

of Wales, 285. 
Aldobrandini (Pope Clement VIII. ), 

276, 279 n., 325. 
Aldwyn, 57. 



Alexander I., earl, (afterwards) King 
of Scots, 31, 32, 47, 59 ; reign, 50- 
57; 134 n., 280-282, 286; re- 
ferences, ancient and modern, to 
the date of his death, 54-56. 

Alexander II., King of Scots, 80 %., 
81-83; reign, 87-93; 281, 282, 
286. 

Alexander III., King of Scots, 90 
(n. 21), 91, 92, 103, 104, 108, 109 ; 
reign, 94-102 ; 281, 282, 286. 

Earl (afterwards Alexander I., 

King of Scots), 47. 

of Argyll, lord of Lorn, 130, 132, 

3^8 

of the Isles, 189, 375. 

III., Pope, 77. 

VI., Pope, 215, 216. 

Prince of Scotland, son of King 

Alexander III., 97, 99, 100, 104, 
281, 365, 384. 

son of King Edward VII., 285. 

Stewart, archbishop of St. 

Andrews, son of King James IV., 
220. 

canon of Glasgow, son of 

King Robert II., 169. 

duke of Albany, earl of 

March, son of King James II., 201, 
208, 209, 225, 284. 

duke of Ross, son of King 



James IV., 220, 284. 
earl of Buchan and Ross, 

'The Wolf of Badenoch,' son of 

King Robert II., 167, 173, 284, 

375. 
earl of Mar, 167, 184, 



185, 189. 



earl of March, duke of 

Albany, son of King James II., 

201, 208, 209, 225, 284. 
of Iiiverlunan, son of King 

Robert II., 169. 
son of King James I., 191, 

284. 
Alexandra, daughter of Louise, 

duchess of Fife, 285. 
queen of King Edward VII., 

275, 285. 
Alianora (Balliol), wife of John 

Comyn, 43, 66, 283. 
Alice de Rumely, wife of William 

Fitz-Duncan, 39. 



INDEX 



405 



Alice, grand-duchess of Hesse, 285. 
Alicia, daughter of John Lindesay, 

wife of Henry Pinkeny, 283. 
- daughter of William Fitz- 

Duncan, m. (1) Gilbert Pypard ; 

m. (2) Robert de Courteney, 39, 

40. 
Allerdale, 6. 

- Waltheof, lord of, 5, 6, 15 n. 
Almvick, 30, 31, 78, 197, 374, 376. 
Altyre, 15 n. 

Alwyn, bishop of the Scots, 3. 
Amabilis, daughter of William Fitz- 

Duncan, wife of Reginald de Lucy, 

39, 40. 

America, discovery of, 9, 216. 
Amos, the book of, 264 n. 
Ancient divisions of Scotland. See 

Map No. IV. 
Ancrum Moor, the battle of, 248, i 

367. 

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, 53. 
Angus, Archibald Douglas ('Archi-j 

bald Bell the Cat'), 5th earl of, 

208 n., 244. 

6th earl of, 221, 225, 

married Margaret, widow of King 

James IV.; 227, 229, 231, 235, 248, 

377. 
Beth, comes, 52. 

Duff, alias Mackye, 189. 

George Douglas, 1st earl of, 180. 
4th earl of, 199, 372. 

- earl of (a 1214), 88 ; (a 1289- 
90), 105; (a 1448), 197. 

of Murray, 189. 

William Douglas, 2nd earl of, 

190. 

Anna, daughter of Frederick II., king 
of Denmark, wife of King James 
VI., 268, 272, 368, 372, 385. 

Annabella, daughter of King James 
I., wife of George, 2nd earl of 
Huntly, 192, 284. 

Annan, 118, 148. 

Annandale, 126, 128, 185, 288, 289. 

Anne, queen of Great Britain, daugh- 
ter of King James VII, 275, 285. 

princess of Orange, 285. 

Anniversaries, Table of Eras, Events, 
and, 306, 307. 

Anointing Scottish kings, 146. 

Arbroath, abbey at, 78, 83. 



Arbroath, battle of, 197, 365. 

monastery at, 82, 136, 144 n., 

386. 

Archbishop hanged, 264. 
Archbishopric of St. Andrews, 208, 

379. 

of Glasgow, 214, 364. 

Ardrossere, 232. 

Argyll, 9, 89, 90, 130, 132. 

Alexander of, lord of Lorn, 130, 

132, 378. 
Archibald Campbell, 7th earl of, 

270, 382. 

bishop of, 105. 

bishopric of, 81, 90, 95. 

Colin, 3rd earl of, 220. 

Arkinholme, battle of, 199, 372. 
Aries, Synod of, 297. 
Armada, the ' Invincible,' 268. 
Armestrang (Armstrong), William, of 

Kynmonth (Kinmoiit Willie), 270, 

370. 
Arms (Armorial Bearings), Act of 

Parliament concerning, 207, 269. 
Bishops', at Aberdeen, 208 n. 

(cross of Scottish Kings), 80, 

81, 163. 

earliest achievement of, con- 
nected with Scotland, 149, 150 n., 
372. 

earliest instance of impaled, con- 
nected with Scotland, 152, 364. 

earliest Roll of Scottish, 165. 
in ' The Roll of Caerlaverock,' 

122 n. 

in the 12th century, 79. 

lions rampant, 79 n. 

matriculation of, necessary, 269. 

not to be used by the common 
sort of people, 269 n. 

of King Alexander II., 89. 

of King Alexander III., 95 n. 

of King James III., 207. 

of King James V., over the gate 



of the palace of Linlithgow, 233 n. 

of King Robert II., 159 n. 

of King Robert III., 172 n. 

of King William ' the Lion,' 



79. 

of Alexander Stewart, earl of 
Ross, 'The Wolf of Badenoch,' 
167 n. 
of Sir Alexander Stewart, 169 n. 



406 



INDEX 



Arms of Sir David de Lyndesay, 
169 n. 

of David, earl of Stratherne, 

169 n. 

of Edward I., and besiegers of 

Carlaverock, 122 n. 
of George, 10th earl of Dunbar, 

3rd earl of March, 164 n., 175 n. 

of Isabella de Dunbar, 152. 

of James, 2nd earl of Douglas, ' 

163, 164 n., 168 n. 

of Sir James Douglas, 133 n. 

of Sir James Sandilands, 168 n. ' 

of John of Dunbar, 5th earl of j 

Moray, 163, 164 w. ; ' count He 

morref,' 167 n. 

of Sir John Edmonston, 168 n. 

of Sir John Keith, 168 n. 

of Sir John Stewart, 169 n. 

of Lord Clerk Register Foulis, j 

232 n. 
of Patric, 5th earl of Dunbar, 

79 n. 
of Patric, 8th earl of Dunbar 

111 n. 
of Patric, 9th earl of Dunbar, 

150. 

of Sir Patric of Dunbar, 152. 

of Robert, earl of Fife and of 

Menteth, 166 n. 
of Sir Thomas Ranulph, 1st earl 

of Moray, 133 n., 146 n. 

of Walter, earl of Athol, 169 n. 

of the Competitors, 111 n. 

of the earl of Mar, 163 n. 

of the earl of Sutherland, 163 n. 

of the Earls of Douglas, March 

(Dunbar), and Moray (Dunbar), ! 
163 n., 164 n. 

of the Lord Chancellor, Arch- ! 



Army, the Scottish, ordered by Par- 
liament to fight on foot, 236. 
Arran, the island of, 199, 228 n. 
earl of, 229. 

James, 2nd Lord Hamilton, 

created earl of, 201, 284. 

James (Governor), 2nd (Hamil- 
ton) earl of, 202, 227, 247, 249, 
250, 284, 387. 

James (insane), 3rd (Hamilton) 

earl of, 202, 284. 

Thomas, Lord Boyd, created 

earl of, 201. 

Arthur, dejure king of England, son 
of Prince Geoffrey, 68, 86 n., 281. 

duke of Connaught, 285. 

son of King James IV. ,219, 284. 

son of King James V., 238, 284. 

Ash Wednesday, 296 ; Table showing 
dates of, 322, 323. 

Assembly, the first General, 253, 387. 

Athol, 4. 

countess of, 151, 374. 

David, earl of, slain, 150. 

earl of, 52, 88; (a 1289-90), 

105. 

Madach, comes, 14, 52, 81, 281, 

283. 
earl of, grandson of King 

Duncan I., 14. 

Malcolm, 2nd or 3rd earl of, 



bishop Gavin Dunbar, erroneously 

assigned to Abbot Mylne, 232 n. 

of the lyoun king of arms, 269. 

Scottish, in the 'Armorial de ; 

Gelre,' 165, 166 n., 167 .. 168 n., 

169 n. 

on seals, 79. 

- Royal, 79. 
double tressure to be 

omitted, 207. 
Armstrong, Johnnie of Gilnockie, 

231. 
Armstrongs, the, 231. 



great-grandson of King Duncan I., 

14, 43. 
Margaret, countess of, wife of 

Madach, 14. 

Sir John Stewart, earl of, 192. 

Sir Robert Stewart, master of, 

169, 190, 196, 284. 
Walter Stewart, earl of, 168, 

190, 196, 284, 369. 
Auchingowau, 180. 
Auchterhouse, 192. 
Audfinn, bishop of Bergen, 97 n., 

103 w., 108 n., 109 n. 
Aufrica, daughter of King William 

' the Lion,' wife of William de Say, 

84, 112, 282. 

wife of Robert Warden e, 282. 

Augusta, duchess of Brunswick, 

daughter of Frederick, Prince of 

Wales, 285. 
Aumale, due d', 235. 
Austria, 161. 



INDEX 



407 



Austria, Sigismund, duke of, 191. 
Autotypes, 151 n., 167 w., 176 n. 
Avenel, Robert, 83. 
Avignon, 138 ., 147, 156, 160, 

162. 

Avondale, 199. 
Aymar de Valence, 67. 
Ayr, 134, 225. 
Ayrshire, 131, 165, 179. 

BADENOCH, 43, 66. 

- battle in 189, 375. 
'The Wolf of,' Alexander, earl i 

of Buchan, 167, 173, 284, 375. 
Bahama Islands, 216. 
Bailleul-sur-Eaune, 117. 
Baillie of Lamington, Maxwell by 

male descent, 230 n. 
Balcomie, 235 n. 
Ballechin, 202. 
Ballichristan, 28. 
Balliol, Alan, brother of King John 

(de Balliol,) 66 TO., 115 TO. 
Alexander, brother of King 

John (de Balliol), 66 n., 115 n. 
Alianora, wife of John Comyn 

(the Competitor), 43, 66, 283. 

College, Oxford, 66, 379. 

Dervorgulla, Lady, 66, 115, 

281, 283, 379. 
Edward, 117, 118, 148, 156 TO., 

283, 378, 381, 387. 

Henry, 117, 118, 283. 

Sir Hugh, brother of King John \ 

(de Balliol), 66 n., 115 n. 

John, 66, 115. 

John. See John, King of Scot- 
land. 

Balloch, Donald, 189, 199, 206. 

John, eldest son of Donald, 

206. 

Balmerino, abbey at, 83, 89, 90, 386. 

Balveny, 192, 199. 

Bamborough, Morel of, 30. 

Band, Ane Common or Godlie, 250. 

Bane, Donald. See Donald Bane, 
King of Scots. 

Banff, 119, 122. 

Banffshire, 2, 270. 

Bannockburn, 210. 

battle of (a 1314), 133, 375. 

battle of Sauchieburn (a 1488) 

near, 210. 



Barbour, John, archdeacon of Aber- 
deen, 173. 

Barclay, Christina, 239. 
Barons, the Scottish, their Letter to 

the Pope, 136, 144 TO., 370. 
Barton, Andrew (Admiral), 217. 
Bass, the, 178, 182, 368. 
Bastie. Antony de la, 227, 381. 
Battie's Bog, 227. 
Baug6 (or Anjou), battle of, 186, 187, 

369. 
Beaton, David, cardinal-archbishop, 

murdered, 249, 373. 
Beaufort, Joan, wife of King James I. 

See Joan. 
John, 1st earl of Somerset, 187, 

195, 197, 287, 366. 
Becket, Thomas, 77, 79, 387. 
Bedford, duke of, 188. 
Bele, the Dunbars of, 218 n., 289. 
Bellomonte, Richard, vicecomes de, 

79, 87, 286. 

Roscelin, vicecomes de, 79 TO. 

4 Bell the Cat,' Archibald, 208 n. 

Beltane (May), 184. 

Benedict XIII., Pope, 181 n., 185, 

186, 326, 379, 382. 
Ben Nevis, 8. 
Benrig, battle of, 162. 
Bergen, Norway, 97, 99, 106, 107- 

109. 

Berkley, Sir David de, 168. 
Bermondsey, 32. 
Bernbowgall, 230. 
Bernham, David de, bishop of St. 

Andrews, 94. 
Bertoun, Robert, younger of Ovir- 

berntoun, 230. 
Bertrand II., comte d'Auvergne and 

Boulogne, 201. 
Berwick, 67, 83, 111, 113, 116, 

124 n., 131, 135, 139, 146, 149, 

151, 152, 153, 174 n., 190, 206, 

208, 369, 371. 

Castle, 131. 

shire, 153, 177. 

Beth, comes (? Angus), 52. 

Bethoc, eldest daughter and heir of 

King Malcolm II., wife of Crinan 

the Thane, 4, 6, 12, 17 n., 280-282. 
only daughter of King Donald 

Bane, wife of Huctred of Tynedale, 

43, 283. 



408 



INDEX 



Betoun, Sir David, of Creich, 201. 
Janet, wife of James, earl of 

Arran, 201. 

Bible, the Holy, 164, 247, 249, 368. 
Bibliotheque Royale, at Brussels, 165. 
Bigod, Roger, earl of Norfolk, 83. 
Biland Abbey, 137. 

battle of, 137, 382. 

Bishoprics, number of: one, 3, 19, 

27, 47; three, 51; four, 52, 59; 

six, 60; seven, 61; nine, 62, 63, 

80, 89 ; ten, 90 ; eleven, 95 ; 

twelve, 105; thirteen, 208. See 

also Map No. III. 

Bis-sextile, 345 n., 356, 358 n., 363. 
Black Agnes of Dunbar, 151, 153 w., 

155, 288, 289, 365, 375, 379. 
Blackness, skirmish at, 209, 213. 
Black Parliament, the, 136, 137. 

Prince, the, 153. 

Blair, in Athol, 151. 

Blundevill, Randulph de, earl of 

Chester, 68. 
Bodhe, father of Gruoch, 18, 22, 280, 

281, 286. 
Bodleian Library, Oxford, 47 n. t 

107 n, 342. 
Bohemia, 161, 190. 
Elizabeth, queen of, daughter 

of King James VI., 272, 273, 274, 

285, 366, 379. 
Frederick, king of, 273, 274, 

381. 
Maurice, prince of, 273. 

Rupert, prince of, 273. 
Boniface VIII. , Pope, 121 n. 
Bonshaw, 220. 

Book, the first, printed in Scotland, 

217. 

Borough-Muir, battle of, 150. 
Borselen, Wolfaert van, 192. 
Bothnagowan, 13, 15 n., 18. 
Bothuel, Adam, * abbote of Holyrud- 

hous,' 256 n. 
Bothwell, 148, 149, 151. 

the church of, 175. 

Francis, earl of, 239. 

James Hepburn, 4th earl of, 

duke of Orkney, 3rd husband of 

Mary Queen of Scots, 256, 258, 

287, 371, 372. 

Patrick, 3rd earl of, 239. 
Bothwellhaugh, 264. 



Boulogne, 150. 

Eustace, comte de, 32, 47, 280, 

283. 

Eustache IV., comte de, 280. 

Bowes, Sir Robert, 237. 

Boy of Egremont, the, 39, 40, 280. 

Boyd, Sir Alexander, 207, 385. 

Archibald, of Bonshaw, 220. 

Margaret, 220. 

Thomas, Lord, earl of Arran, 

201, 284. 

Boyds, the, 206, 207, 376. 
Bradshaw, Henry, 176 n. 
Branksholme, 229. 
Branxton (Flodden), 218. 
Breakspear, Nicolas (Pope Adrian 

IV.), 75 n., 303 n, 325. 
Brechin, battle of, 199, 373. 

bishop of, 105. 

bishopric of, 62, 63, 80, 89, 95, 



208. 
Castle, 116. 

- David de, 137. 

- Walter Stewart, lord of, 168, 
190, 196, 284, 369. 

Bretagne, Arthur II., due de, m. 

Yolande, widow of King Alexander 

III., 98 n. 
Conan IV., due de, 68 , 28 1, 282. 

Constance de, 68, 281. 

Frangois I., due de, 191. 

Brian Boroimha, 2. 

Brienne, Jean de, 92. 

Brigham, 105. 

Brodie, near Kinloss, harried by 

Highlanders, 232. 
Browne, Sir Antony, 237 n. 
Bruce, Major Gumming, M.P., 15 n. 
Brunswick (Briinsvik), Robert, jarl 

of, 109 n. 

Brunswick-Luneberg, Ernest August- 
us, duke of, 274, 275. 
George-Lewis, duke of, 

275. 
Brus, Alexander, dean of Glasgow, 

brother of King Robert I., 67, 131, 

366, 367. 

son of Edward, 67. 

Christian, of Carrick, 142. 

Christiana, 130, 148. 

and Comyn, 121. 

David. See David II., King of 

Scots. 



INDEX 



409 



Brus, Edward, king of Ireland, 67, 

134, 135, 281, 372, 382. 
Elisabeth, daughter of Robert, 

earl of Carrick, 288. 
Isabella, sister of King Robert 

I., second wife of Eric II. , king of 

Norway, 68, 97 n., 108, 281. 
John, son of King Robert I., 

141, 142. 

Marie, 130. 

Marjorie, daughter of King 

Robert I., wife of Walter, the 

high steward, 130, 136, 141, 159, 

284. 
Nigel, brother of King Robert 

I., 67, 130, 131. 

of Carrick, 142. 

Robert. See Robert I. , King of 

Scots. 

de, 83. 

lord of Annandale, father 

of the Competitor, 67, 281, 283. 
(Competitor), lord of An- 
nandale, 67, 108, 113, 281, 283. 
earl of Carrick, father of 

King Robert L, 67, 108, 126, 281, 

283, 288. 
afterwards King of Scots, 

stabbed Comyn, 121, 124, 127, 

128. 

Sir Robert, son of King Robert 



I., 142. 
Sir Thomas, brother of King 

Robert I., 67, 131, 366, 367. 
Brusi, son of Sigurd, 3. 
Brussels, 165. 

Buchan, Alexander, earl of, 104, 105. 
earl of, and Ross, ' The 

Wolf of Badenoch,' son of King 

Robert II., 167, 173, 284, 375. 

Stewart, earl of, 192 n. 

earl of, 88. 

Gartnach, comes, 52. 

Isabella, countess of, 129, 131. 

James, earl of, son of Sir James 

Stewart, and Joan, widow of King 

James I., 192, 221. 
John Comyn, 3rd earl of, 121, 

132, 373, 387. 
John Stewart, earl of, 166, 186, 

187, 188. 
Margaret Ogilvy, countess of, 

m. to James Stewart, 192. 



Buckcleugh, the laird of, 270, 370. 

Bull of Pope Alexander VI., to insti- 
tute the University of Aberdeen 
and to appoint its first Chancellor, 
215. 

Pope Benedict XIII., to 

confirm the Foundation Charter of 
St. Andrews University, 185, 379. 

Pope Clement V., to ex- 
communicate Robert de Brus, 
129 n. 

Pope Gregory IX., to re- 
constitute the Bishopric of Lismore, 
(Argyll), 90. 

Pope Honorius III., to 

place the Scottish Church under 
the immediate protection of the 
Papal See, 80 n., 88, 89, 

Pope Honorius IV., to 

permit Edward I., of England, to 
contract marriages for his children 
within the forbidden degrees, 
105 n. 

Pope Innocent VIII., to 

institute the Archbishopric of 
Glasgow, 215. 

Pope John XXII., granting 

' to Robert the illustrious king of 
Scotland ' and his successors, the 
right to ' receive anointing and 
coronation,' 146, 374. 

- Pope Nicholas V., for the 
foundation of the University of 
Glasgow, 198. 

Pope Paul II., to institute 

St. Giles' in Edinburgh as a colle- 
giate church, 207. 

Pope Paul III., to confirm 

the institution of the College of 
Justice, 233, 236, 369. 

Pope Sixtus IV., to insti- 
tute the Archbishopric of St. 
Andrews, 208, 379. 

Bull, Stephen, his ships taken, 216. 

Burgh, Hubert de, m. Margaret, 
daughter of King William 'the 
Lion,' 83. 
I Burghead, 13 w., 15. 

Burgh-on-the-Sands, 131. 

Burgundy, duke of, 184. 

Burk, Elisabeth de, second wife of 
King Robert!., 128, 130, 139, 141, 
145, 286, 383. 



410 



INDEX 



Burk, Haymer de, 128, 139, 145, 286. 
Bute, heritable sheriff of, 169. 
marquess of, 153 n., 169. 

CADZOW, 197. 

Caernarvon, Edward of, eldest son of 

Edward I., 104-106. 
Cage, a countess in a, 131. 
Cages, two ladies in, 130. 
Cairdney, 170. 
Caithness, 2, 7, 9, 81, 89, 105. 

Adam, bishop of, 89. 

Alan Stewart, earl of, 169, 189. 

bishopric of, 60, 63, 80, 89, 95, 

208. 

David, earl of, 168. 

earl of, 105, 189. 

feud in, 189. 

Moddan, earl of, 6, 280, 281. 

Walter, earl of, 168. 

William, earl of Orkney and, 

192. 

Calais, 185. 
Calder, 168. 
Calendar, an Alphabetical, of Scottish 

and other saints' days, etc., 329- 

342. 

a Church, 343-355. 

a Latin (with translation), 356- 

363. 

explanation of, 356. 

a Scottish, 364-387. 

Calendars, abbrevations in the, 388. 
and Tables, the use of, ex- 
plained, 290, 291. 
Calvin, Jean, Reformer, 254, 373, 

376. 

Calvinism, the doctrines of, 254 n. 
Cambridge, Adolphus, duke of, 285. 

George, duke of, 285. 

Library of Corpus Christi 

College, 95 (n. 6). 
Cambuskenneth, 138, 145, 220, 232. 

abbey at, 62, 63, 209, 210. 

Camel, a, as a royal present, 47. 

Cameron, clan, 189. 

Camerons, the, 370. 

Campbell, Archibald, 7th earl of 

Argyll, 270, 382. 

of Skipnish, 235. 

Lady Elisabeth, 220. 

Campvere, in Zealand, 192. 
Candia, 288, 289. 



Candida Casa (Whithorn), diocese of, 

95, 208, 215. 
Canterbury, 77, 81. 
Thomas Becket, archbishop of, 

77, 79. 

Canute, king of England, 3, 18. 
Carberry Hill, 256, 374. 
Cardross, 140, 374. 
Carham, the battle of, 2, 3. 
Carlaverock Castle, 122, 376. 
Roll of, 122 n. 



Carlisle, 6, 15 w., 29, 61, 62, 64, 67, 

77, 131, 134, 257, 373. 

Castle, rescue from, 270, 370. 

cathedral at, 29, 62. 

Carmichael, Elisabeth, 239. 

Sir John, 239. 

the laird of, 266. 

Peter, 249. 

Carrick, earldom of, 172. 

earl of, 67, 121, 122, 124, 125, 

127, 145, 161, 166, 172, 173, 182, 

210, 288. 
Marjorie, countess of, 67, 126, 

281. 

Carrickfergus, 134, 135. 
Carthusian monastery at Perth, 189, 

190-192, 197, 221, 236. 
Catherine, daughter of King James 

IV., wife of James, 3rd earl of 

Morton, 220. 
daughter of Thomas Isaac, died 

unmarried, 142, 284. 
Cathre, bishop of St. Andrews, 47. 
Cawdor Castle, 15. 

Thane of, 200. 

Caxton, William, printer, 214. 
Ceannmor, meaning of, 25 n, 
Cecilia, daughter of William Fitz- 

Duncan, wife of William the Gross, 

earl of Albemarle, 39, 40. 
Celestine III., Pope, 80 n., 88. 
Cerularius, Michael, patriarch of 

Constantinople, 20. 
Chain, iron, worn by King James IV., 

213. 
Chamber, Christopher, 196. 

Thomas, 196. 

Chancellor, the first, of Aberdeen 

University, 215. 

of Scotland, 210, 220, 232. 



Charles I., son of King James VI. 
272, 273, 285, 365, 369, 385. 



INDEX 



411 



Charles II. , 285. 

Edward, ' Prince Charlie,' 'King 
Charles I LI.', 285. 

IV., 'le Bel,' king of France, 
138 n. 

V., Emperor, 233. 

IX., 304. 

Lewis, son of Elizabeth, queen 

of Bohemia, 273. 

Charlotte, princess of Wales, 285. 
Charter(s) 

Confirmed by Mary Queen of Scots 

and Fraugois, 251 n., 252 n. 

with the consent of James, 

earl of Bothwell, 256 n. 
Early Celtic, 184, 372. 

relating to Scotland, 38. 

Of Edward Bruce, king of Ireland, 

135 n. 
Of Gospatric, 2nd earl of Dunbar, 

6, 52, 57. 
Of King Alexander II., with his 

armorial bearings, 88 n., 89. 
Of King David II., 153, 157 ., 

289. 

Of King Eadgar, 45 n., 46, 52. 
Of King John (de Balliol), 115 n. 
Of King Malcolm IV., 71 n. 
Of King William ' the Lion,' 76 n. 
Of Patric, 5th earl of Dunbar, 

79 n. 
Of Thomas of Dunbar, earl of 

Moray, to the ' alderman, baylis, 

and burges' of Elgin, 176. 
Of William II., king of England, 

45 n. 
Of the earldom of Moray, to John 

of Dunbar and his wife Marjorie, 

167 n. 
Of the marriage of Elisabeth, 

daughter of King Robert II. , to 

Thomas Hay, 168. 
Sealed with the earliest impaled 

arms, 152. 
'The Great, to Kelso,' in error, 

74. 

To Balliol College, Oxford, 66. 
To Henry Stewart, afterwards Lord 

Methven, 229 . 
To Kelso, 60 n., 72. 
To the monks of St. Cuthbert, 

Durham, 60. 
Witnesses to, 38, 45, 83 n. 



Charters of the foundation of the 

Abbey at Holy rood, 57, 60. 
- Kelso, 60. 

Lundors, 66. 

Melrose, 61 n. 

East half of Kinfauns, 170. 

Marischal College, Aberdeen, 269, 
270 n. 

Monastery at Scone, 52, 57. 

Selkirk, 57, 59. 

Priory at Pluscarden, 90. 

University of Edinburgh, 267. 

Fraserburgh, 269. 

St. Andrews, 185. 

Chatelherault, James, duke of, 202. 
Chattan, clan, 189, 230-232, 370. 

to be exterminated, 231. 

Chaucer, Geoffrey, 177. 

the Maying and Disport of, 217. 

the Scottish, 218 n. 

Chelmsford, 127. 

Chepman, Walter, printer, 217, 380. 

Chester, Hugh, earl of, 65, 379. 

John le Scot, earl of, 66. 

Ranulph, earl of, 66 n., 68. 

' Chevy Chase ' (the battle of Otter- 
burn), 164, 168, 289, 378. 
Christian Faith, the, King James IV. 

declared Protector of, 213 w., 2 17 . 
Christian of Carrick, daughter of 

King Robert I., 142. 
Christian I., or Christiern, king of 

Denmark, 207, 213, 287. 

IX., king of Denmark, 275. 

Christiania, 268. 

Christianity accepted by Sigurd 

Hlodverson, 7. 

Christ's Kirk, at Bergen, 99, 108. 
Chronicon of Lanercoxt, on the siege 

of the Castle of Dunbar, 155. 
Church Calendar, 343-355. 
Scottish, 78, 80, 88, 297 n., 365, 

368, 382. 

state of, A.D. 1124-1153. 

See Map No. III. 
Cinatha, 2. 

Clans, battle of the, 173, 174 w ,381. 
Clarence, Albert- Victor, duke of, 

eldest son of King Edward VII., 

285. 

duke of, killed at Baug<S, 187. 

duke of, suitor of Margaret, 

daughter of King James II., 202. 



412 



INDEX 



Claricia, daughter of King David I., j 

64, 281. 
Claude I., de Guise Lorraine, due 

d'Aumale, 235. 

wife of Franyois I., 234 n. 

Claus, Santa, 332. 
' Cleanse the Causeway,' 227. 
Clement III., Pope, 80. 
V.,Pope, 129ft,. 

VI., Pope, 160 n. 

VII., Pope, 162, 228 n., 238. 

VIII., Pope, 276, 279 n. 

Clergy, fealty of the, to King Robert 
L, 132 ; to King David II., 145. 

Clerkenwell, 87. 

Cleveland, 28 

Cley, in Norfolk, 183 n, 

Clitheroe, battle of, 61, 374. 

Clochmaben Stone, 197, 198. 

Clontarf, the battle of, 2, 7 n., 371. 

Clyde, the, 9, 31, 227. 

Cochrane hanged, 208. 

Cockburn, David D unbar of, 288. 

Coinage, copper, seems to have been 
instituted by King James III., 
211. 

gold, instituted by King David 

II., 154. 

silver, instituted by King David 

L, 63. 

Coldingham, 46, 60, 239. 

College of Justice, 231, 233, 236. 

of Surgeons, the Royal, Edin- 
burgh, 216, 376, 382. 

Columbite Abbey, 2. 

Columbus, Christopher, 9 n., 216. 

Competitors for the Crown of Scot- 
land, 111-113 ; pedigree, 282, 283. 

Comyn, John, of Badenoch ('The 
Red No. 1 '), son of Richard, 283. 

' Senior ' of Tynedale and 

Badenoch (Guardian), aCompetitor, 
son of 'The Red No. 1,' 43, 66, 
104, 105, 110, 112, 283. 

(gi r)) <The Red No. 2,' 

son of the Competitor, 67, 121, 122, 
124, 127, 128, 283, 366. 

earl of Buchan, 121, 132, 

373, 387. 

Richard, m. Hextilda, grand- 
daughter of King Donald Bane, 
43, 283. 

son of William, 283. 



Comyn, William, son of Richard and 

Hextilda, 283. 
Comyne, Alexander, 289. 
Conan IV., due de Bretagne, 68. 
Confession of Faith, the, 252, 263. 

the second, 266, 365. 

' Congregation,' the, 250 and note 22. 
Connaught, Arthur, Duke of, 285. 
Constance, daughter of Henry I., 
wife of Roscelin de Bellonionte, 
79 n. 

great-granddaughter of King 

David I., wife of Geoffrey Plan- 
tagenet, 68. 
' Constantine I., King of Scots, 280. 

II., King of Scots, 280. 

III., King of Scots, 280. 

Constantinople, Church of St. Sophia 
at, 20. 

patriarch of, 20. 

Contemporary sovereigns at the end 

of each reign. 
Contract for the marriage of 

David, eldest son of King Robert 
I., with Johanna, daughter of 
Edward II., 139. 
Euffame D unbar, with Alexander 

Comyne, 289. 
King James III., with Margaret, 

princess of Denmark, 207. 
Margaret, only daughter of King 
Alexander III., with Eric II., 
king of Norway, 97 n. 
Mary Queen of Scots, with Franois, 
son of Henri II., king of France, 
251 n. 

Mary, daughter of King Robert 
III., with George Douglas, 1st 
earl of Angus, 180. 
Copenhagen, 207. 
Corbet, Sybille, 52. 
Cormac, bishop, 52. 
Coronation Stone, the, 95, 120, 139, 

378. 

Coronella, a golden, 129. 
Corrichie, battle of, 253, 254, 383. 
Cospatric, error for Gospatric. 
Cospatricus comes et monachus, in 

the Durham obituary, 5 n., 57 n. 
Coucy, Enguerand de, 90, 94, 286. 
Marie de, daughter of Enguer- 
and de Coucy, second wife of King 
Alexander II., 90-92, 94, 286, 372. 



INDEX 



413 



Council, Ecclesiastical, 78. 

General, 82, 132, 175, 176, 184, 

186, 196. 
Provincial, 62, 248 n. 

Town, of Edinburgh, 215. 
Coupeland, John, 152. 
Courteney, Eobert de, 40. 
Cragy, 198. 

Grail, 235 n. 

Crasleth (Stirling), 54, 55. 
Crawar, Paul, burned, 190, 377. 
Crawford, Alexander, Lindsay, 2nd 

earl of, 197. 

4th earl of, 199, 373. 

David Lindsay, 3rd earl of, 

197, 365. 
Sir David Lindesay, afterwards 

1st earl of, 169, 174 n., 371. 
Cregy, battle of, 155. 
Creich, 201. 
Cressingham, 120. 
Crerant, battle of, 187. 
Crichton, Margaret, 202, 284. 

Sir William, 196. 

William, Lord, 202, 284. 

Crinan the Thane, father of King 

Duncan L, 4, 12, 18, 280-282. 
Croidoune, in Surrey, 185. 
Cross, crosses 

colours of crusaders', 80. 

of Edinburgh, 271. 

of Glasgow, 198. 

of London, 271. 

of Scottish kings, 80, 81, 163. ! 

white St. Andrew's, 80, 163. 
Crown, right to the English, claimed j 

by Mary Queen of Scots, 251. 

Room, Edinburgh Castle, 217. 
Croyland, Waltheof, abbot of, 6. 
Cruflet (Stirling), 55. 
Cruthentuaith, 8. 

Cruithne, first king of the Picts, 8. 

Cruithnigh or Picts, the, 8. 

Cudel, Edulf, earl of Northumber- : 

land, 2, 3. 
Cuilean, King of Scots, 280. 
Culdees, the, 18, 28, 32, 63. 
Cullen, 119, 122, 139, 383. 
Cumberland, 29 n. t 72, 164. 

Ernest, duke of, 285. 
George, duke of, 285. 

Henry, duke of, 285. 
William, duke of, 285. 



Cumbernauld, 178. 

Cumbria, 5, 6, 9, 15, 28, 29, 47, 59, 

60. See also Map No. II. 
Cumbrians, the, 5, 13, 15, 19, 23, 26. 
Cumyn. See Comyn. 
Cupar, 96, 367. 

abbey at, 73, 376. 

Cyprus, 162. 

DAIRSIE, in Fife, 150. 
Dalkeith, 180. 

Castle, 273. 

Dairy, battle of, 130, 378. 

Danes, the, 2. 

Darnaway Castle, Elginshire, 269 n. 

Darnley, Henry Stewart, Lord, duke 

of Albany (King), 221, 254, 255, 

258 ; regnal years, 260 ; 262, 265, 

267, 287, 366, 377. 
murder of, opinion of Parlia- 
ment, 255 n. 

Dates, double, explained, 292-294. 
Dauphin, 191. 
David I., earl, afterwards King of 

Scots, 31, 32, 43, 47, 52, 53, 57 ; 

reign, 58-70; 71, 72, 74, 280-282, 

286. 
David II. (Brus), King of Scots, 137, 

138, 139, 141, 142; reign, 145-158; 

159, 284, 287, 289 ; regnal years, 

153, 156, 157. 
David, duke of Rothesay, eldest son 

of King Robert III., 174, 175, 177, 

180, 284, 288, 368, 379, 383. 
earl of Huntingdon, son of Earl 

Henry, 65-68, 77, 79, 113, 115, 

280, 281, 283, 375, 379. 
earl of Moray, son of King 

James II., 201, 284. 
earl of Stratherne, son of King 

Robert II., 168, 284. 
son of David, earl of Hunting- 
don, 66. 
son of King Alexander III., 99, 

100, 369. 

Daviot, fortalice of, 232. 
Dedication of this book, v. 
Deeds must be signed (a 1529), 229. 
Deer, abbey at, 2, 23. 
Delhi, 275. 
Denmark, 268, 383. 
Anna of, wife of King James 

VL,268, 272, 368,372, 385. 



414 



INDEX 



Denmark, Caroline, queen of, 285. 
Christian or Christiern I., king 

of, 207, 213, 287. 

Christian IX., king of, 275. 

Louisa, queen of, 285. 

Margaret of, wife of King James 

III., 207, 209, 210, 213, 287, 349, 

376, 380. 
and Norway, Frederick II., king 

of, 268, 287. 
Dervorgulla, wife of John Balliol, 66, 

115,281, 283,379. 
Derwent, the, 9. 
Dieppe, 234. 
Divorce, 154, 156, 201, 221, 229, 

256. 
Documents in the Scots language, 

early instances of, 175, 176. 
Dolace of Cantray, 226. 
Dolfin, eldest son of Gospatric, 1st 

earl of Dunbar, 5, 6, 15 n., 29, 57. 
Donada, daughter of King Malcolm 

II., wife of Finlaec, mormaer of 

Moray, 4, 6, 17, 280-282. 
Donald I., King of Scots, son of 

Alpin, 280. 

II., King of Scots, 280. 

son of Eocha, King of Scots, 280. 

son of Malcolm III. (Ceannmor), 

King of Scots, 31. 
Ban Mac William, 40, 79, 80, 88, 

377. 
Donald Bane, King of Scots, 14, 31, 

38, 39 ; first reign, 35-36 ; second 

reign, 41-44; 46, 64, 112, 280, 

281, 283. 

Doole weeds (mourning), 234. 
Double dates explained, 292-294. 
Douglas, Archibald, 231. 

lord of Galloway, 162. 

pretended earl of Moray, 

199. 

3rd earl of Douglas, 175, 

180. 

4th earl of .Douglas, duke 

- of Touraine, 177, 178, 180, 188. 
5th earl of Douglas, duke 

of Touraine, 192. 

earls of Angus. See Angus. 

Sir Archibald ('Tyneman'), 

Guardian, 149. 

Beatrice, countess of, 199. 

David, 196, 385. 



Douglas, earl of, 162, 163, 197. 
Gavin, bishop of Dunkeld, 244. 
George, brother to earl of Angus, 



231. 

Hugh, earl of Ormond, 197, 198. 

James, laird of Balveny, 199. 

2nd earl of Douglas, 164, 

168. 
earls of Morton. See 

Morton. 
9th earl of Douglas, 199, 

209. 
Sir James, 178. 

Sir James, of Dalkeith, 180, 289. 

Sir James (the Good), 133, 136, 



138, 140, 147, 379. 

Margaret, wife of James, earl of 

Arran, 202. 

Margaret, wife of John, earl of 

Athol, 192. 

Lady Margaret, wife of Matthew- 
Stewart, earl of Lennox, 221, 254. 
William, earl of, and Mar, 176. 
6th earl of, 3rd and last 



duke of Touraine, 196, 197, 345, 
385. 

8th earl of, 198, 367. 

of Liddesdale, 150. 



Sir William, of Drumlanrig, 185. 

Sir William, of Nithsdale, 169. 

Douglasdale, 199. 

Douglases, the, 197, 199, 371, 374, 

380. 
Doune, Lord, father of ' The Bonnie 

Earl of Moray,' 269 n. 
Dovenald Ban MacWilliam, 40, 88, 

374. 

Dover, 117 n. 
Downs, the, 217. 
Dowry of Elisabeth, daughter of 

George, 10th earl of Dunbar, 175. 
Drake, Sir Francis, 268 n. 
Dreux, Robert IV., comte de, 98, 

286. 
Yolande, or Joletta de, comteese 

de Montfort, second wife of King 

Alexander III., 98, 100, 286, 382. 
Drumalban, 8. See Map No. IV. 
Drumclog, battle of, 374. 
Drumlanrig, 185 n. 
Druminond, AnnabelJa, wife of King 

Robert III., 172, 173, 177, 179, 

182, 287. 



INDEX 



415 



Drummond, David, 214. 

John, 1st Lord, 220. 

Sir John, of Innerpeffry, 221. 

Sir John, of Stobhall, 172, 173, 

182, 287. 

Lord, 214. 

Sir Malcolm, 154, 287. 

Margaret, second, wife of King 

David II., 154, 155, 156, 287. 

mother of Margaret 

Stewart, 220. 

Drummonds, the, 214. 

Dryburgh, 163, 

abbey at, 63, 137. 

Dubh, King of Scots, 280. 

Dublin, 2. 

Dufagan, comes (? Fife), 52. 

Duff, Angus, alias Mackye, 189. 

Duffus Castle, in Moray, 63. 

House (near Elgin), xvii. 

King, 333, 343, 364. 

parish of, 15, 63 n, 

Dukes, the first Scottish, created, 174. 

Dull, Abthania de, 4. 

Dumbarton, 123,227, 228, 236, 249. 

shire, 140. 

Dumfries, 67, 124, 128, 197, 257, 366. 

shire, 122, 199. 

Dunbar, 5, 28, 116, 155, 197, 214, 
227, 256 n., 289. 

Ada, countess of, 84, 111, 282. 

^Ethelreda of, wife of King 
Duncan II., 6, 38, 39, 280-282, 286. 

Agnes, wife of James of Douglas, 
lord of Dalkeith, 289. 

Agnes ('Black'), countess of 
Dunbar, March, and Moray, wife 
of Patric, 9th earl, 151, 153 n., 
155, 288, 289, 365, 375, 379. 

Aisle in the Cathedral at Elgin, 

288. 
Alexander of, second son of 

John, 5th earl of Moray, 289. 
Sir Alexander of, third son of 

the 7th earl of Dunbar, 153 n., 

289. 

battle of, 116, 371. 

Castle, 98 n., 116, 151, 155, 

162, 176, 184, 192, 197, 256, 288, 

375, 376. 

church at, 289. 
Columba of, bishop of Moray, 

288. 



Dunbar, Sir David, of Cockburn, 

288. 

earl of, 52, 88, 105. 

Elisabeth, daughter of George, 

10th earl of Dunbar, 3rd earl of 

March, 175, 288. 
Euffame, daughter of Thomas of 

Dunbar, 6th earl of Moray, 289. 
Gavin (nephew), archbishop of 

Glasgow, Chancellor, 232, 248 n. 
(uncle), bishop of Aber- 
deen, 208 n., 368. 

Gawane (Gavin), 288. 

George of, 10th earl of Dunbar, 

3rd earl of March, 162-164, 167, 

175-177, 184, 289. 
of, llth earl of Dunbar, 

4th earl of March, 190, 289. 
Gospatric of, 1st earl of Dunbar, 

formerly earl of Northumberland, 

1 comes et monachus,' 5, 15 n., 28, 

29, 38, 57, 281, 286, 387. 
Gospatric of, 2nd earl of Dunbar, 

'stimmus dux Lodonie,'5,6, 15 n., 

40, 57 ; comes, 52, 57 n. ; 281, 379. 
Gospatric of, 3rd earl of Dunbar, 

1 comes Lodonee,' it is said that his 

horse was buried with him, 5 w., 

49 n., 281. 
Isabella de, daughter of Sir 

Thomas Ranulph, 152, 288, 289. 
James of, 8th earl of Moray, 

289, 378. 
John, 5th earl of Moray, 163, 

164, 167, 289, 368, 376. 
second son of the 7th earl 

of Dunbar, 289. 
sixth son of the 10th earl 

of Dunbar, 288. 
Patric of, 5th earl of Dunbar, 

79 n., 84, 281, 282, 387. 
of, 6th earl of Dunbar 

(Crusader), 281, 282. 
of, 7th earl of Dunbar, 98, 

n., 152 ?i., 281, 282, 289, 379. 
of, 8th earl of Dunbar, 1st 

earl of March (Competitor), 84, 

111, 282, 289, 382. 
of, 9th earl of Dunbar, 2nd 

earl of March, 4th earl of Moray, 

147 TO., 150, 151, 288, 289, 365. 

288. 

of Bele, 289. 



416 



INDEX 



Dunbar, Sir Patric of, 152, 153 ., 

288, 289. 
Patrick, sheriff of Moray, killed, 

269 w. 
Thomas of, 6th earl of Moray, 

167, 174 n., 176, 289. 

7th earl of Moray, 289. 

Waltheof of, 4th earl of Dunbar, 

281. 

William (poet), 218, 289. 

Sir William, of Mochrum, 7th 

baronet, 232 n. 
Dunbars, earls of Moray, Pedigree of 

the, xvi, 288, 289. 

the, of Bele, 218 n. 

Dunblane, bishops of, 105, 196, 215. 
bishopric of, 62, 63, 80, 89, 95, 

208. 
Duncan I. (' the Gracious ' of Shak- 

spere), King of Scots, 5, 6, 9, 18, 

25, 41; reign, 12-16; 280-282, 

286. 
- II., King of Scots, 6, 31, 36, 

42, 45 ; reign, 37-40 ; 280-282, 

286. 

lay-abbot of Dunkeld, 280. 

Dundalk, 67, 135. 
Dundee, 47 ., 132, 216. 
Dundonald, 169, 179. 

Castle, 165. 

Dundrennan, abbey at, 62, 63. 

Dunedin, 47 n. 

Dunfermline, 27, 31, 33, 38, 46, 48, 

52, 53, 64, 74, 95, 96, 98 n., 99, 

100, 123, 137, 139, 140, 141, 145, 

151, 177, 182, 186, 273, 274. 

monastery at, 145, 186. 

Dungaile, father of Girig, 280. 
Dunibirsel (Donibristle), 269. 
Dunkeld, 3, 4, 12, 18, 43. 

^Ethelred, abbot of, 32. 

bishops of, 52, 105, 214, 244. 

bishopric of, 51, 80, 89, 95, 208. 

cathedral at, 167, 192. 

Cormac, bishop of, 52. 

Crinan, lay-abbot of, 4, 12, 18, 

280, 281, 282. 

Duncan, lay-abbot of, 280. 

Gavin Douglas, bishop of, 244. 

Dunscath Castle, 79. 
Duns Scotus, 384. 
Dunstanville, Renaud de, 52. 
Duntreath, 180. 



Dunure, 180. 

Dupplin, battle of, 142, 148, 288 r 

378. 
Durham, 2, 5 n., 13, 38, 46, 49, 51, 

52, 57, 59,61, 89 , 133, 134, 138, 

380. 
battle of, or Neville's Cross, 142, 

152, 160, 288, 289, 383. 

cathedral at, 5 w., 30, 378. 



first siege of, 2 ; second siege 

of, 13. 

Durward, Alan, 92, 282. 
Dyke, 232. 

EADGAR ^Etheling, 27, 46. 

Eadgar, King of Scots, 31, 32, 38, 42, 

43, 50, 51, 59 ; reign, 45-49 ; 280- 

282. 
Eadmund I., king of England, 9. 

bishop of Durham, 13 n. 

son of Harold II., 6 n., 49. 

son of King Malcolm III., 31, 

39, 42. 
Eadward yEtheling, 27, 45, 50, 58,, 

286. 
son of King Malcolm III., 31, 

385. 
Ealdgyth, wife of Maldred, 5, 280- 

282. 
Earls, five present at coronation of 

King Robert I., 129. 
the seven, of Scotland, 52, 88 r 

95. 
twelve, assent to marriage of 

Margaret, Queen of Scots, ' The 

Maid of Norway,' 105. 
Earn, the river, 1. 
East Ronaldshay, 107 n. 
Easter Day for a thousand years,. 

from A.D. 1001 to 2000, 308-320. 

: errors in Tables of, 321. 

principal moveable feasts before,, 

322 ; in leap years, 323. 

principal moveable feasts after, 



324. 

the observance of, 301-303. 

Ecclesiastical buildings destroyed by 
' the raschall multitude,' 251. 

Edderdour Castle, 79. 

Edinburgh, 47, 82, 90, 122, 137, 139, 
147, 150, 163, 165, 168, 177, 186, 
191, 195, 198-200, 202, 205 ., 
206-208, 216, 217, 226-233, 236> 



INDEX 



417 



237 n, 247-256, 265, 267, 269, 271, 

369, 370, 372, 376, 385, 387. 
Edinburgh Castle, 33, 47, 78, 124 n., 

133, 154, 196, 197, 209, 217, 252, 

255, 258, 262, 266, 367, 368, 373, 

378, 385. 

Castle Hill, 198, 235. 

cross of, 271. 

duke of, 285. 

Town Council of, 216. 

university of, 267, 370. 

Edmar, bishop of St. Andrews, 47. 
Edmonstone, Sir John, 168. 

Sir William, of Duntreath, 180. 

Edmund. See Eadmund. 
Education, Act of Parliament anent 

(a 1496), 215. 
Edward I., king of England, 96, 

104, 106, 110, 111, 113, 116, 119- 

124, 127 n., 130, 131, 367, 376- 

378, 380, 384. 
II., king of England, 104, 105, 

106, 133, 137, 139, 146, 154, 287, 

375, 378. 
III., king of England, 138, 139, 

146, 149, 151, 154, 155. 

IV., king of England, 206, 208. 

V., king of England, 212. 

VI., king of England, 249, 250. 

VII., king of England, xiv, 

275, 281, 285. 
Albert, son of George, Prince 

of Wales, 285. 
Balliol, crowned by the English, 

118, 148. 

son of Earl Siward, 23, 60. 
Edwardsisle, 31. 

Effigy, 288. 

Egglesbreac (Falkirk), 29. 

Egidia, daughter of King Robert II., 

wife of Sir William Douglas of 

Nithsdale, 168, 169. 

daughter of King Robert III., 
179, 180. 

Egremont, William, The Boy of, 39, 

280. 

Eisleben, 248, 249. 
Eleanora, daughter of King James I., 

wife of Sigismund, duke of Austria, 

191, 284. 
daughter of William, earl of 

Orkney, wife of Sir John Stewart, 

earl of Athol, 192. 



Elgin, 13, 14 n., 18, 119, 122, 151, 

167, 173, 176, 233 n., 377, 380. 
cathedral at, 173, 192, 288, 

375. 
Elisabeth de Burk, second wife of 

King Robert I., 128, 130, 139, 

141, 145, 286, 383. 
daughter of King Robert I., 

wife of Sir Walter Oliphant of 

Gask, 142. 
daughter of King Robert II., 

wife of Thomas Hay, 168. 
daughter of King Robert III., 

wife of Sir James Douglas of 

Dalkeith, 179, 180. 
daughter of Sir Adam Mure of 

Rowallan, first wife of King Robert 

II., 160, 172, 287. 
Elizabeth, Queen of England, 246 n., 

251, 255,257, 265 n., 271, 277. 
Elizabeth, queen of Bohemia, daughter 

of King James VI, 272, 273, 274, 

285, 366, 379. 

(Elyzabeth), sister of the coun- 
tess of Mar, 175. 
Elliots, the, 231. 
Elphinston, William, bishop, 215. 
Elphinstone, Alexander, 1st Lord, 

239. 

Euphemia, daughter of Alex- 
ander, 1st Lord Elphinstone, 239. 
Elsinore, 268 n. 
Embassies received, 188. 
England, 19, 27-30, 61, 77, 105, 106, 

120, 132-135, 137, 138, 149, 155, 

161, 163, 164, 183, 184, 187, 197, 

199, 215, 233, 237, 251, 257, 268, 

271-273, 275, 372, 374, 376, 377. 
English (the) followers of King 

Malcolm III., driven out of the 

country, 36. 
the, 42, 45, 190, 198, 205, 206, 

208, 214, 216, 217, 218, 236, 248, 

266, 268, 270. 

language, 26. 

Engueraiid de Coucy, 90, 94, 286. 
Eocha, King of Scots, grandson of 

Kenneth I., 280. 
Eras, calendars, styles, etc., 298- 

307. 
Events, and Anniversaries, Table 

of, 306, 307. 
Erasmus, 220. 



418 



INDEX 



Eric II. (Magnusson), king of Nor- 
way, 68, 97, 99, 103, 105-109, 113, 
281, 282. 

Erlend, earl of Orkney, 7, 280. 

Erlingsdatter, Fru Ingibjorg, 106. 

Ermengarde, daughter of Richard, 
vieecomes de Bellomonte, wife of 
King William 'the Lion,' 79, 82, 
83, 87, 89, 90, 286, 366, 380, 
386. 

mother of Nicolas de Soules 

(Competitor), 282. 

Ermigarda, The Lady, first wife of 
Patric, 9th earl of Dunbar, 289. 

Errol, 168. 

Erskine, John, 4th Lord, 239. 

Margaret, daughter of John, 4th 

Lord Erskine, 239. 

Esk, the, in Dumfriesshire, 199. 

Essex, 127. 

Essie, 23, 26. 

Euffame Dunbar, daughter of the 
earl of Moray, 289. 

Euphemia, countess of Ross, wife of 
Alexander ('The Wolf of Bade- 
noch'), earl of Buchan and Ross, 
167. 

daughter of Alexander, 1st Lord 

Elphinstone, 239. 

. daughter of Hugh, earl of Ross, 

countess of Moray, second wife of 
King Robert II., 160, 161, 164, 
168, 287, 288. 

Eure, Sir Ralph, 248. 

Eustace, comte de Boulogne, 32, 47, 
280, 283. 

Evandale, Lord, 229. 

Excommunication ' with mitre and 
staff, book and candle,' 197. 

by the Patriarch of Constanti- 
nople (a 1053), 20. 

by Pope Leo IX. (a 1054), 20. 

Extermination of 'the Clanquhattane' 
ordered, 231. 

FALATSE, 78. 
Falkirk, 29, 121. 

battle of (a 1298), 121, 377. 

( a o 1746), 365. 

Falkland, 177, 180, 231, 237, 238, 

240-243, 268 n., 273 n., 386. 
F.isterns-een, 133 n., 295, 296. 
Fealty, oaths of, 132, 138, 145. 



Feasts and Fasts, the moveable, in 
chronological order, 295-297. 

Tables of the moveable, before 



Easter, 322 ; in leap years, 323. 

Table of the moveable, after 

Easter, 324. 

Feme, the Abbot of, burned, 230. 
Ferteth, Earl, of Stratherne, 68. 
Fife, 65, 88, 89, 90, 96, 97, 98, 148, 

150, 154, 235, 367. 

Dufagan, comes, 52. 

Duncan, earl of, 14, 104, 131 n. 

Isabella, countess of, 166. 

Louise, duchess of, daughter of 

King Edward VII., 285. 

Robert, earl of, 164, 165. 

Robert, master of, 167. 

Fifeness, 235 n. 

Finlaec, mormaer of Moray, 3, 6, 17, 

280-282. 

Finn Arnason, Earl, 7, 27, 37. 
Fitz-Duncan, William, son of King 

Duncan II., 39, 40, 61, 280-282. 
Flamborough Head, 178, 183. 
Flanders, 188. 

Flandre, Guy, comte de, 97, 99, 100. 
Fleming, Sir David, of Cumbernauld, 

178. 

Malcolm, of Biggar, 197, 385. 

3rd Lord, 221. 

Flodden, battle of, 218, 220, 225, 380. 
Florent III., comte de Hollande, 68, 

281, 283. 

V. (Competitor), comte de 

Hollande, 68, 111, 283. 

' Flower ' (a ship), 214, 216. 

Fondi, 162. 

Fordun, the historian, 164. 

Forfarshire, 23, 43, 60, 73, 142. 

Forfeiture, sentences of, against the 
Boyds, 207. 

sentences of, against the Dou- 
glases, 231. 

Forres, 96 n., 167, 173, 233 n. 

Forster, Sir John, 266. 

Forth, the Firth of, 8, 31, 104, 162, 
206, 214. 

the river, 121. 



Fothad, bishop of St. Andrews, 27, 

30, 47. 
Fotheringay Castle, 257, 268, 366, 

382. 
Foulis, Lord Clerk Register, 232 n. 



INDEX 



419 



Foundation stone of the Cathedral at 

Durham, laid, 80. 
France, 72, 73, 78, 117, 121, 150, 152, 

160, 162, 163, 178, 182, 183, 186, 

188, 208, 226-228, 234, 246, 249, 

250, 251, 254, 271-273, 369, 374, 

379, 381. 

Frangois I., king of, 233, 234. 

II., king of, 251, 253, 258- 

261, 287, 386. 
Philippe VI. (de Valois), king 

of, 155, 174w. 
Fraser, Sir Alexander, of Philorth, 

269. 
James, of Frendraught, 289. 

Mauld, of Frendraught, 289. 
Simon, 122. 

William, bishop of St, Andrews, 
104, 105, 110. 

Fraserburgh University, 269, 376. 
Fraser's ' Lennox Reviewed,' 232 n. 
Frederick, duke of York, son of 

George III., king of England, 285. 
Prince of Wales, son of George 

II., king of England, 285. 
Frederick II., king of Denmark and 

Norway, 268, 287. 
French, the, 153, 155, 162, 163, 185, 

187, 188. 

language, 183. 
Frendraught, 289. 

Friars (Minorite), 124, 128. 

Fru Ingibjorg Erlingsdatter, 106. 

Fynletter, 289. 

GAEDHIL, the, 2 w., 7 w. 
Gaelic, spoken by King Malcolm III., 
25. 

charter, 184, 372. 

Gaill, the, 2 n., 7 n. 
Gaillard, Chateau, 152. 
Galithly, Henry, 112, 282. 

Patric(Competitor),83,112,282. 

Galloway, 67, 73, 90, 131, 366, 377. 

Alan, lord of, 66, 115, 281, 283. 

Andro, bishop of, 247 n. 

bishop of, 105. 

Gareloch, the, 227. 

Gartalunane, 214. 

Garter, order of the, 224 n., 233. 

Gartnach, comes (Buchan), 52. 

Garvia, Mam, 40, 80. 

Gask, 142. 



Gaunt, John of, duke of Lancaster, 

162. 

Gelre, Armorial de, 165. 
Geneva, 254, 373. 
Louis, count of, m. Annabella, 

daughter of King James I., 192. 
Genoa, 216. 
Geoffrey Plantagenet, father of Henry 

II., m. Matilda, granddaughter of 

King Malcolm III., 32. 

son of Henry II., 68, 281. 

George, I., king of England, 275, 285. 

II., king of England, 285. 

III., king of England, 285. 

IV., king of England, 285. 

Earl Marshal, proxy for King 

James VI., 268 n. 
Prince of Wales, son of King 

Edward VII., 285. 
Germany, 230. 
Gillacomgan, niormaer of Moray, 4, 

18, 22, 280, 281, 286. 
Gillaodran, father of Maelduin, 3. 
Gilnockie, 231. 

Girich, bishop of St. Andrews, 47. 
Girig, King of Scots, 280. 
Glammis, Jane, Lady, 235. 

John Lyon, 6th Lord, 235. 

master of, 267. 



Glammys, 4. 

Glanville, Ranulph de, 78. 

Glasgow, 235, 264, 375. 

archbishop of, 232. 

archbishopric of, 214, 364. 

- bishops of, 104, 105, 110, 198. 
bishopric of, 52, 59, 63, 80, 89. 

95, 208, 214. 

canon of, 169. 

cross of, 198. 

dean of, 67. 

university of, 198, 364, 375. 

Glen, Robert, 142, 

Glennesk, Alysandre Lyndessay, lorde 

of, 175. 

Glenrinnes, battle of, 270, 382. 
Gloucester, 30. 

Gilbert de Clare, earl of, 67. 

Henry, duke of, 285. 

Richard, duke of, 208. 

William, duke of, son of Queen 

Anne, 285. 
duke of, brother of George 

III., 285. 



420 



INDEX 



G-odric, bishop of St. Andrews, 47. 

Goes, Hugo Van der, 207. 

Gold coinage instituted by King 

David II., 154. 
Golden coronella, 129. 

Fleece, order of the, 233. 

Rose sent to King William < the 

Lion,' 79. 
Gomez, General J[u]an, de Medina, 

268 n. 
Gordon, George, 2nd earl of Huntly, 

192. 
4th earl of Huntly, 221, 

236, 253, 383. 
6th earl of Huntly, 269, 

270, 366, 382. 

John, Lord, 220. 

Lady Jane, 256. 

Lady Katherine, 'the White 

Rose,' 215. 

Sir William Gumming, 15 n. 

Gormlath, countess of Orkney, 14. 
Gospatric. See Dunbar, earl of. 

son of William Fitz-Duncan, 40. 

' GOSPATLICUS COMES,' inscription on a 

gravestone in the crypt of the 

monastery at Durham, 5 n. 
[G]' Gospatricus comes et monachusj 

in the Durham obituary, 5 n., 57. 
Gospel Book of St. Margaret, 342. 
Gothred, son of MacWilliam, ex- 
ecuted, 40, 82. 
Gourlay, Mr. Norman, burned, 233, 

379. 
Governors of the Kingdom, 165, 166, 

184, 186, 201, 226-228, 247, 249, 

250, 284. 
Gowrie conspiracy, the first (the Raid 

of Ruthven), 267. 

the second, 270. 

. House, Perth, 271. 

John, 3rd earl of, 270. 

William, 1st earl of, 267, 268, 

372. 
Graham, Sir Robert, 190, 196. 

William, lord of, 180. 

Granada, 140, 147, 379. 

Grandown, 167, 289. 

Grandpre, Wolfaert van Borselen, 

count of, 192. 
Grange, 266. 
Gray, Sir Thomas, 1 53. 
1 Great Michael' (a ship), 217. 



Great Ship, a, 106. 

Greenwich, 274. 

Gregorian Calendar, or 'the New 

Style,' 267, 270 ., 292, 295 ., 

298, 303-305. 
Gregory, bishop of Moray, 52. 

IX., Pope, 90. 

XIII. , Pope, 267, 303. 



Grey, Lady Jane, 250 n. 

Grey stoke, the baron of, 162. 

Gruoch, Lady Macbeth,' daughter 
of Bodhe, widow of Gillacomgan, 
wife of Macbeth, King of Scots, 
4 n., 18, 22, 280-282, 286. 

Guardian of the Kingdom of Scot- 
land, 104, 105, 110, 120, 121, 122, 
127, 146, 147, 148, 149, 150, 151, 
152, 160. 

Gueldres, Arnold, due de, 198, 205, 
206, 287, 376. 

Marie de, wife of King James 

II., 198, 200, 202, 205, 206, 287, 
376, 386. 

Renaud I., comte de, 97 n., 

100. 

Guise Lorraine, Claude I., de, due 
d'Aumale, 235, 246, 287. 

Marie de, second wife of 

King James V., 235, 238, 246, 250, 
252, 287, 367, 370, 374. 

Gunhilda, daughter of Harold II., 
(?) wife of Gospatric, 1st earl of 
Dunbar, 49. 

Gunpowder Plot, 384. 

HAAKON, earl of Orkney, 7, 14. 
Ivarsson, 7. 



Haakonson, Baron Thorir, 106. 
Hackney, 221. 

Haco, king of Norway, 96, 376, 382. 
Hadden-rig, battle of, 236, 237, 379. 
Haddington, 81, 83, 177. 
Hadrianus, name adopted by Nicolas 

Breakspear, 75 n. 
Hake, a Scot, swift of foot, 9. 
Halhill, or Petty, 226, 232. 
Halidon, battle of, 149, 377 

Hill, 149. 

Halkerstoun, George, 202. 
Hall, Sir John, 196. 

Thomas, 196. 

Hallow-een, 335, 353, 383. 
Hamilton, Claud, 202, 284. 



INDEX 



421 



Hamilton, David, 202. 
duke of, 202. 

- Elisabeth, 201, 202. 

James, Lord, 201, 284. 

James, of Bothwellhaugh, 264. 

John, archbishopof St. Andrews, 
hanged, 264, 370. 

1st marquis of, 202, 284. 

laird of Cadzow, 197. 

Mr. Patrick, abbot of Feme, 

burned, 230, 367. 
Hamiltons, the, 371. 

earls of Arran. See Arran. 

' Hammer of the Scots,' the, 131. 
Hampton Court, 250. 
Hanover, Ernest Augustus, elector 
of, m. Sophia of Bohemia, 274. 

Sophia, electress of, 273, 274, 
285, 374, 381. 

Harald, ' Maddadson,' earl of Orkney, 

14, 81, 281, 283. 
Haraldson, Eystein, king of Norway, 

72 

Harbottle, 221. 
Harlaw, in Abercleenshire, the battle 

of, 167, 185, 377. 

Harold II., king of England, 27, 49. 
Harry, Blind, 215. 
Hastings, the battle of, 27. 
Hastynges, Henry de, 68, 281, 283. 

- John de, 2nd baron (Com- 
petitor), 68, 112, 281, 283. 

Haukirk, 89. 

Havre, 234. 

Hawkins, Sir John, 268 n. 

Hay, Thomas, Constable of Scotland, 

168. 
Heart of King Robert I., 140, 141, 

147. 

of King James I., 190. 
Heir- apparent captured, 178, 183. 
Heirs to the Crown, 134, 135, 138, 

159, 161, 172. 

Hekia, a Scot, swift of foot, 9. 
Henri II., king of France, 202, 251, 

252. 

Henrietta, duchess of Orleans, 285. 
Heury, the earl, son of King David 

I, 62, 64, 65, 68, 69, 71, 76, 111, 

112, 280-282, 374. 

son of Earl David, 66. 

of Brechin, illegitimate son of 

Earl David, 68. 



Henry of Stirling, illegitimate son of 

Earl David, 68. 
son of King William the Lion,' 

83, 112. 

V., Emperor, 32. 



Henry I., king of England, 32, 47, 
52, 58, 79 n., 280, 282, 372, 384. 
II., king of England, 32, 62, 68, 
72, 77, 78, 79, 280, 386. 

III., king of England, 89, 95, 



387. 

IV., king of England, 176, 177, 

183, 378. 
- V., king of England, 185, 186. 

VI., ex-king of England, 206 n. 

VII., king of England, 216, 224, 

236, 371, 377, 378. 

VII.'s chapel, 258, 272, 273, 



274, 382. 
VIII., king of England, 217, 

218 n., 224, 225, 228 w., 229 n., 

233, 248 n., 249, 382. 
IX., Benedict, Cardinal York, 

' King of Scots,' 285. 

King of Scots. See Darnley. 



Henry-Frederick, Prince of Wales, 
duke of Rothesay, eldest son of 
King James VI., 272, 285, 367, 
381. 

Henry William, son of George, Prince 
of Wales, 285. 

Hepburn, James, 4th earl of Both- 
well, third husband of Mary Queen 
of Scots, 256, 258, 287, 371, 
372. 

Jean, 239. 

Patrick, 3rd earl of Bothwell, 

239. 

Heraldry, 79. See also Arms. 

Herdmanston, Lang, 178. 

Hereford, Humphrey de Bohun, earl 
of, 68, 282. 

earl of, at Kildrummie, 130. 

Heresy, burnings for, 184, 190, 230, 
233,235, 249,251. 

Hertford, earl of, 248, 249. 
shire, 272. 



Hexham, 120. 

Hextilda or Histilla, granddaughter 
of King Donald Bane, wife of 
Richard Corny n, 43, 112, 283. 

Highlanders, 167, 173, 185, 189, 
226, 230, 231, 232, 236, 270. 



422 



INDEX 



High Steward, 104, 105, 110, 121, 

127, 135, 141, 152, 159, 161, 284. 
History, a, of Scotland, by Andrew 

Lang, in error, 211. 
Hodierna, daughter of King David 

I., 64, 281. 
Holderness, 28. 
Hollande, Florent III., comte de, 68, 

281, 283. 

Florent V., comte de (Competi- 
tor), 68, 111,283. 

Guillaume, comte de, 283. 

Holmcultram, abbey at, 62, 63, 364. 
Holy Land, 140, 288, 289. 
Holyrood, abbey, church or monastery 

at, 60, 63, 137, 154, 191, 195, 196, 

198, 200, 216, 217, 234, 235, 237- 

239, 248, 256, 372. 
House, 207, 211, 219, 233, 234, 

235, 253-255,379. 
Holy Trinity, the church of the, 202, 

206. 

Homildon, battle of, 177, 289, 380. 
Honorius III., Pope, 80 n., 88, 89. 

IV., Pope, 105 n. 

Hotspur, 164, 177. 
Howard, Lord, 217. 

Lord, of Effingham, 268 n. 

Huctred (or Gothric), son of Waldef, 

43, 283. 
Hull, 183 n. 
Humber, the river, 106. 
Hume, Alexander, lord chamberlain, 

beheaded, 226, 382. 

William, beheaded, 226, 382. 

Humes of Wedderburn, 227, 381. 

Hungary, 161. 

Huntingdon, David, earl of, 65-68, 

77, 79, 113, 115, 280, 281, 283, 

375, 379. 

earldom of, 72, 79. 

Henry, earl of, 62, 64, 65, 71, 

111, 112, 280-282, 374. 

Honour of, 59. 

Matilda of, 64, 286. 

Waltheof, earl of 59, 286. 

shire, 65. 

Huntly, Alexander of Seton, 1st earl 

of, 199, 289, 373. 
George Gordon, 2nd earl of, 

192. 
4th earl of, 221, 236, 

253, 254, 383. 



Huntly, George Gordon, 6th earl of, 

269, 270, 366. 
Hythus, Adam de, 84. 

ICELAND, 9. 

Inchmurdach, 154. 

Independence of the Scottish King- 
dom, 78, 81. 

India, Empress of, v, 275. 

Indulf, King of Scots, 280. 

Ingibjorg, first wife of King Malcolm 
III., 7, 26, 31, 37, 280-282, 286. 

Fru, Erlingsdatter, 106. 

Innerpeffry, 221. 

Innes, Isabella, 289. 

Sir Walter of that Ilk, 289. 

Innocent III., Pope, 80 n., 88. 

IV., Pope, 342 



VI., Pope, 160 n. 

VIII., Pope, 215. 

XII., Pope, 342 n. 

In Octabis (on the ootave), 290, 338 n. 
Inquisition of Earl David, 57. 

witnesses to the, 15 n. 

Inscription on coffin-plate of King 

James V., 240 n. 
Interregnum, the first, 110-114 ; 281, 

282-283. 

the second, 11 9- 125; 281,282-3. 
Introits, 335, 342 n. 
Invasions of 

England, 27, 28, 29, 30, 61, 120, 
134, 135, 137, 138, 163, 164, 
199, 215, 237. 

Ireland, 134. 

the Isle of Man, 133. 

the Lowlands, 185. 

Scotland, 28, 29, 61, 118, 119, 
122, 137, 148, 163, 209, 228, 
248. 

the Scottish Isles, 235. 
Inverawyne Castle, 199. 
Inverbervie, 152. 
Inverkip, 199. 

Inverlethan, church of, 74 n. 
Inverlochy, battle of, 169, 189. 
Inverlunan, Alexander Stewart of, 

169. 
Inverness, 80 n., 233 n. ; burned, 189. 

Castle, battle near, 81. 

Parliament at, 189. 



Inverury, battle of, 132, 373. 
lona, 4, 14, 19, 23, 39, 43, 365, 374. 



INDEX 



423 



Ireland, 8, 134, 135,251, 271,272,273. 

Irwens, the, 231. 

Isaac, Thomas, squire, m. Matilda, 

daughter of King Robert I., 141, 

284. 

- Catherine, 142, 284. 

Joanna, 141, 284. 
Isabella, countess of Fife, 166. 
daughter of David, earl of 

Huntingdon, wife of Robert Brus, 
lord of Annandale, 66, 67, 113, 
281, 283. 

daughter of Donald, 10th earl 

of Mar, first wife of King Robert 
I., 127, 141, 286. 

daughter of Duncan, earl of 
Fife, m. John Comyn, 3rd earl of 
Buchan, 129; in a cage, 131. 

daughter of Gilbert cle Clare, 

wife of Robert Brus (Competitor), 

67. 
daughter of King James I., 

wife of Frangois I., due de Bretagne, 

191, 284. 
daughter of King Robert II., 

m. (1) to James, 2nd earl of 

Douglas ; (2) to Sir John Edmon- 

ston, 168, 284. 
daughter of King William ' the 

Lion,' wife of Robert de Brus, 

afterwards of Robert de Ros, 83, 

112, 282. 
daughter of King William ' the 

Lion,' wife of Roger Bigod, earl of 

Norfolk, 82, 83. 
sister of King Robert I., second 

wife of Eric II., king of Norway, 

68, 97 n., 108, 281. 
wife of Murdac, duke of Albany, 

166. 

Islay, 184. 
Isles, Alexander of the, 189, 375. 

Donald of the, 185, 377. 

John, lord of the, 167, 215. 

king of the, 280. 

seneschal of the, 4, 12, 280. 

- Western, or Sudreys, 9, 29, 30, 
46, 96, 376. 

Italy, 161, 181. 

JACOB'S pillow, 120 n. 
James, high steward of Scotland, 
104, 105, 110. 



James I. (Stewart), King of Scots, 

169, 178, 179, 180; reign, 182- 

194 ; 284, 287, 289. 
James II. (Stewart), King of Scots, 

191 ; reign, 195-204 ; 284, 287. 
James III. (Stewart), King of Scots, 

201 ; reign, 205-212 ; 284, 287. 
James IV. (Stewart), King of Scots, 

209, 210, 211; reign, 213-223; 

284, 287. 
James V. (Stewart), King of Scots, 

219 j reign, 224-245; 284, 287; 

contemporary and modern refer- 
ences to the date of his death, 

240-243. 
James VI. (Stewart), King of Scots, 

255, 257, 258; reign, 262-279; 

284, 285, 287 ; James I., King of 

England, Scotland, France, and 

Ireland, 271. 
James VII., ' King of Scots ' (James 

II. of England), 285. 
James VIII., King of Scots,' Prince 

of Wales, 285. 
Stewart, created earl of Moray, 

son of King James IV., 220, 231, 

232 . 
eldest son of King James 

IV., died young, 219, 284. 
eldest son of King James 

V., died young, 238, 284. 
marquis of Ormonde, arch- 
bishop of St. Andrews, second 

son of King James III., 210, 

284. 
(Secundus), Regent, earl of 

Moray, son of King James V., 239, 

253, 257, 263-265. 
(Senior), commendator of 

Kelso and Melrose, son of King 

James V., 238. 
son of King Robert II., 

170. 
son of Walter, earl of 

Athol, 168, 284. 
(Tertius), son of King 

James V., 239. 
Janet, daughter of King James IV., 

wife of Malcolm, 3rd Lord Fleming, 

221. 

Jean II., king of France, 153. 
daughter of King Robert II., 

m. (1) to Sir John Keith, (2) to 



424 



INDEX 



John Lyon, (3) to Sir James 

Sandilands of Calder, 168. 
Jedburgh, 31, 73, 98, 99, 227, 381. 

. abbey at, 59, 63, 228. 

Jehmarc, a chief, 3. 

Jenny Pirwin' (a ship), 217. 

Jerdelay, 65. 

Jerusalem, John, king of, 92. 

Joan, daughter of John Beaufort, 1st 

earl of Somerset, wife of King 

James I., 187, 191, 192, 195, 196, 

197, 287, 366. 
daughter of John, king of 

England, first wife of King Alex- 
ander II., 89, 90, 91, 286, 368, 

375. 
the dumb lady, daughter of 

King James I., wife of James 

Douglas of Dalkeith, 1st earl of 

Morton, 191. 
Joanna, daughter of Thomas Isaac, 

wife of John of Lorn, 141, 284. 
Johanna, daughter of Edward II., 

first wife of King David II., 139, 

146, 150, 154, 155, 287, 377, 378. 

wife of John Comyn, 67. 

John [Balliol], kiug of Scotland, 66, 

113, 119; reign, 115-118 ; baggage 

examined, 117 w. ; 148, 281, 283, 

286. 
earl of Mar, son of King James 

II., 201, 208, 284. 
earl of Mar, son of King James 

III., 210, 284. 
heritable sheriff of Bute, son of 

King Robert II., 169. 
(Lackland), king of England, 

68, 86 n., 87, 89, 286, 375. 

le Scot, earl of Chester, 66. 

prior of Coldingham, son of 

King James V., 239. 
Sir, of Cairdney, son of King 

Robert II., 170. 
Sir, of Dundonald, son of King 

Robert II., 169. 
son of Harald * Maddadson,' 

14. 
son of King Robert I., 141, 

142, 284. 
son of William, 5th earl of 

Sutherland, 142, 284. 
XXII., Pope, 136, 144 n., 146, 

327, 370, 374. 



John [Stewart], earl of Carrick, after- 
wards King Robert III., 166, 172, 
173, 284. 

Joletta or Yolande de Dreux, second 
wife of King Alexander III., 98, 
100, 286, 382. 

Jubilee of Queen Victoria, 275. 

Diamond, of Queen Victoria, 275. 

Julian Calendar, the, 298, 303. 

Julius II., Pope, 217, 327. 

Justice, College of, 231, 233, 236, 
368, 369, 373. 

KATHERINE (Jean or Elisabeth), 
daughter of King Robert II., 
wife of Sir David Lindesay, 1st 
earl of Crawford, 168, 169. 

Kay, the clan, 173. 

Keith, Alexander, of Grandown, 167, 
168 n., 289. 

Sir John, 168. 

Muriella, 2nd wife of Robert, 

duke of Albany, 166. 

Sir William, 141, 147, 166, 

167. 

Kelso, 65, 72, 205 n., 248. 

abbey at, 60, 63, 72, 74 n., 

205, 238, 378. 

The Great Charter to, in error, 

74 n. 

register of, 74 n. 

Kennedy, Sir James, of Dunure, 180. 

James, Bishop, 197, 206, 365. 

Lady Jane, 239. 

Janet, 220. 

John, 2nd Lord, 220. 

Kenneth I. ('Mac Alpin'), 280. 

II., king of Alban, 1, 280. 

III., king of Alban, 1, 280, 281. 

Kensington Palace, 275. 

Kent, 214. 

Edward, duke of, 285. 



Kerrera, island of, 91. 
Kilblain, battle of, 150, 385. 
Kilbride, 180. 

Kilconquhar, Adam de, 67, 126. 
Kildrummie, 67, 131. 

Castle, 130, 380. 

Kilrawok, 226, 230 n., 232 n. 
Kilrimont, church of, 32. 
Kilt, the, 29, 30. 
Kincardine, 40, 82, 152. 
shire, 39 (n. 13). 



INDEX 



425 



Kinfauns, 170. 

* King of Scotland,' title of, first used 

by King Alexander III., 94 n. 
Kinghorn, 98, 148, 378. 
'Kingis Quair, The,' 187. 
King's Lieutenant, 174. 
Kinloss, abbey at, 63, 123, 232 n., 

373. 

Kinmont Willie, 270, 370. 
Kinnoul, 225. 
Kinross, 89. 
Kintrae, 15 n. 
Kirk, the reformed, of Scotland (First 

General Assembly), 253. 
Kirkaldie, 234 n. 
Kirkaldy, Sir William, of Grange, 

266, 373. 
- Mr. James, brother of Sir 

William, hanged, 266 n. 
Kirkcudbright, 228. 
Kirkliston, 256, 371. 
Kirk-of-Field, 255. 
Kirkwall, in Orkney, 7. 
Knighthoods conferred, 62, 65 w., 72, 

120. 
Knights of the Garter, 213, 224. 

Scottish, 151, 153. 

Knox, John, reformer, 265, 385. 
Kynmonth, 270. 
Kyrkiiess, lands of, 18. 

LA.DY MACBETH (Gruoch), wife of 

Macbeth, King of Scots, 4 w., 18, 

22, 280-282, 286. 
Lamberton, William, bishop of St. 

Andrews, 121, 122. 
Lamington, Baillie of, 230 n. 
Lamniermoors, the, 47, 51, 59. 
Lancashire, 61, 137. 
Lancaster, earlof, at Kildrummie, 130. 

John of Gaunt, duke of, 162. 

Lang, Andrew, in error, 211. 

Hermandston, fight at, 178, 366. 

Langside, battle of, 202, 257, 264, 

372. 

Largo, 214, 216. 
Largs, battle of, 96,. 382. 
Last battle between the Scots and j 

the English, Pinkie, 249. 
skirmish between the Scots and \ 

the English, Redswire, 266 n. 
Lateran, the, 80, 88, 89. 
Latin, 25. 



Latin Calendar, a, with translation, 

356-363. 

Lauder Bridge, 208. 
Laundelys, William de, bishop of St. 

Andrews, 161. 

Lawlessness in Scotland, 174. 
Lawrie, Sir Archibald, 52 n. 
Lay-abbot of Dunkeld, Crinan, 4, 12, 

18, 280-282. 

Duncan, 280. 

Leap year, origin of the term, 363. 
Leith, 177, 179 n., 182 n., 198, 214, 

234, 248, 250, 253, 268, 269, 372, 

373, 383. 

Lennox, earl of, 105, 188, 214, 230. 
Duncan, earl of, 166, 188, 373. 

John, 3rd earl of, 239. 
Matthew Stewart, 2nd earl of, 

202. 
4th earl of, 221, 254, 

264, 265, 287, 380, 382. 
Lenten fast, the, 27, 296. 
Leo IX., Pope, excommunicated, 20. 
X., Pope, 218 n., 225, 382. 



Leslie, George, 3rd earl of Rothes, 

202, 284. 

John, 249. 

Norman, master of Rothes, 202, 

249, 284. 

Lewis, Rev. S. S., 72 n. 
Liddesdale, 150. 
Lie"ge, battle of, 184. 
Lieutenant of the Kingdom, the Earl 

of Moray, 231 n. 

General of the Kingdom, Alex- 
ander, duke of Albany, 201, 208, 

209, 225, 284. 
James Stewart, 

son of King James IV., 220, 231, 

232 n. 
Lindesay, Alexander (Alysandre 

Lyndessay), lorde of Glennesk, 175. 

2nd earl of Crawford, 197. 

4th earl of Crawford, 199, 



373. 
David, 3rd earl of Crawford, 

197, 365. 
Sir David (afterwards 1st earl 

of Crawford), 169, 174 ., 371. 

John, 69, 283. 

Lindisfarne, 27. 

Lindores (formerly Lundors), abbey 

at, 65, 66, 97, 99, 180. 



426 



INDEX 



Lindsays, the, 365. 

Linlithgow, 206, 219, 224, 230, 238, 

239, 251, 264, 376. 

battle of, 229, 380. 

. palace at, 233 n., 246. 

'Lion' (a ship), 217. 
Lismore, bishop of, 215. 

bishopric of, 81, 90, 208, 376. 

List of Authors, Books, etc., referred 

to in the footnotes, 389-401. 
Littills, the, 231. 
Livingston, Sir Alexander, 196. 

James, 197, 365. 

Livingstons, the, 198, 365. 

Lochaber, 189. 

Loch-an-eilan, in Strathspey, 230. 

Lochfyne, 264. 

Lochindorb Castle, 123, 151, 200, 

368, 374. 

Lochleven Castle, 256, 257, 263, 372, 

375. 

the Culdees of, 18, 28, 32. 

the Prior of, 187. 

Lochmaben, battle of, 209. 

Castle, 162, 185, 366. 

Loch Ryan, 131. 

Lodonee, comes (Gospatric, 3rd earl 

of Dunbar), 5 n., 49 n., 281. 
Lodonie, summits dux (Gospatric, 2nd 

earl of Dunbar), 5, 6, 15 n., 40, 52, 

57 n., 281, 379. 
Logie, Sir John, of that Ilk, 154, 

287. 
Logy, Margareta de, second wife of 

King David II., 154-156, 287. 
Lollards, 164. 
Lomond, Loch, 8. 
London, 90, 123, 154, 167, 271, 273, 

369, 372. 

Bridge, 124. 

cross of, 271. 

Robert de, 83. 

Tower of, 124 n., 183. 

Longueville, Louis II., d'Orleans, due 

de, 235, 246, 287. 
Lord's Day, observance of the, 27. 
Lorn, Alexander of Argyll, lord of, 

130, 132, 378. 

John of, 141, 284. 

the Black Knight of, 192, 196. 

Lorraine, Marie de, second wife of 

King James V., 235, 238, 246, 250, 

252, 287, 367, 370, 374. 



Lothian, 3, 5, 9, 26, 28, 47, 51, 59,. 

60, 218. See also Maps Nos. II. 

and IV. 

East, 116, 152. 

Loudon Hill, battle of, 131, 372. 
Louis II. d'Orleans, 235, 246, 287. 

IX. (St.), king of France, 117 n. 
XL, king of France, 191, 375. 



XII, king of France, 234 n. 

Louise, Princess Royal, Duchess of 

Fife, daughter of King Edward 

VII., 285. 

Louvre, Chateau du, marriage-con- 
tract of Mary Queen of Scots, 

dated at the, 251 n. 
Lowlanders, the, 185, 270. 
Liibeck, 109. 
Lucius III., Pope, 79. 
Lucy, Reginald de, 40. 
Lulach, King of Scots, reign, 22-24 ; 

26, 280, 281, 283. 
daughter of (name unknown ) r 

mother of Oengus, 23. 
Lundors (now Lindores), abbey at, 

65, 66, 97, 99, 180. 
Lunfanan, in Mar, 19, 26. 
Luther, Martin, 248, 384. 
Lyle, Lord, 214. 
Lynn, 183 n. 
Lyon, John, 168. 
6th Lord Glammis, 235. 

MACBETH, King of Scots, 7, 13, 26 ; 

reign, 17-21 ; 280-282, 286. 
M'Domhnaill of the Isles, 184. 
MacHeth, Kenneth, 40, 88. 
MacHeth, Malcolm, 14, 72. 
Mackay, Brian Vicar, 184. 
Mackintoche, Hector, 230 n., 232. 

William, 232. 

Mackintoshe, Lauchlaine, 226, 230. 
Mackye, alias Angus Duff, 189. 
Maclane, a Highland chief, 185 n. 
MacLoen, Malpeder, mormaer of the 

Mearns, 6, 39. 
MacWilliam, Donald Ban, 40, 79, 80, 

88, 377. 

Dovenald Ban, 40, 88, 374. 

Gothred, 40, 82. 



Madach, comes (Athol), 14, 52, 81, 

281, 283. 
Madeleine de Valois, daughter of 

Franois I., king of France, first 



INDEX 



427 



wife of King James V., 234, 237, 

287, 364, 373, 376. 
Maelbeathe, a chief, 3. 
Maelbrighde, 3, 4. 
Maelduin, bishop of St. Andrews, 3, 

19. 
Magnates of Scotland, 95 n., 98, 104, 

120, 121, 122, 127, 128, 147, 187. 
Magnus (Barefoot), king of Norway, 

29, 46. 
Maid of Norway, the, Queen of Scots, 

98, 99, 103-109, 281, 282, 381. 
Maison Dieu, Elgin, burned, 173. 
Maitland takes charge of Dunbar 

Castle, 176. 

Mak Dowil, Dungal, 131. 
Makintagart, earl of Ross, 40, 88, 90. 
Malcolm I., King of Alban, 1, 9, 280, 

281. 
Malcolm II., King of Scots, reign, 

1-11; 13 n., 15, 280-282. 

daughter of (name un- 
known), second wife of Sigurd, earl 
of Orkney, 7, 280-282. 

Malcolm III. (Ceannmor), King of 

Scots, 5, 13 w., 14, 19, 23, 35, 36, 

37, 38, 41, 45, 50, 58 ; reign, 25- 

34; 280-282. 
Malcolm IV., 'the Maiden,' King of 

Scots, 65; reign, 71-75; 280-282; 

illegitimate son, 74. 

son of King Alexander I., 53. 

elder son of King David I., 43, 

64, 280, 281. 

Malcolmson, James, hanged, 230. 
Malcolumb, son of King Malcolm 

III., 31, 38. 
Maldred, son of Crinan, 5, 15, 280, 

281, 282. 
Male line, succession to the Crown in 

the, 134, 135, 138, 159, 161. 
Malise, bishop of the Scots, 3. 

m. Ada, illegitimate daughter 

of David, earl of Huntingdon, 68. 

Mallus, comes (Stratherne), 52. 
Malmore, bishop of the Scots, 3. 
Malpeder MacLoen, mormaer of the 

Mearns, 6, 39. 
Malsnectai, mormaer of Moray, son 

of King Lulach, 23, 28. 
Malvoisin, William, bishop of St. 

Andrews, 88. 
Mam Garvia (Garvyach), 40, 80. 



Man and Annandale, George of Dun- 
bar, lord of, 289. 

John Ranulph, lord of, 288. 

Sir Thomas Ranulph, lord 

of, 288, 289. 

Thomas Ranulph, lord of, 

288. 

bishop of, 105. 

Isle of, 9, 96, 133, 374, 376, 

382. 

Mandeville, Roger de (Competitor), 
84, 112,282. 

Mans, Bishop, 7 n. 

Manton, Ralph de (the Cofferer), 122. 

Maps, 402. 

I. The Kingdom of Alban (1005). 
II. The Kingdom of Scotia (1018). 

III. State of Church (1124-1153). 

IV. Ancient Divisions of the Land. 
Mar, 26. 

Alexander Stewart, earl of, 167, 

184, 185, 189. 

Donald, earl of, 127, 147, 148, 

286, 378. 
Dame Mergarete, contesse of, 

175. 

earl of (a 1289-90), 105. 

(a 1582), 267. 

Isabella of, first wife of King 

Robert I., 127, 141, 286. 
- John, earl of, son of King James 



II., 201, 208, 284. 

John, earl of, son of King James 

III., 210, 284. 

John Erskine, 6th earl of, 265, 
380. 

Margaret Stewart, countess 



dowager of, 176. 

Rothri, comes, 52. 

the widowed countess of, 167. 

Marble Monument of Robert I., King 

of Scots, 140. 
March, Alexander, earl of, duke of 

Albany, son of King James II., 

201, 208, 209, 225, 284. 
George, 3rd earl of, 10th earl of 

Dunbar, 162, 164, 167, 175, 176, 

177, 184, 289. 
George, 4th earl of, 1 1th earl of 

Dunbar, 190, 289. 

- Patric, 1st earl of, 8th earl of 

Dunbar (Competitor), 84, 111,282, 

289, 382. 



428 



INDEX 



March, Patric, 2nd earl of, 4th earl of 
Moray, 9th earl of Dunbar, 147 n., 
150, 151, 288, 289, 365. 

March and Moray, ' Black Agnes of 
Dunbar,' countess of, 151, 153, 
(n. 37), 155, 288, 289, 365, 375, 
379. 

Marches, east, 163, 227. 

west, 163, 164. 

Margaret, daughter of King Alex- 
ander III., queen of Norway, 97, 
99, 103, 107-109, 281, 282, 367, 
370. 

daughter of Christiern I., king 

of Denmark, wife of King James 
TIL, 207, 209, 210, 213, 287. 

daughter of David, earl of Hunt- 
ingdon, wife of Alan, lord of 
Galloway, 66, 113, 115, 281, 283. 

daughter of Earl Henry, m. (1) 

to Conan IV., due de Bretagne ; m. 
(2) to Humphrey de Bohun, 65, 68, 
281, 282. 

daughter of Haakon, earl of 

Orkney, wife of Madach, earl of 
Athol, 14. 

daughter of Henry III., first wife 

of King Alexander III., 95, 96, 99, 

286, 367, 387. 
daughter of King James I., wife 

of the Dauphin, 191, 284, 375. 
daughter of King James II., m. 

(?) to William, Lord Crichton, 202, 

284. 

daughter of King James IV., 

m. (1) to John, Lord Gordon ; (2) 
to Sir John Drummond of Inner- 
peffry, 220. 

daughter of King James VI., 

died young, 273, 285. 

daughter of Rene (Ilegnier), due 

d'Anjou, wife of Henry VI., 206 n. 
daughter of King Robert I., 

wife of Robert Glen, 142. 
- daughter of King Robert I., 

wife of William, 5th earl of 

Sutherland, 141, 142, 284. 
daughter of King Robert II., 

wife of John, lord of the Isles, 

167. 
daughter of King Robert III., 

wife of Archibald, 4th earl of 

Douglas, 179, 180. 



Margaret, daughter of King William 
'the Lion,' wife of Eustace de 
Vesci, 84, 282. 

daughter of King William ' the 
Lion,' wife of Hubert de Burgh, 
82, 83, 112. 

Margaret, 'The Maid of Norway,' 
Queen of Scots, 98, 99 ; reign, 103- 
109, 110; 281,282. 

' the False,' a pretended Queen 
of Scots, burned, 108, 109. 

(St. Margaret of Scotland), 
daughter of ^Edward ^theling, 
second wife of King Malcolm III. 
(Ceannmor), 27, 28, 31, 33, 45, 50, 
58, 95, 286, 337, 342, 349, 354, 
375, 385. 

Tudor, daughter of Henry VII., 
wife of King James IV., 216, 219, 
221, 224; 2nd marriage, 225 ; 3rd 
marriage, 229 ; 236, 287, 377, 378, 
383. 

Marguerite, daughter of Guy, comte 
de Flandre, wife of Alexander, 
Prince of Scotland, 97, 99, 100, 384. 

Marie de Coucy, second wife of King 
Alexander II., 90-92, 94, 286, 372. 

Marischal College, Aberdeen, 269, 
370. 

Marjorie, daughter and heir of Neil, 
earl of Carrick, m. (1) to Adam de 
Kilconquhar ; m. (2) to Robert 
Brus, lord of Annandale, 67, 126, 
281. 

daughter of King Alexander II., 

wife of Alan Durward, 92, 1 12, 282. 

daughter of Archibald, 3rd earl 

of Douglas, wife of David, duke of 
Rothesay, 175, 180. 

(?) daughter of Earl Henry, wife 

of John Lindesay, 69, 112, 283. 

daughter of King Robert I., only 

child of his first marriage, wife of 
Walter the High Steward, 130, 136, 
141, 159, 284. 

daughter of King Robert II., 

m. (1) to John of Dunbar, earl of 
Moray, 167, 289, 368, 376 ; m. (2) 
to Alexander Keith of Grandown, 
167, 168 w., 289. 

daughter of King William 'the 

Lion,' wife of Gilbert, earl of Pem- 
broke, 83, 378. 



INDEX 



429 



Marriages of the Scottish kings, from 
Duncan I. to James VI., 286, 
287. 
Marshal,. George Keith, 5th Earl, 

269. 
Marthillach (Mortlach), monastery 

at, 2. 

Martin V., Pope, 186, 327, 382. 
Mary, daughter of King James I., 
wife of count of Grandpre", 192, 
284. 

daughter of King James II., 

m. (1) to Thomas, Lord Boyd ; m. 
(2) to James, Lord Hamilton, 201, 
284. 

daughter of King James VI., 

died young, 274, 285. 

daughter of King Malcolm III., 

wife of Eustace, comte de Boulogne, 
31, 32,47, 280, 283, 333. 

daughter of King Robert III., 

wife of George Douglas, earl of 
Angus, 179, 180. 

duchess of Teck, 285. 

landgravine of Hesse-Cassel, 

285. 

princess of Orange, 285. 

Victoria Alexandra Alice, daugh- 
ter of George, Prince of Wales, 
285. 

Mary Queen of Scots, 202, 221, 238 ; 
reign, 246-261 ; 284, 287 ; queen 
of France, 251. 

queen of William III., 285. 

- (Tudor), quen of England, 
250, 251, 261 n. 
Mass, abolition of the, 253 n. 
Matilda, daughter of Earl Henry, 
died young, 65, 69, 282. 

daughter of Eustace, comte de 

Boulogne, wife of Stephen, king of 
England, 32, 280, 283. 

daughter of King Malcolm III., 

'the Good Queen Maud,' wife of 
Henry I., king of England, 31, 32, 
47, 52, 59, 280, 372, 384. 

daughter of King Robert I., wife 

of Thomas Isaac, 141, 284. 

daughter and heir of Waltheof, 

earl of Huntingdon, wife of King 
David I., 59, 60, 64, 286. 

' the Empress Maud,' daughter 

of Henry I., in. (1) to Henry V., 



Emperor of Germany ; m. (2) to 

Geoffrey Plantagenet, count of An- 

jou, 32, 280, 282. 
Maud, daughter of Hugh, earl of 

Chester, wife of David, earl of 

Huntingdon, 65. 
daughter of Louise, Duchess of 

Fife, 285. 
queen of Norway, daughter of 

King Edward VIL, 285. 
Maurice, Prince, son of Elizabeth, 

queen of Bohemia, 273. 
Maxwell, Edward, changes surname 

to Baillie of Lamington, 230 n. 
Mearns, the, 6, 39. 
Medici, Catharine de', 251. 
Mekylhour, 176. 
Melmare, son of King Duncan 1 , 14, 

280,281,283. 

Melrose, 91, 163, 187, 229, 248, 380. 
abbey at, 61, 63, 137, 140, 141, 



147, 238. 

battle of, 229. 

Melun, siege of, 186. 
Melvin, John, 249. 
Menteith, Sir John of, 123. 
Menteth, earl of, 88, 105. 

Margaret, countess of, 166. 

Mercer, Andrew, laird of Mekylhour, 

a decreet arbitral by, 176. 
Methven, 221, 236. 

battle of, 130, 375. 

Henry Stewart, Lord, third 



husband of Margaret Tudor, widow 

of King James IV., 221, 229. 
' Michael, The Great' (a ship), 217. 
Millar, Andro, printer, 217, 380. 
Milltown, in Stirlingshire, 210. 
Mitton, battle of, 136, 381. 

on-Swale, 136. 

Moddan, earl of Caithness, 6. 

Monacheden, 39. 

Monaidh, king of, 1. 

Monivaird, church of, 214. 

Montague, 32. 

Montfort, Yolande, comtesse de, 98, 

100, 286, 382. 
Montmirel en Brie, Jean, seigneur 

de, 90 n. 
Montrose, 119. 
Monzievaird, 1. 
Moors, the, 140, 147. 
Moravia, Andrew de, 120. 



430 



INDEX 



Moravia, David de, bishop of Moray, 

138. 
Moray, 3, 4, 9, 28, 40, 60, 73, 80, 81, 

88, 90, 122, 123, 151, 226, 232. 

Firth, 63 n. 

Agnes, countess of March and, 

daughter of Sir Thomas Ranulph, 

1st earl of Moray, 151, 153 n, 155, 

288, 289, 365, 375, 379. 

Sir Andrew, of Bothwell, 148- 

151. 

bishops of, 52, 105. 

Alexander, bishop of, 20 1,2 26 n. 

Andrew, bishop of, 192. 

Columba, bishop of, 288. 

David de Moravia, bp. of, 138. 

Gregory, bishop of, 52. 

bishopric of, 51, 80, 89, 95, 208. 

The Bonnie Earl of, James 

Stewart, son of Lord Doune, 269. 
David, earl of, 201, 284. 

earldom of, 155. 

Lady Elisabeth Stewart, coun- 
tess of, wife of ' The Bonnie Earl 

of Moray,' 269 n. 
Euphemia, countess of, second 

wife of King Robert II., 160, 161, 

164, 168, 287, 288. 
James, earl of, son of King 

James IV., 220, 231, 232 n. 
earl of (Regent), son of 

King James V., 239, 253, 257, 263- 

265. 
of Dunbar, 8th earl of, 

289, 378. 

John of Dunbar, 5th earl of, 



163, 164, 167, 289, 368, 376. 
John Ranulph, 3rd earl of, 150, 

155, 160, 164, 168, 287, 288. 
Marjorie, created countess of, 

daughter of King Robert II., m. ( 1 ) 

John of Dunbar, 5th earl of Moray; 

(2) Alexander Keith of Grandown, 

167, 168 n., 289, 368. 
Patric of Dunbar, 4th earl of, 

9th earl of Dunbar, 2nd earl of 

March, 147 n., 150, 151, 288, 289, 

365. 
Thomas of Dunbar, 6th earl of, 

167, 174 n., 176, 289. 

7th earl of, 289. 

Sir Thomas Ranulph, 1st earl 

of, 133, 135, 136, 138 ; Guardian, 



146 ; 147, 288, 289, 365, 374, 377 ; 

arms, 133 n., 146 n. 
Moray, Thomas Ranulph, 2nd earl of, 

288. 
Mormaer of the Mearns, Malpeder 

MacLoen, 6, 39. 
Mormaers of Moray Finlaec, 3, 6, 

17, 280-282; Gillacomgan, 4, 18, 

22, 280,281, 286; Macbeth, 17,18; 

Maelbrighde, 3, 4 ; Malsnectai, 23, 

28 ; Oengus, 23, 60 ; Ruaidhri, 3. 
Mortlach, monastery at, 2. 
Morton, James Douglas, 1st earl of, 

191. 

3rd earl of, 202, 220. 

4th earl of (Regent), 

265, 266, 267, 368, 374. 
Morville, Hugo de, 63. 
Mounth, the, 8. See also Map 

No. IV. 
Mourning apparel, 'Doole weeds' 

first used in Scotland, 234. 
Moveable Feasts and Fasts, 295-297. 
Mowbray, Barbara, 230. 

John, of Bernbowgall, 230. 

Murdac, duke of Albany (Governor), 

grandson of King Robert II., 166, 

186, 188, 284, 373, 380. 
Mure, Elisabeth, first wife of King 

Robert II., 160, 166, 172, 287- 

Sir Adam, 160, 172, 287. 

Murray, Angus of, 189. 

Murray s, the, burned, 214. 

Musgrave, Sir William, 237 n. 

Musselburgh, 82, 147. 

Myln, Walter, burned, 251, 371. 

Mylne, Alexander, abbot of Cambus- 

kenneth, 232. 

NAMUR, Guy, comte de, 150. 
Napier, Mark, 232 n. 
Narve, bishop of Bergen, 106. 
Naval engagements, 214, 216, 217. 
Nesbit, first battle of, 153 ; second 

battle of, 177, 375. 
Neubotle, 289. 

abbey at, 62, 63, 163, 384. 

Neville's Cross, or Durham, battle of, 

142, 152, 160, 288, 289, 383. 
Newark-on-the-Clyde, 226. 
Newcastle, 29, 61, 124 ., 163. 
New Style, 267, 270 n., 292, 295 n., 

298-305, 317. 



INDEX 



431 



New-year's Day altered by King 

James VI, 270, 292, 304. 
Newyeirsmas, 338, 343, 364. 
Nicolas IV., Pope, 105. 

V., Pope, 198. 
Nigel Brus, brother of King Robert 

L, 67, 130, 131. 
of Carrick, son of King Robert 

I., 142. 

' Nine times twenty heroes,' 4, 18. 
Nithsdale, 169. 
Nordness, in Norway, 109. 
Norfolk, Roger Bigod, earl of, 83. 
Norham, 49, 111, 372. 
Norman Conquest, 29 n. 

fugitives, 19. 

Normandy, 71, 76-78, 117 n., 152, 

188. 

William, duke of, 27. 

Northallerton, 61. 
Northampton, 78, 106, 139. 

earldom of, 59. 

treaty of, 139, 372. 

Northamptonshire, 257, 268. 
Northmen, the, 9, 72, 371. 
Northumberland, 27, 28, 30, 61, 72, 

77, 78, 164, 177, 218. 

earl of, 164. 

earldom of, 5, 28, 65 n., 76. 

Edulf Cudel, earl of, 2, 3. 

Gospatric, earl of (afterwards of 

Dunbar), 5, 15 n., 28, 29, 38, 281, 

286, 387. 
Henry, earl of, son of King 

David I., 62, 64, 65, 71, 76, 111, 

112,280-282, 374. 
Siward, earl of, 13, 14, 19, 23, 

25, 26, 35, 41, 59, 60, 286, 377. 

. Uchtred, earl of, 2, 5, 280-282. 

Northumbria, 2. See also Map No. 

II. 

Norway, 3, 9, 99, 105, 106, 268. 
Eric II. (Magnusson), king of, 

97, 99, 103, 105-109, 113, 281, 282. 

Eystein Haraldson, king of, 72. 

Frederick II., king of Denmark 

and, father of Anna, wife of King 

James VI., 268. 

Haco, king of, 96, 376, 382. 

Isabella Brus, queen of, 68, 97 n., 

108, 281. 
Magnus (Barefoot), king of, 29, 

46. 



Norway, The Maid of, Queen of Scots, 
98, 99, 103-109, 281, 282, 381. 

Margaret, queen of, 97, 99, 103. 

Maud, queen of, 285. 

Olaf, Crown Prince of, 285. 

(the Saint), king of, 3, 339. 

Trygveson, king of, 7. 

Notre Dame, Cathedral of, 234, 251. 
Nottingham, 155. 
'Novum Castrum,' 29. 
Noyon, 254. 

OATHS of fealty, 132, 138, 145. 

O'Briain, Murchertach, 47. 

Octabis, in (on the octave), 290, 338 n. 

Octaves, 290, 338 n. 

Odistown, 142 n. 

Oengus, mormaer of Moray, grandson 

of Lulach, King of Scots, 23, 60. 
Ogiluy, Sir William, of Stratherne, 

226. 
Ogilvy, Sir Alexander, of Auchter- 

house, 192. 
Margaret, countess of Buchan, 

m. to James Stewart, 1 92. 
Ogilvys, the, 197, 365. 
Ogle, Sir Robert, 190, 197. 
Olaf, Crown Prince of Norway, 285. 
(the Saint), king of Norway, 3, 

339. 

Trygveson, king of Norway, 7. 



Olave, son of Indulph, King of Scots, 

280. 

Old Style, 298-300, 303, 317. 
Oliphant, Sir Walter, of Gask, 142. 

Sir William, surrender of, 123. 

Orders of 

St. Andrew, 233 n. 

St. Michael, 233. 

The Garter, 224 n. t 233. 

The Golden Fleece, 233. 
Orkney, 3, 7, 9, 29, 46, 106, 207, 380. 

Afreca, countess of, 14. 

bishopric of, 208. 

David, earl of, 14. 

earldom of, 208, 367. 

earl of, 197. 

Erlend, earl of, 7, 280. 

Gormlath, countess of, 14. 

Haakon, earl of, 7, 14. 

Harald, earl of, 14, 81, 281, 283. 

James Hepburn, duke of, 4th 

earl of Bothwell, third husband of 



432 



INDEX 



Mary Queen of Scots, 256, 258, 

287, 371, 372. 
Orkney, John, earl of, 14. 

Magnus, earl of, 7, 371. 

Paul, earl of, 7, 280. 

Robert Stewart, earl of, son of 

King James V., 239. 
Sigurd Hlodverson, earl of, 2, 

3, 7, 280-282. 

Thora, countess of, 7. 

Thorfinn, earl of, 2, 3, 7, 12 n., 

13, 15, 17 n., 27, 37, 280-282, 286. 
William, earl of Caithness and, 

192. 
Orleans, 253. 

Louis II. d', 235. 

Ormond, Hugh Douglas, earl of, 197, 

198. 
Ormonde, James Stewart, marquis 

of, second son of King James III., 

210, 284. 

Ospakson, Sumarlidi, 7. 
Otterburn (or Chevy Chase), battle of, 

164, 168, 289, 378. 
Ovirberntoun, 230. 
Oxford, 163. 

Scottish students at, 90. 

shire, 79. 

Welsh students at, 90. 

PADUA, 220. 

Paisley, 141, 179, 216. 

Paniscola, 185. 

Papal Dispensations for the 

Marriage of 'Black Agnes, 'daughter 
of Sir Thomas Ranulph, with 
Patric, 9th Earl of Dunbar, 151 
n., 288, 365, 379. 

Christiana, sister of 

King Robert I., with Sir Andrew 
Moray, 148 n. 

David, son of King 

Robert III., with Elisabeth, 
daughter of George, earl of 
Dunbar and March, 180. A 
second dispensation to David and 
Elisabeth of Dunbar, 180. 

Isabella (' Margaret '), 

daughter of King Robert II., with 
James, 2nd earl of Douglas, 168. 

Joan, widow of King 

James I., with SirJamea Stewart, 
192 n., 196 n. 



Marriage of King James IV. with 

Margaret Tudor, 216. 
Queen Margaret with 

Prince Edward of England, 105. 
Margaret, daughter of 

King Robert I., with William, 

5th earl of Sutherland, 142. 
Margaret, daughter of 

King Robert II., with John, lord 

of the Isles, 167. 
Marjorie, daughter of 

King Robert II., with John of 

Dunbar, 5th earl of Moray, 167 ; 

second marriage, 168 n., 289. 
Mary, daughter of King 

James II., with James, Lord 

Hamilton, 201. 
Robert, the high steward 

(afterwards King Robert II.), 

with Elisabeth, daughter of Sir 

Adam Mure, 160. 
with Euphemia, 

countess of Moray, 160. 

jurisdiction in Scotland abol- 
ished, 253, 263. 

power in England abolished, 
233. 

schism, 161, 162, 171, 181, 186, 



194. 
seat at Avignon, 162, 171, 181, 

194. 
at Rome, 161, 171, 181, 

194. 
Paris, 140, 201, 234, 235, 251. 

Matthew, 95. 

Parliament, first occurrence of the 

use of the word, 77 n. 
declaration of, regarding the 

murder of Darnley, 255 n. 
Patriarch of Constantinople excom- 
municated, 20. 
Paul, earl of Orkney, 7, 280. 

II., Pope, 207. 

III., Pope, 233, 236, 239 ., 

369. 
Pedigree of the Dunbars, earls of 

Moray (a 1346-1429), 289. 
of the Ranulphs, earls of Moray 

(a 1312-1346), 288. 
Pedigrees of the Scottish Kings, and 

of the Competitors for the Scottish 

Crown 

I. From Kenneth I. (a 844) to 



INDEX 



433 



William ' the Lion ' (a 
1214), 280. 

II. From Malcolm IT. (a 1005) 
to Robert I. (a 1329), 281. 

III. The thirteen competitors 

for the Scottish Crown 
(a 1291), 282, 283. 

IV. From Robert I. (a 1306) to 

James VI. (a 1625), 284. 
V. From James VI. (a 1567) to 
King Edward VII. (a 1901), 
285. 

Peebles, 60, 121, 122, 127. 
Pembroke, earl of, at battles of 

Methvenand Loudon Hill, 130, 131. 
Gilbert, earl of, m. Marjorie, 

daughter of King William ' the 

Lion,' 83, 378. 
Percy, Henry ('Hotspur'), 164, 177. 

the younger, 190, 197, 198. 

Perkin Warbeck, 215. 

Perth, 73, 96, 124 w., 130, 133, 147, 

148, 151, 174, 175, 176, 184, 186, 

188, 189, 190, 191, 197, 221, 236, 

239, 251, 267, 271, 341, 364, 381. 
Carthusian monastery at, 189, 

190-192, 197, 221, 236. 
castle at, 73. 

North Inch of, 174. 

shire, 43, 52. 

South Inch of, 189. 

Pestilences, the two, 155. 
Peterborough, 378, 382. 

cathedral at, 258. 

Petty or Halhill, 226, 232. 
Philip II., king of Spain, 268. 
Philippe IV., king of France, 121 n. 
VI. (de Valois), king of France, 

155, 174 n. 
Picardy, 90. 
Piccolomini, ^Eneas Sylvius (Pope 

Pius II.), 204, 206, 328. 
Pictavia, 8. 
Picts, the, 8. 
Pinkeny, Henry, 283. 

Robert de, 69, 112, 283. 
Pinkie, battle of, 249, 380. 
Piperden, battle of, 190, 380. 
Pitgaveny or Pitgownie, 13, 15 n. 
Pius II., Pope (Piccolomini), 204, 

206, 328. 

Pluscarden Priory, 90, 290, 370. 
Poet to King James IV., 218. 



Poitiers, battle of, 153, 289, 381. 

Popes and Antipopes, alphabetical 
table of, 325. 

Portrait of Alexander, duke of Al- 
bany, 201 n., 211. 

of the Bonnie earl of Moray, 

269 n. 

of King David I., 72. 

of King James HI., 201 n., 207, 

211. 

of King Malcolm IV., 72. 

of Queen Margaret, wife of King 

James III., 207. 

of Sir William Dunbar, 232 n. 

wrongfully assigned to the son 

of King James III., 211. 

Portsmouth, 250. 

Prague, 190. 

Preface explaining the purport of 
this book, xiii-xvii. 

Pretended Queen of Scots, a, 108, 
109. 

Prince Consort, H.R.H. Prince 
Albert, 275, 285. 

Printing, privilege of, granted, 217. 

Protector of the Christian Faith (?), 
King James IV., 213 n., 217 n. 

Protestant doctrine ratified by Par- 
liament, 263. 

Provincial Council, 62. 

Pypard, Gilbert, 40. 

QUAIR, the Kingis, 187. 
Queen of Scots, a Pretended, 108, 109. 
Queens Regent, 225, 250. 
Quhele, clan, 173. 

RAIDS in Moray, 226, 232. 

Ranulph, Agnes ('Black Agnes'), 
elder daughter of Sir Thomas 
Ranulph, 1st earl of Moray, 151, 
153 w., 155, 288, 289, 365,375, 379. 

Isabella, younger daughter of 

Sir Thomas Ranulph, 152, 288, 
289. 

John, 3rd earl of Moray, 150, 

155, 160, 164, 168, 287, 288. 

Thomas, 288. 

2nd Earl of Moray, 288. 

Sir Thomas, 1st earl of Moray, 

133, 135, 136, 138; Guardian, 
146 ; 147, 288, 289, 365, 374, 377 ; 
arms, 133 n., 146 n. 



2E 



434 



INDEX 



Ranulphs, earls of Moray, Pedigree 

of, xvi, 288. 

' Raschall multitude, the,' 251. 
Raveneshore, 106. 
Rebel lords, 209, 213, 214. 
Redswire, skirmish at, 266, 376. 
Reformation in Scotland, the, 252. 
Regent, Queens, 225, 250. 
Regents of the Kingdom, 225, 239, 

250, 257, 263-266. 
Registrum Episcopatus Moraviensis, 

on the lawlessness of the 14th 

century, 174. 
Regnal year, an early instance of, 

60 n. 

years. See end of each reign. 

of King David II., 153, 

156, 157. 
of Franois II. and Mary, 

260. 

of Henry and Mary, 260. 

Religious observances, 236. 
Renaud de Dunstanville, 52. 
Renfrew, 73, 246 n. 

shire, 141. 

Resby, James, 184. 

Rescobie (Roscolpin), 43. 

Rescue from Carlisle Castle, 270. 

Restennet, priory at, 142. 

Rhodes, island of, 190. 

Riccio, David, 255, 368. 

Richard I. of England, 68, 81, 386. 

II., 162, 163, 175, 186. 

duke of York (PerkinWarbeck), 

215. 
Richmond (Surrey), 218, 271. 

(Yorkshire), 78. 

Rivers, Anthony, Earl, 202. 

Robert I. (the Brus), earl of Carrick, 

afterwards King of Scots, 67, 108, 

121, 122, 124; reign, 126-144; 

147, 148, 159, 160, 281, 283, 284, 

286, 288. 

Robert II. (Stewart), King of Scots, 
135, 141, 145 ; Guardian of the 
Kingdom, 150, 152 : reign, 159- 
171 ; 284, 287, 288, 289. 

Robert III, (Stewart), King of Scots, 
161, 166 ; reign, 172-181 ; 284, 

287, 289 ; originally named John, 
161, 166, 172, 173. 

de Courteney, m. Alicia, grand- 
daughter of King Duncan II., 40. 



Robert de London, son of King 

William the Lion,' 83. 
duke of Albany, earl of Fyff and 

Menteth (Governor), son of King 

Robert II., 165, 166, 174, 177, 184, 

186, 284, 380. 

earl of Orkney, son of King 



James V., 239. 

son of David, earlof Huntingdon, 

66. 

son of King James VI., 272, 



274, 285. 

Sir, son of King Robert I., 142. 

son of King Robert III., 179, 

180, 284. 
son of William the Conqueror, 

29. 

Rodoric, 81. 
Rogers, courtier of King James III., 

208. 
Rome, 18, 20, 27, 80, 88, 105, 161, 

198, 216, 233. 
Ros, Robert de, m. Isabella, daughter 

of King William 'the Lion,' 83, 

282. 

Robert, 282. 

William de, 282. 

de (Competitor), 83, 112, 

282. 

Roscolpin (Rescobie), 43. 
Rose, the Golden, sent to King 

William 'the Lion,' 79. 
The White (Lady Katherine 



of 



Gordon), 215. 
Ross, 79, 82. 
Alexander, duke of, son 

King James IV., 220, 284. 

bishop of, 105. 

bishopric of, 60, 63, 80, 89, 95, 

208. 

earlof, 130. 

Euphemia of, second wife of 

King Robert II., 160, 161, 164, 

168, 287, 288. 

countess of, wife of Alex- 
ander, earl of Buchan, ' The Wolf 

of Badenoch,' 167. 

Hugh, earl of, 160, 164, 287, 288. 

James Stewart, duke of, mar- 



quis of Ormonde, second son of 
King James III., 210, 284, 

John, earl of, lord of the Isles, 

206, 215. 



INDEX 



435 



Eoss, Makintagart, earl of, 40, 88, 90. 

(Rose) of Kilrawok, 226, 232 n. 

Rosslyn, 122. 

battle of, 122, 367. 

Rothes, 119. 

George Leslie, 3rd earl of, 202, 

284. 

Norman Leslie, master of, 202, 
249, 284. 

Rothesay, David, duke of, 174, 175, 
177, 179, 180, 284, 365, 369. 

Henry-Frederick, duke of, 272, 

285. 

Marjorie, duchess of, 175, 180. 
James, duke of (afterwards 

King James IV.), 209, 210. 
Rothri, comes (Mar), 52. 
Rothven, church at, 83. 
Rowallan, 172. 
Roxburgh, 90, 91, 94, 97, 99, 149, 

378, 380. 

Castle, 133, 162, 205, 367, 378. 

sheriffdom of, 61. 

siege of, 200. 

Roxburghshire, 237, 248, 266. 

Ruaidhri, 3. 

Rumely, Alice de, wife of William 

Fitz-Duncan, 39, 40 n., 281, 282. 

Robert de, 39. 

Run, son-in-law of Kenneth I., 280. 

Runic inscription, 29. 

Rupert, Prince, son of Elizabeth, 

queen of Bohemia, 273. 
Ruthven, Alexander, master of, 270. 

Castle, near Perth, 267, 375. 

raid of (first Gowrie conspiracy), 

267 ; second, 270, 379. 
Ryan, Loch, 131. 

ST. ANDREW, patron saint of Scot- 
land, 330, 354, 385. 

St. Andrews, 38, 46, 185, 190, 197, 
230, 235, 238, 239, 249, 251, 254, 
268, 367, 368, 371, 377, 379. 

archbishop of, 210, 220, 229 n., 

264, 284. 

archbishopric of, 208. 

archdeacon of, 169. 

bishops of, 3, 19, 27, 30, 47, 51, 

77, 88, 94, 104, 105, 110, 121, 122, 
161, 185, 187, 206. 

bishopric of, 51, 80, 89, 95, 208. 

canon-regular of, 187. 



St. Andrews Castle, 188, 249. 

University, 185, 367, 379. 
St. Benedict, 127 n. 

St. Bridget's Hospital, 87. 

St. Columba (Columkille), abbot of 

lona, 374. 
St. Cuthbert, the monks of, 60. 

translation of, 51, 380. 
St. Duthac, 130. 

St. Giles, church of, Edinburgh, 186, 

206. 

church of, Elgin, 173. 

St. James's Palace, 275. 

St. John of Jerusalem, a knight of, 

191. 
St. Kentigern (Mungo), bishop of 

Glasgow, 364. 

St. Laurence, chapel of, at Forres, 96?i. 
St. Liz, Simon de, 59, 286. 
St. Magnus, earl of Orkney, 7, 371. 

cathedral of, at Kirkwall, 7. 

St. Margaret, Queen of Scots, 27, 31, 

33, 45, 50, 58, 95, 286, 337, 342 

., 349, 354, 375, 385. 
St. Mark's in Rome, 207. 
St. Mary Overy, church of, 187. 
St. Michael, monastery at, 174. 

order of, 233. 

St. Ninian, bishop, 381. 

St. Paul's Cathedral, 218 n., 225, 

382. 

St. Peter's in Rome, 198, 208, 215. 
St. Saviour's monastery, Bermond- 

sey, 32. 

St. Sophia, church of, at Constanti- 
nople, 20. 
St. Thomas (Becket) the Martyr, 77, 

79, 117 n. 

St. Waast (Vedastus), church of, 117. 
Saints' days, etc., an alphabetical 

calendar of Scottish, 329-342. 
Salisbury, 105. 

earl of, 197. 

Thomas Montacute, earl of, 187. 

William Montague, earl of, 151. 

Sampson, John, surrender of, 122. 
Sandilands, Sir James, of Calder, 168. 
San Salvador, 9 n., 216, 382. 
Santa Maria Maggiore, 105. 
Sarke, battle of (or Clochmaben 

Stone), 197, 198, 383. 
Sauchie, 238. 
Sauchieburn, battle of, 210, 213, 374. 



436 



INDEX 



Sawtrey, abbey at, 65. 

Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, Albert, 
Prince Consort, Prince of, 285. 

Saxonia, 2. See also Map No. I. 

Saxony, 248. 

Say, William de, 84, 282. 

Schipper, Professor J., Vienna, 218 n. 

Sconam (not Scotiam), 72 n. 

Scone, 19, 23, 26, 52, 57, 61, 72, 77, 
88, 95, 98, 104, 116, 118, 120, 129, 
136, 137, 147, 148, 153, 159, 161, 
167, 172, 173, 177, 188, 214, 289, 
377, 378, 385. 

church of St. Michael at, 174. 

monastery at, 52, 165. 

Scot, John le, earl of Chester, 66. 

Scotia, 3, 8, 18, 28, 29, 31, 38, 72, 
384. See also Maps Nos. I. and II. 

Scotland, 8, 49, 61, 73, 78, 105, 106, 
111, 113, 118, 119, 121, 123, 132, 
136-139, 145, 147, 152, 153, 155, 
156, 161-164, 167, 174, 176, 177, 
184, 186, 187, 190, 201, 206-209, 
215, 217, 226-228, 234, 236, 248, 
250-253, 263-265, 268, 269, 271- 
273, 364, 370, 372, 378-380, 386, 
387. See also Map No. IV. 

Great Roll of, 111, 283 n. 

Scots, bishops of the, 3. 

College, the, in Paris, 138. 

in Rome, 276, 279 n. 

vernacular first used in docu- 
ments, 175, 176. 

Scott, Sir Walter, 218 n., 378, 381. 

Walter, of Branksholme, 229. 

Sir Walter, of Branxholme, 

laird of Buckcleugh, 270 n. 

Scottish barons' letter to the Pope, 
136, 144. 

Calendar, a, 364-387. 

Chaucer, the, 218 n. 

Church, 78, 80, 88, 297 n., 365, 

368, 382. 

Episcopal Church, 302, 369, 37 1 . 

Isles, the, 235. 

Kingdom, independence of the, 

78, 81, 386. 

Kings, anointing and coronation 

of, 146. 

the dates and lengths of 

their reigns, xviii, xix. 

their marriages, 286, 287. 

their pedigrees, 280-285. 



Scottish students at Oxford, 90. 

Sea serpent, the, 264. 

Sees. See Bishoprics. 

Segrave, Sir John, 122. 

Seine, the river, 152. 

Selkirk, monastery at, 59. 

Seneschal of the Isles, 4, 12, 280. 

Session, the, 188, 231. 

Seton, Sir Alexander, 197. 

Alexander, 1st earl of Huntly, 

199, 289, 373. 

Seven earls of Scotland, the, 52, 88, 95. 
Shakspere, 12 ., 280, 281, 286. 
Shaw, Alexander, of Sauchie, 238. 

Elisabeth, 238. 

Sheen, monastery at, 218. 
Shetland, 9, 207, 380. 

lordship of, 208, 367. 

Shrewsbury, battle of, 177, 178, 377. 
Ships 

Five English, taken, 214. 

The 'Flower,' 2 14, 216. 

The 'Great Michael,' 217. 

A great ship, 106. 

Stephen Bull's three, taken, 216. 

The 'Jenny Pirwin ' taken, 217. 

The 'Lion' taken, 217. 

The 'Yellow Carvel,' 214, 216. 
Sicily, 162. 
Siege of 

Abercorn Castle, 199. 

Dunbar Castle, 151, 155. 

Kildrummie Castle, 130. 

King Malcolm IV., in the Castle 
at Perth, 73. 

Lochindorb Castle, 151. 

Melun, 186. 

Stirling Castle, 122, 123. 
Sigismund, duke of Austria, 191. 
Silver coinage instituted by King 

David I., 63. 
Sinclair, Lady Catherine, 201. 

Oliver, 237. 

Siward, earl of Northumberland, 13, 

14, 19, 23, 25, 26, 35, 41, 59, 60, 

286, 377. 

Sixtus IV., Pope, 208, 379. 
Slayer of a thousand, the, 123 n. 
Slioch, rout at, 132, 387. 
Smithfield, 124. 

Sodor, or the Isles, bishopric of, 208. 
Solway Moss, rout at, 237, 385. 
Somerled, 72, 73, 384. 



INDEX 



437 



Somerset, duke of, 249. 

John Beaufort, 1st earl of, 187, 

195, 197, 287, 366. 
Somersetshire, 32. 
Sophia, electress of Hanover, daughter 

of Frederick, king of Bohemia, 273, 

274, 285, 374, 381. 
daughter of King James VI., 

274, 285. 

queen of Prussia, 285. 

Sophia- Dorothy, queen of Prussia, 

285. 
Soules, Nicolas de (Competitor), 92, 

112, 282. 

William de, 137. 
South wark, 187. 
Sovereigns, contemporary, at the end 

of each reign. 
Spain, 140, 141, 147, 162, 185, 216, 

379. 

Philip II., king of, 268. 
Spey, the river, 8. 

Spynie, loch of, 15 n., 63 n. 
Srubh-leith (Stirling), 55 n., 134 n. 
Standard, battle of the, 6, 8, 57, 61, 

379. 

Standing Stane, 15. 
Stanhope, in Weardale, Durham, 138. 
Stanmore, 9, 137, 376. 
Stephen, king of England, 32, 61, 

65 ft., 280, 283. 
Steward, the High, 104, 105, 110, 

121, 127, 135, 141, 145, 152, 159, 

160, 161, 172, 178, 180, 284. 
Stewart or Steward, 169 n. 
Alexander, earl of Mar, 167, 

184, 185, 189. 

Sir Alexander, son of Murdac, 
duke of Albany, 167, 188, 284, 
373. 

Alexander, bishop of Moray, 

201, 226 n. 

Andrew, bishop of Moray, 192. 

Elisabeth, 239. 

Henry, Lord Darnley, second 

husband of Mary Queen of Scots, 
221, 254, 255, 258, 260, 262, 265, 
267, 287, 366, 377. 

Lord Methven, third hus- 
band of Margaret Tudor, widow 
of King James IV., 221, 229. 

Isabella, daughter of James, 

earl of Buchan, 221. 



Stewart, James, of Kilbride, 180. 
son of Walter, earl of 

Athol, 169, 284. 
Sir James (the Black Knight of 

Lorn), 192, 196. 

Sir John, of Auchingowan, 180. 

John, master of Buchan, 220. 

John, of Sticks, 203. 

Margaret, countess-dowager of 

Mar, 176. 
Mary, wife of John, master of 

Buchan, 220. 

Sir Robert, master of Athol, 

169, 190, 196, 284. 

Sir Walter, son of Murdac, duke 



of Albany, 167, 188, 284, 373. 

Stewarts, sons and daughters of the 
kings, will be found under their 
Christian names. 

Sticks, 202. 

Stirling, 47, 53, 55, 82, 133, 134 ??,, 
142, 166, 167, 176, 186, 188, 196, 
205, 209, 210, 214, 215, 225, 228, 
231, 238, 251, 256, 262, 263, 265, 
266, 268, 376, 377, 380. See also 
Srubh-leith, Crasleth, Cruflet, and 
Strafleth. 

battle of, 120, 380. 

Bridge, 120. 

Castle, 100: first siege, 122; 
second siege, 123, 186, 188, 196, 
199, 213, 220, 238, 248, 265, 272. 
shire, 29, 121, 210. 



Stobhall, 172, 182. 

Stone, the Coronation, 120. 

Storks, nest of two, on the church of 

St. Giles, Edinburgh, 186. 
Story (The) of the Brus, 173. 
Strafleth (Stirling), 55 n. 
Straiten, David, burned, 233, 379. 
Strakathro, 23, 60. 
Strathbogie, 23, 26. 
Strathclyde, 15 n. 
Stratherne, 214, 226. 

countess of, 137. 

David, earl palatine of, 168, 284. 

Earl Ferteth of, 68. 

earl of, 88, 105. 

Mallus, comes, 52. 

Strathnaver, 189. 

Strathspey, 230. 

Styles, the Old and New, 267, 292 n., 

299, 303-305, 317. 



438 



INDEX 



Succession to